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Magazine
2014-07-10
Off-highway engines advance beyond Tier 4 With Tier 4 Final/Stage IV needs met, engine OEMs direct their focus and competitive energies toward optimizing competitive solutions. At the same time, they need to keep a weather eye out for future regulations, which many expect. Autonomous vehicle challenges span many fields Many of the challenges faced by military and commercial design teams are similar. Racket busters With a quiet cab at the top of many tractor buyers' wish lists, agricultural equipment manufacturers are pursuing every opportunity possible to shed decibels.
Standard
2014-07-01
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) protection considerations for environmental control system (ECS) design. It is intended to familiarize the ECS designer with the subject in order to know what information will be required to do an ECS design where NBC protection is a requirement. This is not intended to be a thorough discussion of NBC protection. Such a document would be large and would be classified. Topics of NBC protection that are more pertinent to the ECS designer are discussed in more detail. Those of peripheral interest, but of which the ECS designer should be aware are briefly discussed. Only radiological aspects of nuclear blast are discussed. The term CBR (Chemical, Biological, and Radiological) has been used to contrast with NBC to indicate that only the radiological aspects of a nuclear blast are being discussed. This is actually a more accurate term to describe the subject of this paper, but NBC has become more widely used in the aircraft industry.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jeff D. Colwell
Abstract Results from a full-scale vehicle burn test involving a 1998 compact passenger car were used to evaluate vehicle fire dynamics and how burn patterns produced during the fire correlated with important characteristics of the fire, such as the area of origin. After the fire was initiated at the air filter in the engine compartment, the fire spread locally and, once the temperature near the origin reached about 750°C, the temperature at all but one location within the engine compartment began to increase. These temperatures continued to increase for the next 6 minutes and then a temperature gradient began to develop in the passenger compartment between the ceiling and the floor. About 5 minutes after the engine compartment became fully involved, the ceiling temperature reached about 590°C and flame spread within the passenger compartment increased. Over the next 4 minutes, the passenger compartment also became fully involved. The fire then spread to the trunk and the rear wheels before self-extinguishing.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kamalesh Bhambare, Junya Fukuyama, Jaehoon Han, Kosuke Masuzawa, Akihiro Iwanaga, Steven Patterson
Abstract The climate inside a vehicle cabin is affected by the performance of the vehicle HVAC system, the thermal characteristics of the vehicle structure and the components, as well as the external environmental conditions. Due to the complex interactions among these various factors, the flow field and the temperature distribution can be very complicated. The need for a fully three-dimensional transient analysis is increasing in order to provide sufficiently detailed information that can be used to improve the vehicle design. In this study, a numerical simulation methodology to predict the local climate conditions in a passenger vehicle cabin is presented. The convective heat transfer from both the exterior and the interior of the cabin were calculated by three dimensional CFD simulations using a Lattice-Boltzmann method based flow solver. The conduction and the radiation effects including the solar loading were solved using a finite-difference based radiation-conduction thermal solver.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mitsuru Enomoto, Michiko Kakinuma, Nobuhito Kato, Haruo Ishikawa, Yuichiro Hirose
Abstract Design work for truck suspension systems requires multi-objective optimization using a large number of parameters that cannot be solved in a simple way. This paper proposes a process-based systematization concept for ride comfort design using a set-based design method. A truck was modeled with a minimum of 13 degrees of freedom, and suspension performance under various vehicle speeds, road surface conditions, and load amounts was calculated. The range of design parameters for the suspension, the range of performance requirements, and the optimal values within these ranges were defined based on the knowledge and know-how of experienced design engineers. The final design of the suspension was installed in a prototype truck and evaluated. The performance of the truck satisfied all the objectives and the effectiveness of the set-based design approach was confirmed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Shuming Chen, Dengzhi Peng, Dengfeng Wang
