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Viewing 121 to 150 of 15708
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0431
KI Woo Sung, Jong Gurl Kim, Dae-Un Sung, Hye Mi Kim
Abstract This study examined various warranty data analysis methods to identify and study the one most suitable for Hyundai Motor warranty data. The drawbacks of the conventional life table method were overcome to develop an analysis method optimized for vehicle characteristics. The proposed method was examined for its suitability to various applications, such as providing the information necessary for determining the service life of parts, verifying the effects of design changes, and designing warranty and maintenance policies. The analysis data used in this study were derived from the 10-year powertrain parts warranty data of vehicles sold in the USA, South Korea, and China.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1361
Velayudham Ganesan, Javier Rodriguez, Harjinder Singh, Avinash Mudalagi, Parveen Panchal
Abstract Application of high strength steel (HSS) and advanced high strength steel (AHSS) in automotive vehicle structure has been one of the feasible ways to achieve light weight vehicle. Automotive OEMs continue to engineer body structures with high strength grade steels by reducing component thickness (Gauge and Grade (2G) Optimization) to develop light weight, fuel efficient vehicles. In addition to the 2G optimization, design (Geometry) change of the body structure is also considered as an effective approach of reducing the body structure weight (3G Optimization). However design change lengthens product development time, requires tooling modification and/or new tools design, and increases production time, cost and product-to-market time.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1347
Fiona Ruel, Pierre-Olivier Santacreu, Saghi Saedlou, Guillaume Badinier, Jean Herbelin
Abstract In order to meet new environmental regulations (i.e. mass of CO2 rejected in the atmosphere per km), car manufacturers are looking for new solutions to lighten chassis and structural parts in cars. High strength steels formed by hot stamping have proved to be good candidates for achieving better in-use performances together with a lighter structure. In particular, the martensitic stainless steel MaX fulfils the industrial targets for chassis parts in terms of mechanical and fatigue properties. For instance, from a cold formed baseline made of 600 MPa carbon steel, a 50 % mass reduction can be expected with a hot stamped suspension arm made of MaX and included a new clamshell design. However, those parts are often made of a complex assembly of different materials (high strength steels, aluminium and cast iron among others) which are subjected to aggressive environments in service. Therefore galvanic corrosion of those complex assemblies has to be evaluated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0527
Pierre-Olivier Santacreu, Guillaume Badinier, Jean-Benoit Moreau, Jean-Marc Herbelin
Abstract A new Ni-free martensitic stainless steel (MSS) was developed for hot stamped automotive parts, especially in order to design lightweight chassis part. After hot stamping simulation, the material exhibited a 1.2 GPa ultimate tensile strength with a minimum of 10% total elongation, in the as-quenched condition (Q) without any tempering treatment (Q+T). Moreover the material's chemical composition was optimized to improve the ductility at low temperature and during high strain rate mechanical testing. As a result, no brittle fracture in impact testing at −40°C was observed, and a good behavior in crash was recorded. To further assess the material's performances, high cycle fatigue properties of the grade have been characterized including the effects of machining and surface treatments. Results show that the fatigue limits at 2 million cycles for a stress ratio of −1, for both bare and shot peened surface are quite high and in the range of 580 MPa to 640 MPa.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1499
Tadatsugu Takada, Kazuki Tomioka
Abstract Honda announced an independent right and left rear toe control system (first generation) in 2013 and presented it as the world's first. As stated in a previous paper, “Independent Left and Right Rear Toe Control System,” with this system Honda has achieved a balance between an enjoyable driving experience in which handling is performed at the driver's will (“INOMAMA” handling) and stable driving performance.(1) This first generation is optimally designed to the vehicle specifications such as suspension axial force and steering gear ratio of the vehicle to which the system is applied. For more widespread application of independent rear toe control technology, a next generation system (second generation) has been developed, which achieves both cost reduction and flexible system performance which can be adapted to a variety of vehicles. The system development began by setting the required target performance with consideration for adaptation to various car models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0718
G Karthik, K V Balaji, Bathiry Sivaraman, Deshpande Samar
Abstract This paper describes vinyl ester based SMC (Sheet molding composite) material for oil sump part in automotive application. This sheet moulding composite is a ready to mould glass-fibre reinforced vinyl ester material primarily used in compression moulding process. This vinyl ester resin is compounded with glass fibre to meet the product functional requirements. Oil sump is a structural component under bonnet that forms the bottommost part of the crankcase and also contain the engine oil before and after it has been circulated through the engine. Generally, metals are preferred material for this application. In this paper, fibre filled vinyl ester based thermoset resin (SMC) material has been explored for oil sump application. They possess excellent properties in terms of tensile strength, modulus, impact strength, dimensional stability, high/low temperature resistance and oil resistance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0911
Juliane Wetzel, Michael Henn, Mark Gotthardt, Hermann Rottengruber
Abstract The optimization of the mixture formation represents great potential to decrease fuel consumption and emissions of spark-ignition engines. The injector and the nozzle are of major importance in this concern. In order to adjust the nozzle geometry according to the requirements an understanding of the physical transactions in the fuel spray is essential. In particular, the primary spray break-up is still described inadequately due to the difficult accessibility with optical measuring instruments. This paper presents a methodology for the characterization of the nozzle-near spray development, which substantially influences the entire spray shape. Single hole injectors of the gasoline direct injection (GDI) with different nozzle hole geometries have been investigated in a high pressure chamber by using the MIE scattering technique. To examine the spray very close to the nozzle exit a long-distance microscope in combination with a Nd:YAG-laser was used.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0944
Maryam Moulai, Ronald Grover, Scott Parrish, David Schmidt
