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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0600
Marc Rosenbaum
A new generation of 3D inspection machines is now available to verify in line 3D dimensional conformity of complex parts – especially Powertrain ones – with accuracy down to 0.1 µm within manufacturing cycle time of large series. Inspecting in line 100% of production with an accuracy and at speed compatible with the most demanding part accuracy and fastest cycle time is presently already a reality for some large tier1 suppliers in Europe. Purpose of this paper is to introduce this breakthrough technology using state of the art non contact sensing technology allied with innovative mechanics and the latest developments in 3D metrology software
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1740
Kelsie S. Richmond, Stephen Henry, Russell Richmond, David Belton
Gasket materials are utilized for various different types of high temperature testing to prevent leaking at bolted joints. In particular, the automotive test services field uses flanged-gasket bolted exhaust joints to provide a convenient method for installation & removal of exhaust components like catalytic converters for aging, performance testing, etc. Recent improvements in the catalyst aging methods require flanged-gasket joints that can withstand exhaust temperatures as high as 1200°C. Gasket materials previously used in these applications like the graphite based gasket materials have exhibited physical breakdowns, severe leakage, and general thermal failures under these extreme temperatures. In order to prevent these leaks, metal-reinforced gasket materials in a number of configurations were introduced to these extreme temperature environments to evaluate their robustness to these temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0669
Nagarjun Jawahar, Saharash Khare
Automotive OEM’s are looking for innovative solutions to capture the possible failure due to warpage and shrinkage of an insert molded part through virtual simulations with help of FEA tools, thereby saving the mold cost, material cost and time. This work demonstrates an approach to study and simulate the failure of an insert molded part which happened after few days of the part molding under idle condition. To simulate the above failure, an innovative approach coupling Moldflow and Abaqus software was derived. First, a flow simulation including phase change of plastic material was carried out with derived parameters, results of which were exported as input to the Abaqus structural solver. Secondly, a thermo-mechanical analysis of the model was then carried out considering the thermal and moisture effect on material property. A good correlation was achieved between the actual failure location and max stress location as predicted by said coupled approach.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1174
Nobuhiko Nakagaki
We have developed four completely new parts for fuel cell vehicles. They are called separator, stack manifold, ion exchanger, silencer. The separator is a pressed metal plate sandwiched between the MEA(Membrane Electrode Assembly) ,and it has a flow path of hydrogen, air and coolant. The separator we have developed is anode separator. It has hydrogen flow paths on one side, and cooling liquid flow paths on the other side. The pitch of flow paths is very fine, it improve the uniformity of the gas flow and uniformity of the surface pressure on the MEA, therefore, it have contributed to improve the power generation performance. Also since nearly 400 separators are stacked up for one Fuel Cell Stack, it has to be very accurate. We have succeeded in the mass production of the separator by applying a precision press technology. Stack manifold is a component that attaches to the end of one side of the fuel cell stack. It is a component that integrates end plate and pipes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0718
G Karthik, K V Balaji, Bathiry Sivaraman, Deshpande Samar
This paper describes about Vinyl ester based SMC (Sheet molding composite) material for Oil Sump part in automotive application. This Sheet moulding composite is a ready to mould glass-fibre reinforced vinyl ester material primarily used in compression moulding process. This vinyl ester resin is compounded with glass fibre to meet the product functional requirements. This Oil sump part is the structural under bonnet component which main purpose is to form the bottommost part of the crankcase and to contain the engine oil before and after it has been circulated through the engine. Generally, metal are most preferable material for this application. Here, Fibre filled Vinyl ester based thermoset resin (SMC) material has been explored which has excellent characteristics in terms of Tensile strength, Modulus, Impact strength, Dimensional stability, Chemical Resistance & High/Low temperature resistance which is suitable for Oil sump application.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0867
Ashish Shah, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
It has previously been shown by the authors that the pre-chamber ignition technique operating with fuel-rich pre-chamber combustion strategy is a very effective means of extending the lean limit of combustion with excess air in heavy duty natural gas engines in order to improve indicated efficiency and reduce emissions. This article presents a study of the influence of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on the resultant ignition characteristics. The two parameters varied are the ratio of pre-chamber volume to engine’s clearance volume and the ratio of total area of connecting nozzle to the pre-chamber volume. Each parameter is varied in 3 steps hence forming a 3 by 3 test matrix. The experiments are performed on a single cylinder 2L engine fitted with a custom made pre-chamber capable of spark ignition, fuel injection and pressure measurement.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0221