Abstract Automobile cabin acoustical comfort is one of the main features that may attract customers to purchase a new car. The acoustic cavity mode of the car has an effect on the acoustical comfort. To identify the factors affecting computing accuracy of the acoustic mode, three different element type and six different element size acoustic finite element models of an automobile passenger compartment are developed and experimentally assessed. The three different element type models are meshed in three different ways, tetrahedral elements, hexahedral elements and node coupling tetrahedral and hexahedral elements (tetra-hexahedral elements). The six different element size models are meshed with hexahedral element varies from 50mm to 75mm. Modal analysis test of the passenger car is conducted using loudspeaker excitation to identify the compartment cavity modes. All the acoustic cavity models are coupled with the structure model respectively, the cavity modes are calculated with structural-acoustic coupling model.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rajiv Mehta, Mark Hadley
With the ever increasing pressure to improve the fuel economy of vehicles, there has been a corresponding interest in reducing the mass and size of vehicles. While mass is easily quantifiable, vehicle size, particularly the notion of “interior space” as perceived by the customer, is not. This paper explores different ways in which vehicle spaciousness can be quantified and explores new metrics based on customer verbatims. A novel ‘spaciousness calculator’ combines individual metrics to provide a singular holistic rating for spaciousness, useful during vehicle development. Beyond spaciousness, the paper discusses techniques to quantify the ‘packaging efficiency’ of a vehicle; this allows engineers to maximize the interior space for a given exterior size.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rupesh Sonu Kakade
We propose a composite thermal model of the vehicle passenger compartment that can be used to predict and analyze thermal comfort of the occupants of a vehicle. Physical model is developed using heat flow in and out of the passenger compartment space, comprised of glasses, roof, seats, dashboard, etc. Use of a model under a wide variety of test conditions have shown high sensitivity of compartment air temperature to changes in the outside air temperature, solar heat load, temperature and mass flow of duct outlet air from the climate control system of a vehicle. Use of this model has subsequently reduced empiricism and extensive experimental tests for design and tuning of the automatic climate control system. Simulation of the model allowed several changes to the designs well before the prototype hardware is available. In addition to the reduced vehicle field tests and wind tunnel tests man hours and the cost associated with them, simulation of the model allowed for the greater potential benefits of increased accuracy and optimized heating and cooling of the passenger compartment to be achieved.
WIP Standard
2014-03-25
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the test procedure, environment, instrumentation, and data analyses for comparing interior sound level of passenger cars, multipurpose vehicles, and light trucks having gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 4540 kg (10 000 lb) or less. The test procedure is characterized by having fixed initial conditions (specified initial vehicle speed and gear selection at the starting point on the test site) to obtain vehicle interior sound measurement during road load operation over various road surfaces at specified constant speeds. The measurement data so derived is useful for vehicle engineering development and analysis.
Magazine
2014-03-04
Touch-less control coming to cars Use of proximity and gesture-recognition systems in auto cockpits could rise fifty-fold within a decade. Forming a strong bond Multi-material vehicles are becoming more prevalent as automakers attempt to reduce vehicle weight and boost fuel efficiency. Selecting the proper adhesive is critical when bonding dissimilar materials. SAE 2014 World Congress preview special section: 'Creating New Possibilities' Host company Hyundai and Tier 1 Strategic Partner, Delphi, established "Creating New Possibilities" as the theme for this year's premier engineering event taking place April 8-10 in Detroit's Cobo Center. This special Congress preview section uncovers some of those possibilities, featuring insights from the event's executive leadership; details of a Delphi/Hyundai advanced engine program; highlights from the technical program in the areas of powertrain, materials, testing and simulation, electronics, interiors, and body/chassis; and more.
Magazine
2013-09-03
Honda flexes new powertrain muscle Honda R&D's top engineer outlines his company's Earth Dreams powertrain assault that includes more efficient, robust, and refined ICEs; new hybrid drive systems; and further developments in FCEVs, HCCI, plasma ignitions, and Rankine-cycle engine types. Setting Hyundai's fuel cell strategy Hyundai is one of two major OEMs that are still going it alone in developing FCEV technology, rather than collaborating with competitors. The company's head of fuel cell R&D explains the path toward 2015 series production. Volvo Trucks makes a case for DME The truck maker is working with Oberon Fuels and others to bring dimethyl ether-what company execs say is one of the most promising sustainable alternative fuels-to North America in 2015. Sensing a need for creature comforts Automakers and suppliers are turning to new sensors to help make cabins more comfortable and safer while automating some tasks.
