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Viewing 15061 to 15090 of 15859
1966-03-01
Magazine
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660613
Paul E. Gies
The Universal Engineer Tractor (UET), an earthmoving machine, can work as a bulldozer, scraper, rough grader, prime mover, dump truck, cargo carrier, or personnel carrier. Versatility is made possible through the use of a hydropneumatic suspension. Because random variables of terrain and soil are traversed at speeds up to 30 mph, components in the suspension have been subjected to extremely high pressures and to heavy loadings of structural components, due to mechanical feedback. This paper reports on the nature of these problems, describes modifications made to overcome the difficulties, and gives results of subsequent field and laboratory tests.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660638
J. E. Kingsbury
The author discusses the need for cryogenic temperature resistant plastic materials in the space program. The selection of a plastic material for cryogenic application is dependent on the cryogenic fluid with which it will come in contact. Problem areas discussed are insulation of cryogenic materials, adhesives used on plastics, use of seals and gaskets, and the expulsion of cryogenic propellant in a zero gravity environment. Through this type research appears to have limited application in the aerospace industry, future generations may benefit materially from the work being done.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660438
Robert C. Anthony
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660415
John R. Young
Slip (or axial length change) is almost required where universal joints are used to transmit power. Universal joints permit angular or offset misalignment while transmitting torque between power source and power user. Truck drive trains may use universal joints to connect any or all components between the engines, transmissions, auxiliary transmissions, transfer cases, axles, or axle wheels. Length variations during operation may be intentional for design function or unavoidable. These relative movements in trucks are generally allowed by a sliding section in the driveline. This paper will discuss prevalent conditions, current state-of-the-art, and what may be in the offing for the future.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660397
M. C. Goodwin, J. J. Rodgers, G. A. Peters
Tests were conducted using older model cars with automatic transmissions to determine the effect of fluid composition on leakage past the rotating shaft seals. It was found that seal leakage was reduced or stopped by changing to seal-swelling fluids, and increased with seal-shrinking fluids. Leakage was also reduced by adding aromatic additives to existing fluids in the transmissions. Seal volume and hardness change results from bench tests support the car data.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660395
B. C. Vandermar, G. A. Ilkka
Effective performance of functional automotive components requires fluid sealing under compatible conditions. One method of determining this compatibility is through the use of immersion testing under a variety of conditions that simulate those experienced in actual use. By measuring the changes in the physical properties of the seal materials after immersion a judgment can be made regarding seal/fluid compatibility which will be encountered later in actual use. A series of immersion tests using representative seal materials and automotive fluids; namely, gear oils, transmission fluids, and motor oils were conducted within the framework of the Technical Committee on Automotive Rubber, jointly sponsored by SAE-ASTM.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660396
G. A. Peters, J. J. Rodgers
The Total Immersion Test (ASTM D 471) for seal elastomers, used in evaluating the compatibility of fluids and seals for automatic transmissions, does not, produce hardness and volume change results similar to those found for rotating shaft seals in service. The Tip Cycle Test was devised to provide better agreement with service results. In the test, one side of the seal is exposed to air, and the other alternately to fluid and to air-fluid vapor. Rotating shaft seals were evaluated in both car and dynamometer transmission tests, and in various bench tests. Agreement was poor between transmission tests and both the Total Immersion and the Dip Cycle Tests. Good agreement was found with the Tip Cycle Test.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660379
Louis H. Weinand
Conventional radial lip oil seals can be made more effective by utilizing helical grooving beneath the contact lip surface. Miniature hydrodynamic pumps so formed aid the radial lip seal in containing the oil by generating fluid forces opposite in direction to the leakage flow forces. This seal-shaft combination has been termed the Hydroseal. Four factorial experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of helix angle, groove depth, groove width, and number of grooves on sealing performance. The criterion used as a basis for selecting the optimum design were leakage, wear, hardening of the sealing surface, and pumping capacity. These data indicated that the best hydroseal design was one with three grooves, 0.0003 in. deep, 0.014 in. wide, having a helix angle of 45 deg.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660381
John M. Brown
The Sealometer is used for evaluating the performance of lip type oil seals and provides a dimensionless number derived from measuring the increase in temperature of a test shaft operating in a lip seal for a given time interval. With the Sealometer it is possible to study parameters that affect seal performance. As a quality control instrument, the machine provides accurate data for design. Sealometer evaluation offers a quick method of determining the life expectancy of a particular design for a particular application and eliminates the need for long life test programs.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660380