Soham Banerjee, Anand Ganesan, Sudharsan Sundaram, Kiran Jasti
The life of a two wheeler and its parts depends much on its usage during its years of running. The quality of its parts determines the life and the efficiency; however the handling of the two-wheeler also plays a major role in estimating the life and the other performance parameters of the two-wheeler. Hence it is beneficial to have an efficient system which enhances the life of a two-wheeler and gives better fuel efficiency. This paper describes an efficient drive pattern system which addresses the above. This system consists of two main parts, the data collection system and a software application which runs on a mobile phone. The data collection system collects data from various sensors present in the vehicle during the run time of the two-wheeler. The data is further processed and sent to the mobile phone of the driver.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0520
Takaaki Kitahara, Takuo Imai, Osamu Ishigo, Miodrag Perovic
In recent years, there has been a requirement for automotive bearings materials to be free of the toxic material lead, in accordance with ELV regulations and from the perspective of environmental problems. Currently, bismuth is often used as a replacement for lead in copper alloy based main bearings and connecting rod bearings for automotive engines. Previous bismuth-containing copper alloy bearing materials have shown satisfactory seizure resistance, but conformability has not been as good as for lead-containing bearing materials. As a result, they have been successfully applied to automotive diesel engines, but not for truck engines where improved conformability is required to better accommodate irregularities such as foreign particles. To improve the conformability, a softer bearing material is desirable. Furthermore, in recent years bearing materials containing hard particles have been widely used with the improvement of seizure resistance and wear resistance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0527
Pierre-Olivier Santacreu, Guillaume Badinier, Jean-Benoit Moreau, Jean-Marc Herbelin
A new Ni-free martensitic stainless steel was developed for hot stamped automotive parts, especially in order to design lightweight chassis. After hot stamping simulation, the material exhibits 1.2 GPa ultimate tensile strength with 8% total elongation, in the as-quenched condition (without any tempering treatment). Moreover the material’s chemical composition was optimised to improve the ductility at low temperature and during high strain rate mechanical testing. As a result, no brittle fracture in impact testing at -40°C was observed, and a good behaviour in crash was recorded. To further assess the material’s performance, high cycle and low-cycle fatigue properties of the grade were characterized and the effects of machining and surface were studied. Results show that the fatigue limits at 2 million cycles for a stress ratio of -1 for rough bare surface and shot peened surface are quite high at 0.45 and 0.55 times the ultimate tensile strength (in the range of 540 MPa to 640 MPa).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0596
Oliver Scholz, Nikolas Doerfler, Lars Seifert, Uwe Zöller
Rubber seals are used throughout the automobile for a variety of purposes, and the consequences of a failure of such a seal can range from annoying in case of an A/C component to catastrophic in the case of brake components. With the constantly increasing requirements for these components regarding e.g. pressure or new refrigerants comes the requirement for ensuring surface properties according to the specification of the application. While automatic inspection systems are available for a variety of problems, the area of seal inspection is still dominated by manual labor, partly because handling of these small, inexpensive parts is difficult and partly because visual coverage of the entire sealing surface poses a problem. It is also difficult for a human inspector to objectively assess whether or not a surface defect is critical or not, especially given that inspection of each seal must be completed within a few seconds.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0235
Shiv Shankar Prasad, Jahangir Mansoori, Jin Seo Park
A vehicle horn is a sound-making device used to warn others of the approach of the vehicle or of its presence. Some countries require horns by law. Conventional Horns are electromechanical with steel diaphragm and electromagnet acting upon it. Switching of horn is performed by mechanical contact breaker assembly that repeatedly interrupts the current to the electromagnetic. Up-Down Movement of diaphragm with response to the current creates a sound wave across the horn. Conventional Horn faces the problem of wear and tear of mechanical contact and internal parts. Switching of contacts results in Arcing .There is no current and surge voltage protection for the coil of conventional horn. These problems of conventional system might be OK in the general markets. But in specific markets which are using horn frequently, these have to be considered as serious issues. Especially, horns are one of the most abusing parts of vehicle in India.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1743
Tanmay Santra, Vikas Kumar Agarwal
An inadequate sealing of the combustion chamber gasket interface may have severe consequences on both the performance & emission of an engine. In this investigation, both the distribution of the contact pressure on the gasket and the stresses of the cylinder head at different loading conditions are explored and improved by modifying the design. A single cylinder gasoline engine cylinder head assembly has been analyzed by means of an uncoupled FEM simulation to find the sealing pressure of the multi-layer steel gasket (MLS), strength & deformation of the components involved. The thermal loads are computed separately from CFD simulations of cylinder head assembly. The cylinder head assembly consisting of head, block, liner, cam shaft holder, bolts, gaskets, valve guides & valve seats, is one of the most complicated sub-assembly of an IC engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0692