Standard
2013-08-06
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for air cycle air conditioning systems used on military air vehicles for cooling, heating, ventilation, and moisture and contamination control. General recommendations for an air conditioning system, which may include an air cycle system as a cooling source, are included in MIL-E-18927E (AS) and JSSG-2009. Air cycle air conditioning systems include those components which condition high temperature and high pressure air for delivery to occupied and equipment compartments and to electrical and electronic equipment. This document is applicable to open and closed loop air cycle systems. Definitions are contained in Section 5 of this document.
Standard
2013-06-20
This SAE Standard pertains to automotive vehicles and off-road, self-propelled work machines used in construction, general purpose industrial, agriculture, forestry, and specialized mining machinery. This standard does not address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Fire testing is inherently hazardous. Adequate safeguards for personnel and property shall be employed when conducting this test.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Yousof Azizi, Anil Bajaj, Patricia Davies
Vehicle occupants are exposed to low frequency vibrations which can adversely affect the ride comfort. Exposure to vibrations can also lead to problems ranging from fatigue and lower back pain to more serious issues like injuries to the spine. The transmission of vibration to seated occupants can be controlled by appropriately designing car seats, which requires a deep understanding of the seat-occupant system behavior. A seat-occupant system is composed of two main components: the seat and the occupant. A key element in the seat, which is a challenge to model, is the flexible polyurethane foam in the seat cushion, which is a nonlinear and viscoelastic material exhibiting behavior on multiple time-scales. The multi-body occupant model is also geometrically nonlinear. The combined model also incorporates profiles of the seat and the occupant, and includes relatively simple friction models at the occupant and seat interfaces. A robust, efficient computation technique is required to analyze the dynamics of the combined seat-occupant system.
Standard
2013-02-14
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters used in the following applications: a. Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b. Wing and empennage anti-icing c. Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d. Aircraft de-icing
Standard
2012-11-19
This SAE Recommended Practice specifies the operating procedures for a controlled irradiance, air-cooled xenon-arc apparatus used for the accelerated exposure of various automotive interior trim components. Test durations, as well as any exceptions to the sample preparation and performance evaluation procedures contained in this document, are covered in material specifications of the different automotive manufacturers.
Standard
2012-11-01
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide guidelines for selection of transducers, data acquisition systems, and other instrumentation as well as analysis methods to help ensure proper measurement and evaluation of acoustic impulses in automobiles. While this Recommended Practice focuses on automotive inflatable devices, such as, frontal airbag systems, pretensioners, inflatable curtains, side airbags, etc, it can be used for measurement of other impulsive sounds in a vehicle if needed. The objective is to achieve uniformity in instrumentation practice and reporting of test measurements. Use of this recommended practice should provide a basis for meaningful comparisons of test results from different sources. This recommended practice specifies procedures for static measurement of acoustic impulses, but due to the much more complicated nature of crash testing, does not specify procedures for measuring impulses in vehicles during crash tests.
Standard
2012-10-15
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management. The major subsystems required to accomplish the general functions mentioned above are: 1. breathing and pressurization gas storage system, 2. temperature and humidity control system, 3. carbon dioxide control system, 4. trace contaminant control system, 5. water management system, and 6. waste management system.
Standard
2012-10-09
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains guidelines and recommendaitons for subsonic airpolane air conditioning systems and components, including requirements, design philosophy, testing and ambient conditions. The airplane air conditioning system comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls and indicators that supply and distribute air to the occupied compartments for ventilation, pressurization, and temperature and moisture control. The principal features of the system are: a. A supply of fresh air from at least two sources with independent control valves b. A means for heating c. A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers) d. A means for removign excess moisture from the air supply e. A ventilation subsystem f. A temperature control subsystem g. A presure control subsystem Other system components for treating cabin air such as filtration and humidification would be included, as would the ancillary functions of equipment cooling and cargo compartment conditioning.
