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Viewing 211 to 240 of 15768
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1499
Tadatsugu Takada, Kazuki Tomioka
Abstract Honda announced an independent right and left rear toe control system (first generation) in 2013 and presented it as the world's first. As stated in a previous paper, “Independent Left and Right Rear Toe Control System,” with this system Honda has achieved a balance between an enjoyable driving experience in which handling is performed at the driver's will (“INOMAMA” handling) and stable driving performance.(1) This first generation is optimally designed to the vehicle specifications such as suspension axial force and steering gear ratio of the vehicle to which the system is applied. For more widespread application of independent rear toe control technology, a next generation system (second generation) has been developed, which achieves both cost reduction and flexible system performance which can be adapted to a variety of vehicles. The system development began by setting the required target performance with consideration for adaptation to various car models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0221
Soham Banerjee, Anand Ganesan, Sudharsan Sundaram, Kiran Jasti
Abstract The life of a two-wheeler and its parts depend much on its usage during its years of running. The quality of its parts determine the life and efficiency; however the handling of the two-wheeler also plays a major role in estimating it's life and other performance parameters. Hence, it is beneficial to have an efficient system which enhances the life of a two-wheeler and also gives better mileage. This paper constitutes an efficient drive pattern system which addresses the above. This system consists of two main parts: the data collection system and an Android-based mobile application which runs on a mobile phone. The data collection system collects data from various sensors on the vehicle and then the data is processed and sent to the mobile phone of the rider during the run time of the two-wheeler. The application uses this data to depict useful information like drive pattern and various indicators.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0494
Sulki Seong, Wangoo Kim, Daesung Bae, Seungpyo Lee, Younggeol Cho, Kyeongdeok Yang
Abstract A rotating bearing must have an excellent durability life. Various studies have been conducted for a long time to predict the bearing durability life. However, the bearing durability life has been predicted by an analytic formula in terms of the raceway and ball. A finite element structural analysis has been carried out for a flange, commonly with an assumption of a static load. So it is difficult to consider the dynamic effects (Centrifugal force, Gyroscope effect) of the bearing, which is very important due to its high speed operation. In order to predict the accurate bearing durability life, the dynamic effects must be considered. This paper proposes a method for bearing durability life prediction, considering dynamic effects. Contact between the raceway and ball is one of the important factors to take into account for the dynamic effects of the bearing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0476
Hyunkwon Jo, Youngseung Kim, Hyunchul Lee, Hyunmin Park, Suckin Song
Abstract Carmakers have tried to lower the vehicle weight for raising fuel efficiency. This trend involves a trade-off with the vehicle stiffness. In automobile interior parts, the thickness has needed to be decreased for the weight reduction but this makes the stiffness worse. A new approach for improving the stiffness due to the weight reduction is required and various optimization methods at early development stage have been introduced currently. However, it is difficult to apply optimization for the interior parts since many interior parts' structures generally depend on the design. But as studying the structure in detail, we discovered some factors that affect the performance without depending on design. The door trim is selected for optimization item because it has many characteristics of automobile interior parts. In our case study, the factors that improve the performance of door trim without changing design are considered as fastener position and flange rib layout.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0718
G Karthik, K V Balaji, Bathiry Sivaraman, Deshpande Samar
Abstract This paper describes vinyl ester based SMC (Sheet molding composite) material for oil sump part in automotive application. This sheet moulding composite is a ready to mould glass-fibre reinforced vinyl ester material primarily used in compression moulding process. This vinyl ester resin is compounded with glass fibre to meet the product functional requirements. Oil sump is a structural component under bonnet that forms the bottommost part of the crankcase and also contain the engine oil before and after it has been circulated through the engine. Generally, metals are preferred material for this application. In this paper, fibre filled vinyl ester based thermoset resin (SMC) material has been explored for oil sump application. They possess excellent properties in terms of tensile strength, modulus, impact strength, dimensional stability, high/low temperature resistance and oil resistance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1285
Dingfeng Deng, Fanghui Shi, Louis Begin, Isaac Du
Abstract Instances have occurred where the outer surface of turbocharger fully floating journal bearing bushings have exhibited damage from oil debris resulting in constant tone noise and subsequent warranty claims. This paper studies the effect of oil debris in Turbocharger journal bearings on Subsynchronous NVH. A CFD model is built to study the behavior of oil debris particles with different sizes. It is found that the dominant centrifugal forces prevent larger particles from reaching the inner film while smaller particles travel more easily to the inner film. It is also found that the turbine side is more likely to become damaged from debris than the compressor side bearing due to higher temperatures. A tribology analysis shows that oil debris particles in the outer film will reduce the speed ratio, while oil debris particles in inner film will increase the speed ratio. The tribology analysis also predicts the effects of oil debris on bearing stiffness and damping.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1326