Sylvain Calmels, Benoit Bidaine, Kurt Danielson
Most of the car makers show a clear interest in replacing metal with continuous carbon fiber composites to reach lightweighting targets while keeping or improving vehicle performance. Thanks to its complex heterogeneous microstructure, carbon fiber composites provide the best ratio mass/strength for this purpose, especially for crash objectives. One of the challenges when fully integrating this advanced material into a vehicle’s structure is accurately predicting its post-failure behavior to define the best optimized design. Simulations reach an efficient behavior prediction for crash performances when the simulation captures the correct dissipated energy and the associated damage not only globally but also locally. When using continuous carbon fiber composites, engineers must take into account the materials’ anisotropy in terms of stiffness, crack and damage propagation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0601
Madhavan Manivannan, Vesselin Stoilov, Derek O. Northwood
Ferritic nitrocarburizing offers excellent wear, scuffing, corrosion and fatigue resistance by producing a thin compound layer containing ε (Fe2-3(C, N)), γ’ (Fe4N), cementite (Fe3C) and various alloy carbides and nitrides on the material surface. It is a widely accepted surface treatment process that results in smaller distortion than carburizing and carbonitriding processes. However this smaller distortion has to be further reduced to prevent the performance issues, out of tolerance distortion and post grinding work hours/cost in an automotive component. A numerical model has been developed to calculate the nitrogen and carbon composition profiles of SAE 1010 torque converter pistons during nitrocarburizing treatment. The nitrogen and carbon composition profiles are modeled against the part thickness and nitrocarburizing time to predict the distortion pattern.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0949
Mathis Bode, Tobias Falkenstein, Vincent Le Chenadec, Seongwon Kang, Heinz Pitsch, Toshiyuki Arima, Hiroyoshi Taniguchi
Compared to conventional injection techniques, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has a lot of advantages such as increased fuel efficiency, high power output and emissions levels, which can be more accurately controlled. Therefore, this technique is one of the major topics of today's injection system research. The performance of GDI systems depends on multiple physical processes. The internal flow and the mixing of the coherent liquid stream with the gaseous ambient environment are two examples. Studying these processes is very difficult due to the overall complexity and the involved small length and time scales. Especially the region just after exiting the nozzle, where the primary breakup occurs, is experimentally hardly accessible, but a clear understanding of this region is particularly important, because primary breakup affects multiple other physical processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0948
Le (Emma) Zhao, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee, Sam Barros, William Atkinson
Liquid spray breakup and atomization, two multi-phase phenomena, strongly affect the ignition and combustion processes. High-speed jet-to-jet impingement in water sprays could be an effective phenomenon for the spray propagation and droplet vaporization. To achieve higher vaporization efficiency, impingement from two-hole nozzles is analyzed in this paper. This paper focuses on investigating vaporization mechanism as a function of the impingement location and the collision breakup process provided by two-hole impinging jet nozzles. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is adopted to do simulation. Lagrangian model is used to predict jet-to-jet impingement and droplet breakup conditions while KH-RT breakup and O’Rourke collision models are implemented for the simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1326
Sivanandi Rajadurai, Guru Prasad Mani, Kavin Raja, Sundaravadivelu Mohan
Generation of discretization with prescribed element sizes are adapted to the geometry. From Rules of thumb, for a complicated geometry it is important to select the reasonable element order, shapes and size for accurate results. In order to that, this paper describes the influence of elemental algorithm of the catalytic converter mounting brackets. Brackets are main source of mounting of various systems mainly intake and exhaust in the engine .In exhaust hot end system, bracket designs play a vital role because it has to withstand heavy structural vibrations without isolation combined with thermal loads. Bracket design and stiffness determines the whole Catalytic converter system's rigidity. So, here discretization of converter brackets by linear and parabolic elements is studied with different elements types and compared.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0921
Raul Payri, Jaime Gimeno, Pedro Marti-Aldaravi, Marcos Carreres
Proper initial conditions are essential to successfully perform a simulation, specially for highly transient problems such Diesel spray injection. Until now, no much attention has been paid to the internal nozzle flow initialization because spray simulations are usually decoupled from the nozzle. However, new homogeneous models, such Eulerian Spray Atomization (ESA) model, allow simulating the internal nozzle flow and the spray seamlessly. Therefore, behavior of the spray for the first microseconds is highly influenced by the initial conditions inside the nozzle. Furthermore, last experiments confirm the presence of gas inside the nozzle between following injections. This work deals with the initilialization procedure in a way that mass flow rate, momentum flux and spray penetration curves are well predicted by the model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1499