WIP Standard
2012-10-02
This AIR is arranged in the following two sections: 2E - thermodynamic characteristics of working fluids, which contains thermodynamic diagrams for a number of working fluids currently in use and supplied by various industrial firms; and 2F - properties of heat transfer fluids, which contains data, primarily in graphical form, on fluids that are frequently used in fluid heat transfer loops. Other properties of the environment, gases, liquids, and solids, can be found, as follows, in AIR 1168/9: 2A-Properties of the natural environment; 2B-Properties of gases; 2C-Properties of liquids and 2D- Properties of solids.
WIP Standard
2012-08-15
This standard provides contaminant limits for aircraft engine and APU bleed air compounds that are surrogates for the range of compounds that may be present in bleed air. The surrogate compound limits will provide users of the standard a measure for determining suitability of bleed air purity for aircraft occupant safety, health and comfort. This document provides guidance for assessing multiple contaminants when present together in bleed air. The contaminant limits in this standard are applicable for engine qualification process on engine test beds and flying test bed aircraft, and for criteria to assess bleed air purity of operational aircraft.
WIP Standard
2012-04-24
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, installation environment and design considerations for military and commercial aircraft systems within the Air Transport Association (ATA) ATA 100 specification, Chapter 36, Pneumatic. This ATA system/chapter covers equipment used to deliver compressed air from a power source to connecting points for other systems such as air conditioning, pressurization, ice protection, cross-engine starting, air turbine motors, air driven hydraulic pumps, on board oxygen generating systems (OBOGS), on board inert gas generating systems (OBIGGS), and other pneumatic demands.
Magazine
2012-04-17
Fab cabs While functionality cannot be compromised inside heavy trucks, their cabs increasingly mesh practicality with passenger-car sensibilities for comfort and ambience.
WIP Standard
2012-02-16
The devices of this SAE Standard provide the means by which passenger compartment dimensions can be obtained using a deflected seat rather than a free seat contour as a reference for defining seating space. All definitions and dimensions used in conjunction with this document are described in SAE J1100. These devices are intended only to apply to the driver side or center occupant seating spaces and are not to be construed as instruments which measure or indicate occupant capabilities or comfort. This document covers only one H-point machine installed on a seat during each test. Certified H-point templates and machines can be purchased from: SAE International 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 Specific procedures are included in Appendix A for seat measurements in short- and long-coupled vehicles and in Appendix B for measurement of the driver seat cushion angle. Specifications and a calibration inspection procedure for the H-point machine are given in Appendix C. Additional considerations are necessary when a Head Restraint Measuring Device (HRMD) is mounted to an H-point machine (Appendix D).
Standard
2011-10-27
This Recommended Practice provides a procedure to locate driver seat tracks, establish seat track length, and define the SgRP in Class B vehicles (heavy trucks and buses). Three sets of equations that describe where drivers position horizontally adjustable seats are available for use in Class B vehicles depending on the percentages of males to females in the expected driver population (50:50, 75:25, and 90:10 to 95:5). The equations can also be used as a checking tool to estimate the level of accommodation provided by a given length of horizontally adjustable seat track. These procedures are applicable for both the SAE J826 HPM and the SAE J4002 HPM-II.
Standard
2011-10-27
This Recommended Practice provides procedures for defining the Accelerator Heel Point and the Accommodation Tool Reference Point, a point on the seat H-point travel path which is used for locating various driver workspace accommodation tools in Class B vehicles (heavy trucks and buses). Three accommodation tool reference points are available depending on the percentages of males and females in the expected driver population (50:50, 75:25, and 90:10 to 95:5). These procedures are applicable to both the SAE J826 HPM and the SAE J4002 HPM-II.
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