Sivanandi Rajadurai, Guru Prasad Mani, Kavin Raja, Sundaravadivelu Mohan
Abstract Generation of discretization with prescribed element sizes are adapted to the geometry. From the rules of thumb, for a complicated geometry it is important to select the reasonable element order, shapes and size for accurate results. In order to that, this paper describes the influence of elemental algorithm of the catalytic converter mounting brackets. Brackets are main source of mounting of various systems mainly intake and exhaust in the engine. In hot end exhaust system, a bracket design plays a vital role because it has to withstand heavy structural vibrations without isolation combined with thermal loads. Bracket design and stiffness determines the whole catalytic converter system's rigidity. So, here discretization of converter brackets by linear and parabolic elements is studied with different elements types and compared.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0785
Dockoon Yoo, Jihun Song, Yeongchu Kim, Wook Jung, Duksang Kim
Abstract As presented in the previous study [1], a 2.4L ULPC(Ultra Low PM Combustion) diesel engine was achieved through optimal matching with piston bowl geometry and nozzle spray angle that significantly reduce the amount of engine out soot generated in the combustion. This engine complies with US Tier 4 Final regulation without DPF (only DOC) which was developed for off-road applications such as skid-loader, forklift and construction equipment. Improvement in fuel consumption of diesel engine for off-road applications and construction equipment which are operating continuously for a long time at high load conditions will be very important for reducing the operating costs. This paper explains a detailed review of improvement BSFC of 2.4L ULPC diesel engine by optimizing the combustion system with swirl ratio, nozzle flow rate and piston bowl geometry while maintaining non-DPF solution.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1347
Fiona Ruel, Pierre-Olivier Santacreu, Saghi Saedlou, Guillaume Badinier, Jean Herbelin
Abstract In order to meet new environmental regulations (i.e. mass of CO2 rejected in the atmosphere per km), car manufacturers are looking for new solutions to lighten chassis and structural parts in cars. High strength steels formed by hot stamping have proved to be good candidates for achieving better in-use performances together with a lighter structure. In particular, the martensitic stainless steel MaX fulfils the industrial targets for chassis parts in terms of mechanical and fatigue properties. For instance, from a cold formed baseline made of 600 MPa carbon steel, a 50 % mass reduction can be expected with a hot stamped suspension arm made of MaX and included a new clamshell design. However, those parts are often made of a complex assembly of different materials (high strength steels, aluminium and cast iron among others) which are subjected to aggressive environments in service. Therefore galvanic corrosion of those complex assemblies has to be evaluated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1371
Samuel T. Bartlett
Abstract With the many model variations produced on the same production line because of increasing power train options, fuel efficiency targets, performance and customer demands we saw limitations with our existing suspension mount equipment. Layout options were limited due to guided shifts and transfers. Large supporting frame work took up valuable floor space. Model wheelbase sizes and suspension pallets were limited to the model requirements of the original equipment. We needed an adaptable system to install the engine/front suspension assemblies and the rear suspension assemblies. We found a solution by utilizing the capabilities of 6-axis industrial robots to make the core components of the equipment simpler; many of the functions of a traditional machine can now be accomplished by the robot. We were able to vary install position to optimize handling characteristics and accommodate the model-to-model varieties on the same production line.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1361
Velayudham Ganesan, Javier Rodriguez, Harjinder Singh, Avinash Mudalagi, Parveen Panchal
Abstract Application of high strength steel (HSS) and advanced high strength steel (AHSS) in automotive vehicle structure has been one of the feasible ways to achieve light weight vehicle. Automotive OEMs continue to engineer body structures with high strength grade steels by reducing component thickness (Gauge and Grade (2G) Optimization) to develop light weight, fuel efficient vehicles. In addition to the 2G optimization, design (Geometry) change of the body structure is also considered as an effective approach of reducing the body structure weight (3G Optimization). However design change lengthens product development time, requires tooling modification and/or new tools design, and increases production time, cost and product-to-market time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0921
Raul Payri, Jaime Gimeno, Pedro Marti-Aldaravi, Marcos Carreres
Abstract Proper initial conditions are essential to successfully perform a simulation, especially for highly transient problems such as Diesel spray injection. Until now, no much attention has been paid to the internal nozzle flow initialization because spray simulations are usually decoupled from the nozzle. However, new homogeneous models like Eulerian Spray Atomization (ESA) model allow to simulate the internal nozzle flow and the spray seamlessly. Therefore, the behavior of the spray for the first microseconds is highly influenced by the initial conditions inside the nozzle. Furthermore, last experiments confirm the presence of gas inside the nozzle between successive injections. This work deals with the initialization procedure in a way that mass flow rate and spray penetration curves are well predicted by the model.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0529
Jody N. Hall, Jason Coryell, Bill Wendt, Donald Adamski