Tadatsugu Takada, Kazuki Tomioka
Honda developed the right and left independent toe-angle control system (first-generation P-AWS) in the Acura RLX in 2013 and announced it as the first in the world. As indicated in a previous paper, “Independent Left and Right Rear Toe Control System,” with this system Honda has realized an excellent balance between the fun of handling that is at the driver’s will (INOMAMA) and driving performance with a sense of stability. This first-generation P-AWS is designed to be optimal to the vehicle specifications (suspension axial force, steering gear ratio, etc.) of the Acura RLX. Honda is due to widely adapt P-AWS to other models from now on. Following this, we developed the next-generation P-AWS system (second-generation P-AWS) in order to reconcile system performance and low cost wherever possible, in order to be adaptable for all ACURA models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1285
Dingfeng Deng, Fanghui Shi, Louis Begin, Isaac Du
Several instances have occurred where the outer surface of turbocharger fully floating journal bearing bushings have exhibited damage from oil debris resulting in loud constant tone noises and subsequent warranty claims. This paper studies the effect of oil debris in Turbocharger journal bearings on Subsynchronous NVH. A CFD model is built to study the behavior of oil debris particles with different sizes. The oil debris particles tend to navigate to the inner film or outer film of bearing bushing depending on the drag and centrifugal forces. It is found that the dominant centrifugal forces prevent larger particles from reaching the inner film while smaller particles travel more easily to the inner film. It is also found that the turbine side is more likely to become damaged from debris than the compressor side bearing due to higher temperatures. A tribology analysis is executed to determine the effect of oil debris particles on the speed ratio of the bearing bushing to the shaft.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1671
Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenova
In this paper, a fault in rolling bearing is diagnosed using time waveform analysis. In order to verify the ability of time waveform analysis in fault diagnosis of rolling bearing, an artificial fault is introduced in vehicle gearbox bearing: an orthogonal placed groove on the inner race with the initial width of 0.65 mm approximately. The faulted bearing is a roller bearing located on the gearbox input shaft – on the clutch side. An optimal Morlet Wavelet Filter and autocorrelation enhancement are applied in this paper. First, to eliminate the frequency associated with interferential vibrations, the vibration signal is filtered with a band-pass filter determined by a Morlet wavelet whose parameters are optimized based on maximum Kurtosis. Then, to further reduce the residual in-band noise and highlight the periodic impulsive feature, autocorrelation enhancement is applied to the filtered signal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1675
Yongfu Chen, Zhengfei Tang, Peijun Xu, Yunqing Zhang
A method for dynamic analysis and design of Powertrain Mounting System(PMS) is developed with the aim of reducing the vibration of the PMS, which is very significant to improve ride comfort. A nine degrees of freedom(DoF) dynamic model is established, including a powertrain and a chassis. The dynamic stiffness of the mounting is taken as the design parameter. Decreasing the dynamic force between the powertrain and the frame is the optimization objective. The initial values of the dynamic stiffness are obtained by finite element analysis. Due to the frequency dependence of dynamic stiffness, the dynamic stiffness is optimized at lower frequency section and high frequency section respectively. In addition, the deformation of the mounting under the gravity of powertrain is limited, which further determines the range of dynamic stiffness.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0911
Juliane Wetzel, Michael Henn, Mark Gotthardt, Hermann Rottengruber
Abstract The optimization of the mixture formation represents great potential to decrease fuel consumption and emissions of spark-ignition engines. The injector and the nozzle are of major importance in this concern. In order to adjust the nozzle geometry according to the requirements an understanding of the physical transactions in the fuel spray is essential. In particular, the primary spray break-up is still described inadequately due to the difficult accessibility with optical measuring instruments. This paper presents a methodology for the characterization of the nozzle-near spray development, which substantially influences the entire spray shape. Single hole injectors of the gasoline direct injection (GDI) with different nozzle hole geometries have been investigated in a high pressure chamber by using the MIE scattering technique. To examine the spray very close to the nozzle exit a long-distance microscope in combination with a Nd:YAG-laser was used.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0944
Maryam Moulai, Ronald Grover, Scott Parrish, David Schmidt