James D. Symons
The multitude of lip section designs and the continued major automotive warranty problem in the field of radial oil seals indicated that a more thorough knowledge of lip section design was necessary. Seven design factors were investigated by means of fractional factorial experimentation to determine the optimum level for each of the factors. The general effects of trim diameter, radial lip force, seal lip to case eccentricity, spring position, contact width, flex section, and material modulus, plus the interactions between these seven factors, were investigated. Leakage was measured as the response or dependent variable. A detailed drawing of the optimum lip section, derived from the results of tests which optimized on the main effects only, is given.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660677
R. J. Heymans, E. D. Thompson, L D. Berman
Four considerations in the design of storable propellant structures are: stress caused by load and pressure requirements, sealing surfaces and bolted tank closures, corrosion and stress corrosion, and material compatibility. This paper discusses the developmental background of these considerations in connection with the Titan family. Specific items discussed are design and fabrication of the basic tankage, especially sealing problems, and the compatibility of materials with amine fuels and nitrogen tetroxide.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660689
Patrick H. McGuinness
In the author's view, present method of managing the acquisition of technical facilities in the traditional Air Force civil engineering manner is obsolete and is steadily proving more and more inadequate in the face of ever expanding technology. A system of management based on the techniques developed in system engineering and outlined in the Air Force Systems Command Manuals in the 375 Series is advocated as a course of action for the future.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660688
K. F. McSweeney, R. J. Manzo
A procedure is outlined which identifies the influencing factor which must be considered when formulating a space support plan. The plan is described as the “top document” used by both management and customer to guide the support aspects of a program. A systems approach to arrive at the Support Plan is presented along with examples of analysis techniques used to perform system trade-offs.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660687
Edward H. Newman, Samuel K. Stock
In the past, AGE management had an individual role in the development and acquisition of a weapons system. With the advent of the Air Force systems management techniques, in implementation of new DOD directives, management of AGE is now part of the total systems management package. The Air Force approach is contained in the 375 series regulations and implemented by the Air Force Systems Command 375 Manuals. Primarily, this paper describes the application of total systems management technique in the definition, design, development, and production of a weapon system. These new management procedures provide the technical basis for the establishment of three baselines, namely, Program Requirements Baseline, Design Requirements Baseline, and Product Configuration Baseline, as well as the development of specifications and control of engineering changes.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660756
W. Gross, A. W. Hussmann
The conventional methods of computing the main-bearing forces result only in a rough approximation of the actual bearing loads. The reasons for the deviations between measured and calculated loads are investigated. An improved computation method is proposed and its results are compared with measurement on two engines.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660763
Algirdas L. Nasvytis
The multiroller friction drive has a very broad field of possible applications, especially where noise is a factor. At present, the drive offers a unique solution, which up until now was not possible, for ultra high rotating speed ranges. The drive is a new tool for investigation of ultra high speed surface velocities and ultra high load frequencies. The drive also offers accelerated testing for other rolling surface phenomena.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660225
Robert F. Cornish
Making use of the elastic deflection of an assembly to set tapered roller bearings with end play is a new application of a time proven method of setting bearings with preload. The technique offers a simple method for accurate bearing setting with a minimum of tools. It is adaptable to both loose and tight fitted bearing parts.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660222
R. A. John, E. J. Straneva
Modern airplanes use engine mountings which are very soft compared to similar engine installations of only five years ago. Soft mountings provide better attenuation of engine-induced vibrations and lower cabin vibration levels. The penalty paid for less vibration is large engine motions during starting and stopping which must be controlled. One such motion control device is discussed in the paper. The efficiency of engine mountings is usually reduced by modern lightweight flexible mount structures. Soft mountings can decrease the influence of mount structures on suspension systems.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660159
Louis J. DiFrancesco