Abstract With the implementation of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) becoming more common for automotive manufacturers to reduce mass and/or improve performance, special stamping considerations must be made. Certain production parts may split at trimmed edges where strain levels are well below the forming limit curve of the respective grade, which is more applicable to necking fractures/splits. Similar to the presence of hard inclusion stringers (i.e. MnS) that can cause edge fractures in high strength low alloy steels, AHSS steels most susceptible to this phenomenon typically consist of dual phase or multiphase microstructures containing both a hard phase (martensite) and a soft phase (ferrite). Specific examples of these parts will be discussed, including studies to determine the root cause of the edge fracture and to communicate the solutions for consideration in appropriate standards and specifications.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0867
Ashish Shah, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Abstract It has previously been shown by the authors that the pre-chamber ignition technique operating with fuel-rich pre-chamber combustion strategy is a very effective means of extending the lean limit of combustion with excess air in heavy duty natural gas engines in order to improve indicated efficiency and reduce emissions. This article presents a study of the influence of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on the resultant ignition characteristics. The two parameters varied are the ratio of pre-chamber volume to engine's clearance volume and the ratio of total area of connecting nozzle to the pre-chamber volume. Each parameter is varied in 3 steps hence forming a 3 by 3 test matrix. The experiments are performed on a single cylinder 2L engine fitted with a custom made pre-chamber capable of spark ignition, fuel injection and pressure measurement.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0527
Pierre-Olivier Santacreu, Guillaume Badinier, Jean-Benoit Moreau, Jean-Marc Herbelin
Abstract A new Ni-free martensitic stainless steel (MSS) was developed for hot stamped automotive parts, especially in order to design lightweight chassis part. After hot stamping simulation, the material exhibited a 1.2 GPa ultimate tensile strength with a minimum of 10% total elongation, in the as-quenched condition (Q) without any tempering treatment (Q+T). Moreover the material's chemical composition was optimized to improve the ductility at low temperature and during high strain rate mechanical testing. As a result, no brittle fracture in impact testing at −40°C was observed, and a good behavior in crash was recorded. To further assess the material's performances, high cycle fatigue properties of the grade have been characterized including the effects of machining and surface treatments. Results show that the fatigue limits at 2 million cycles for a stress ratio of −1, for both bare and shot peened surface are quite high and in the range of 580 MPa to 640 MPa.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0692
Sylvain Calmels, Benoit Bidaine, Kurt Danielson
Abstract Most of the carmakers show a clear interest in the replacement of metal by continuous carbon fiber composites to reach their targets in terms of lightweighting while keeping or improving the global performances of each new vehicle. Thanks to its complex heterogeneous microstructure this material provides a better ratio mass/strength than metal for this purpose, especially for crash objectives. One of the challenge to fully integrate this advanced material into the next vehicles structures is to be able to accurately predict its post-failure behavior in order to define the best optimized design. An efficient behavior prediction for crash performances is reached when the simulation is able to capture the correct dissipated energy and the associated damage not only globally but also locally.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1174
Nobuhiko Nakagaki
Abstract Toyota Boshoku developed two completely new components for the fuel cell vehicle (FCV), Mirai. These are the fuel cell (FC) Separator, and Stack manifold. The separators are made from stamped metal plates. The anode and cathode separators sandwich the MEA(Membrane Electrode Assembly) between them. It has flow paths for the hydrogen, air and FC coolant. The Anode Separator has hydrogen flow paths on one side, and cooling liquid flow paths on the other side. The pitch used in the flow paths is very fine and it improves both the uniformity of the gas flow and of the surface pressure on the MEA. Therefore, it has contributes to improve the electric power generation performance. The FC Stack manifold is a component that attaches to the end of one side of the FC stack. It is a component that integrates end plate and pipes. The end plate is a portion of the FC stack which holds the fastening load of stack and is made of cast aluminum casting alloy.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1319
Eitaro Koya, Yukihide Fukuda, Shinya Kitagawa, Mitsunori Murakami, Atsushi Kawauchi, Sadanori Furue
Abstract When using aluminum for vehicle body parts to reduce weight, the high pressure die casting (HPDC) is widely applied due to its adaptability to thin-wall products, near-net-shape castability, and short casting cycle time. Since a hollow construction is advantageous to increase stiffness of body parts, there has been a need of development of techniques for casting of hollow parts by HPDC. So far, hollow casting by HPDC has been realized for small parts using sand cores. When applying that method to large parts, however, it is necessary to increase filling speed. When the filling speed is increased, the core tends to break. In this project, we have developed a method to estimate changes of pressure distribution when filling molten metal by the casting simulation in order to analyze damages to the core. Through the analysis, we discovered occurrence of impulsive pressure waves.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1377
Hiroshi Yokoyama, Atsushi Otani, Naoyuki Shirota, Takao Umezawa