Abstract A computational and experimental study was performed to characterize the flow within a gasoline injector and the ensuing sprays. The computations included the effects of turbulence, cavitation, flash-boiling, compressibility, and the presence of non-condensible gases. The flow domain corresponded to the Engine Combustion Network's Spray G, an eight-hole counterbore injector operating in a variety of conditions. First, a rate tube method was used to measure the rate of injection, which was then used to define inlet boundary conditions for simulation. Correspondingly, injection under submerged conditions was simulated for direct comparison with experimental measurements of discharge coefficient. Next, the internal flow and external spray into pressurized nitrogen were simulated under the base spray G conditions. Finally, injection under flashing conditions was simulated, where the ambient pressure was below the vapor pressure of the fuel.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0686
Kenji Matsumoto, Hideharu Koga, Yuji Mihara
 When evaluating the wear properties of slide bearings for car engines, it is common to conduct long-term physical tests using a bearing tester for screening according to the revolution speed of the shaft, supply oil temperature and bearing pressure in the actual use of engines. The loading waveform applied depends on the capability of the tester that is loaded, and it is often difficult to apply a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines. To design an engine that is more compact or lighter, it is necessary to reduce the dimensions of slide bearings and the distance between bearings. This requires loading tests on a newly-designed engine by applying a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines to slide bearings and their vicinity before conducting a firing test. We conducted an engine firing test by attaching thin-film sensors to the slide bearing part of the engine and measured the actual load distribution.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0918
Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Kamel Fezzaa, Christopher Powell
Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle’s internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs due to large changes in refractive index between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle 500µm in diameter.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0892
Alastair Smith, Rod Williams
The formation of deposits within injector nozzle holes of common-rail injection fuel systems fitted to modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the flow of fuel into the combustion chamber. This can lead to a reduction in power output because of reduced or less efficient combustion; hence there is a great deal of interest in studying these deposits with the ultimate aim of controlling them. Through previous experimentation [1], a chassis dynamometer test method was developed which combined high fouling operating conditions with zinc doped fuels to give measureable and repeatable fouling rates within a 36 hour test, whilst remaining representative of real world driving by incorporating >50% of the test drive cycle at typical motorway road loads.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0779
Gerald Gentz, Bryce Thelen, Paul Litke, John Hoke, Elisa Toulson
Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) is a prechamber ignition enhancement method that allows for fast burning durations due to the distributed nature of ignition. In this paper combustion visualization and characterization was performed for the combustion of a premixed propane/air mixture initiated by a TJI system in a Rapid Compression Machine. Three different single orifice TJI nozzles with orifice diameters of 1.5mm, 2mm, and 3mm were tested for the TJI pre-chamber over a range of air to fuel ratios. The performance of the TJI system based on nozzle orifice diameter was characterized by considering both the 0-10% and the 10-90% burn durations of the pressure rise due to combustion. It was found that the 1.5 mm orifice exhibited the shortest 0-10% burn duration, which corresponded to the fastest flame initiation. The orifice diameter did not significantly affect the 10-90% burn duration near stoichiometric air to fuel ratios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0785
Dockoon Yoo, Jihun Song, Yeongchu Kim, Wook Jung, Duksang Kim
A 2.4L ULPC(Ultra Low PM Combustion) diesel engine was achieved through optimal matching with piston bowl geometry and nozzle spray angle that significantly reduces the amount of engine out soot created during combustion. This engine complies with US Tier 4 final regulation without DPF(only DOC) which was developed for off-road applications such as skid-loader, forklift and construction equipment. Improvement in fuel consumption of diesel engine for off-road applications and construction equipment which are operating continuously for a long time at high load conditions will be very important for lowering operating costs. This paper explains a detailed review of improvement BSFC of 2.4L ULPC diesel engine by optimizing the combustion system with swirl ratio, nozzle flow rate and piston bowl geometry while maintaining non-DPF solution.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0457
Subrata Sarkar, Kailash Golecha, Surbhi Kohli, Amit Kalmegh
Journal bearings are machine elements designed to produce smooth (low friction) motion between solid surfaces in relative motion and to generate a load support for mechanical components. With Journal bearings the entire load is carried by a thin film of fluid present between the rotating and non-rotating elements. Thickness of the film is very sensitive to the environment temperature, radial clearance and misalignment. These parameters are very difficult to control and it is very important to consider all the parameters while designing the Journal bearing. When noises in the design space are very strong, conventional DOE or RSM method suppresses the effect of control factors. This will result in poor design of the product and lead to higher cost. The overall objective of the present work is to produce a bearing design which is insensitive to the noises at each stage of product life cycle.
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