In applying needle roller bearings to universal joints, it is desirable to identify and quantify several factors, recognizing the interrelationship of these factors in order to obtain the ultimate in successful performance and increased life. This paper discusses various aspects to be considered in bearing design (proportions and clearances); manufacturing tolerances; use of different materials; and the importance of proper yoke and cross deflection, cross end play, cup grind relief and trunnion chamfer, crowned races, and controlled contour rollers.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660160
Howard Yarbrough
The shell type of radial needle bearing provides maximum antifriction capacity, while occupying generally the same space as plain bearing bushings, and fills a critical design need in larger and more complex machinery. Capacity, life, maintainability, and cost must be considered in the selection of the type of needle bearing in a particular application. This paper discusses its various applications.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660366
Robert D. Montgomery
This is an evaluation and description of the methods and materials used to moisture proof window lift motors as applied inside automotive doors. An environmental test cabinet is described. The materials and methods were tested for their ability to seal, their resistance to abuse, their application to the motor housing, their resistance to lubrication, and their cost. The methods of moisture protection investigated were: drain holes, moisture proofing materials, and positioning. Considering all aspects, gasket seals between the motor frame and the housing proved to be a superior way to protect motors from water damage.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660361
Noel Penny
A glass ceramic regenerative heat exchanger has been successfully applied to a small basic gas turbine of simple layout. This development has given encouragement for further application of high-temperature ceramics to small gas turbine designs. As a result, brief information is given on one form of advanced design of small gas turbine incorporating the wider use of high-temperature ceramics. The basic Rover engine involved in the development of the ceramic regenerator was originally conceived with steel recuperative heat exchangers and has been in operation with these for many years. The relative merits of the two main types of heat exchangers are given as well as an outline of the significant development aspects in applying glass ceramic regenerators to Rover 2S/150R engines.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660356
A. Sabatino
The one-piece cover linkless type of battery construction represents a major automotive battery innovation. The smooth unobstructed top of the linkless one-piece cover allows for maximum design flexibility and improved design potentials. The internal construction makes possible improved battery performance. The need to redesign containers and covers completely when changing to the new design has provided battery manufacturers with the opportunity to incorporate many features into this improved battery construction.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660352
John G. Crandall
Oldsmobile's Engine Design Group has replaced a lengthy semigraphical crankshaft design balance procedure with a computerized design analysis program for V-8 crankshafts. This paper explains how the computer is used to reduce the time required, human errors, and complexity in crankshaft balance and weight optimization. The design analysis is accomplished by a multisubroutine Fortran IV computer program which results in a complete set of bearing loads with rectangular and polar plots of all bearings, along with the design information for each counterweight and external unbalance.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660700
D. J. Berrier
In order to efficiently maintain an operational aircraft in its intended environment, adequate and timely aerospace ground equipment (AGE) must be made available for the first flight test phase of the aircraft development program. This demands that a systematic approach to defining AGE be instigated early in the conceptual design phase and that a program considering the following disciplines be established: intended aircraft mission and utilization, maintenance goals, and reliability of the aircraft in terms of individual subsystems and their interface functions. These primary variables are combined to establish the basic requirements for AGE. The detailed requirements for AGE must be obtained through aircraft subsystem analysis designating to what extent each subsystem requires support and then how this support is to be implemented.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660695
J. M. Miller
For efficient, flexible, and high-quality checkout, the capabilities and limitations of checkout equipment must be considered in the spacecraft design. Ideally, spacecraft and GSE should be designed as a working entity, with ground rules established for their concurrent development. Emphasis must be placed on systems engineering to establish and maintain compatibility. Some insight into the importance of GSE in meeting space objectives is presented together with an analysis of the degree to which spacecraft design is influenced by GSE.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660711
J. A. Daley
The effect of the flight environment on the severity of the lubrication requirements of the Pratt & Whitney candidate SST engine is reviewed and compared with current commercial turbofan engines. The characteristics of currently available lubricants are examined. The deisgn features of the SST engine aimed at reducing lubricant system stress are discussed. The conclusion is drawn that several type II oils currently available will meet the requirements established by the P & WA SST engine.
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