Abstract As an integral element of automotive wiper systems, an automotive washer system is designed to contribute to the security and safety of automobile-based societies by providing drivers with a clear field of vision. Washer fluid is discharged from washer nozzles, typically mounted on the engine hood, to distances of more than 300 mm across the windshield. However, the fluid discharged may fail to reach targeted areas due to the effects of wind pressure when the vehicle is moving at high speed or due to the increased viscosity of methanol in the washer fluid (at concentrations of 30-60 %) at low temperatures, resulting in failure to ensure a clear field of vision. We developed a self-oscillating washer nozzle to remedy these shortcomings of conventional washer systems. Based on CFD and optimization, the flow passage is designed to generate a stable discharge of washer fluid, even under conditions of high-speed air flow or low temperature.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0686
Kenji Matsumoto, Hideharu Koga, Yuji Mihara
Abstract When evaluating the wear properties of slide bearings for car engines, it is a common practice to conduct long-term physical test using a bearing tester for screening purposes according to the revolution speed of the shaft, supply oil temperature and bearing pressure experienced in the actual use of engines. The loading waveform applied depends on the capability of the tester that is loaded, and it is often difficult to apply a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines. To design an engine that is more compact or lighter, it is necessary to reduce the dimensions of slide bearings and the distance between bearings. This requires loading tests on a newly designed engine by applying a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines to slide bearings and their vicinity before conducting a firing test. We therefore conducted an engine firing test by attaching thin-film sensors to the slide bearing part of the engine and measured the actual load distribution.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0892
Alastair Smith, Rod Williams
Abstract The formation of deposits within injector nozzle holes of common-rail injection fuel systems fitted to modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the flow of fuel into the combustion chamber. This disruption in fuel flow results in reduced or less efficient combustion and lower power output. Hence there is sustained interest across the automotive industry in studying these deposits, with the ultimate aim of controlling them. In this study, we describe the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging to characterise fuel injector hole deposits at intervals throughout an adaptation of the CEC Direct Injection Common Rail Diesel Engine Nozzle Coking Test, CEC F-98-08 (DW10B test)[1]. In addition, a similar adaptation of a previously published Shell vehicle test method [2] was employed to analyse fuel injector hole deposits from a fleet of Euro 5 vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0918
Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Kamel Fezzaa, Christopher Powell
Abstract Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle's internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly from phase interfaces. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0146
Salah Alhasia, Sharif Gindy, Selin Arslan, Badih Jawad, Chris Riedel
Abstract As the need for super high speed components (pumps, motors, etc) continue to grow rapidly, so does the need to make measurements at speeds higher than ever before. Bearings are a major component in any rotating system. With continually increasing speeds, bearing failure modes take new unconventional forms that often are not understood. Such measurements are impossible if bearings fail to perform. This paper will address the dynamic modes a bearing passes through and the potential failure modes associated with each. A review of the state of the art of current failure modes will be given, and then a hypothesis on some new failure modes associated with particular speeds will be discussion. The paper will also describe an apparatus that was designed especially to study these phenomena. Range of speed studied is 0- 60,000 rpm.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0779
Gerald Gentz, Bryce Thelen, Paul Litke, John Hoke, Elisa Toulson
Abstract Turbulent jet ignition is a pre-chamber ignition enhancement method that produces a distributed ignition source through the use of a chemically active turbulent jet which can replace the spark plug in a conventional spark ignition engine. In this paper combustion visualization and characterization was performed for the combustion of a premixed propane/air mixture initiated by a pre-chamber turbulent jet ignition system with no auxiliary fuel injection, in a rapid compression machine. Three different single orifice nozzles with orifice diameters of 1.5 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm were tested for the turbulent jet igniter pre-chamber over a range of air to fuel ratios. The performance of the turbulent jet ignition system based on nozzle orifice diameter was characterized by considering both the 0-10 % and the 10-90 % burn durations of the pressure rise due to combustion.
2015-04-10
Standard
AMS5045J
This specification covers a carbon steel in the form of sheet and strip.
2015-04-10
Standard
AMS5629/H1000A
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel product in the solution and precipitation heat treated (H1000) condition.
2015-04-10
Standard
AMS5659R
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of bars, wire, forgings, flash welded rings, and extrusions in the solution heat treated condition (See 8.3), and stock for forging, flash welded rings, or extruding.
2015-04-09
WIP Standard
AS5975C
Scope is unavailable.
2015-04-08
WIP Standard
ARP1907C
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the functional, design, construction, and test requirements for Automatic Braking Systems. Installation information and lessons learned are also included.
2015-04-07
Standard
AMS4824E
Form: This specification covers bearings of a leaded bronze cast on one or both faces of a steel backing with a layer of babbitt metal cast on the leaded bronze.
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