Abstract A computational and experimental study was performed to characterize the flow within a gasoline injector and the ensuing sprays. The computations included the effects of turbulence, cavitation, flash-boiling, compressibility, and the presence of non-condensible gases. The flow domain corresponded to the Engine Combustion Network's Spray G, an eight-hole counterbore injector operating in a variety of conditions. First, a rate tube method was used to measure the rate of injection, which was then used to define inlet boundary conditions for simulation. Correspondingly, injection under submerged conditions was simulated for direct comparison with experimental measurements of discharge coefficient. Next, the internal flow and external spray into pressurized nitrogen were simulated under the base spray G conditions. Finally, injection under flashing conditions was simulated, where the ambient pressure was below the vapor pressure of the fuel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0548
Andrew Halfpenny, Robin Anderson, Xiaobin Lin
Abstract This paper reviews the topic of Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue (TMF) as applied to automotive components such as cylinder heads, pistons, manifolds, turbochargers and exhaust components. The paper starts by looking at the physical influence of temperature on the microscopic failure of materials, in particular concentrating on the mechanisms of creep, fatigue, oxidation and their interactions. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) techniques suitable for high-temperature environments are discussed briefly, in particular the applications of elastic, elastic-plastic or elastic-viscoplastic analyses. Finally, methods for high-temperature fatigue and creep-fatigue based on the Chaboche approach are reviewed. The paper concludes with a review of laboratory tests on several materials at elevated temperatures under combined creep and fatigue conditions. Two case studies are then presented on a turbocharger housing and an exhaust-gas recirculation valve housing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0949
Mathis Bode, Tobias Falkenstein, Vincent Le Chenadec, Seongwon Kang, Heinz Pitsch, Toshiyuki Arima, Hiroyoshi Taniguchi
Abstract Compared to conventional injection techniques, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has a lot of advantages such as increased fuel efficiency, high power output and low emission levels, which can be more accurately controlled. Therefore, this technique is an important topic of today's injection system research. Although the operating conditions of GDI injectors are simpler from a numerical point of view because of smaller Reynolds and Weber numbers compared to Diesel injection systems, accurate simulations of the breakup in the vicinity of the nozzle are very challenging. Combined with the complications of experimental techniques that could be applied inside the nozzle and at the nozzle exit, this is the reason for the lack of understanding the primary breakup behavior of current GDI injectors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0948
Le (Emma) Zhao, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee, Sam Barros, William Atkinson
Abstract High-speed spray-to-spray liquid impingement could be an effective phenomenon for the spray propagation and droplet vaporization. To achieve higher vaporization efficiency, impingement from two-hole nozzles is analyzed in this paper. This paper focuses on investigating vaporization mechanism as a function of the impingement location and the collision breakup process provided by two-hole impinging jet nozzles. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is adopted to do simulation. Lagrangian model is used to predict jet-to-jet impingement and droplet breakup conditions while KH-RT breakup and O'Rourke collision models are implemented for the simulation. The paper includes three parts: First, a single spray injected into an initially quiescent constant volume chamber using the Lagrangian approach is simulated to identify the breakup region, which will be considered as a reference to study two-hole impinging jet nozzles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0921
Raul Payri, Jaime Gimeno, Pedro Marti-Aldaravi, Marcos Carreres
Abstract Proper initial conditions are essential to successfully perform a simulation, especially for highly transient problems such as Diesel spray injection. Until now, no much attention has been paid to the internal nozzle flow initialization because spray simulations are usually decoupled from the nozzle. However, new homogeneous models like Eulerian Spray Atomization (ESA) model allow to simulate the internal nozzle flow and the spray seamlessly. Therefore, the behavior of the spray for the first microseconds is highly influenced by the initial conditions inside the nozzle. Furthermore, last experiments confirm the presence of gas inside the nozzle between successive injections. This work deals with the initialization procedure in a way that mass flow rate and spray penetration curves are well predicted by the model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0923
Mohamed Chouak, Alexandre Mousseau, Damien Reveillon, Louis Dufresne, Patrice Seers
Abstract The transient characteristics of the internal flow dominate all the ensuing processes: spray, fuel-air mixture formation as well as combustion and pollutants formation. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the dynamics of the injectors' internal flow. The objective of this work is to study all transient effects that may impact the internal flow of a single hole injector under different conditions. Since the numerical investigation of such a complex flow is hampered by several factors for the real operating conditions-namely the turbulence, the cavitation and the needle motion-this work is divided into two parts. In the first part, only the effects of turbulence and cavitation are considered through the study of the effects of the fuel properties as well as the injection conditions at the fully open needle position. The impact of these effects is studied by means of the Reynolds and the cavitation number.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0867
Ashish Shah, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Abstract It has previously been shown by the authors that the pre-chamber ignition technique operating with fuel-rich pre-chamber combustion strategy is a very effective means of extending the lean limit of combustion with excess air in heavy duty natural gas engines in order to improve indicated efficiency and reduce emissions. This article presents a study of the influence of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on the resultant ignition characteristics. The two parameters varied are the ratio of pre-chamber volume to engine's clearance volume and the ratio of total area of connecting nozzle to the pre-chamber volume. Each parameter is varied in 3 steps hence forming a 3 by 3 test matrix. The experiments are performed on a single cylinder 2L engine fitted with a custom made pre-chamber capable of spark ignition, fuel injection and pressure measurement.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1174
Nobuhiko Nakagaki
Abstract Toyota Boshoku developed two completely new components for the fuel cell vehicle (FCV), Mirai. These are the fuel cell (FC) Separator, and Stack manifold. The separators are made from stamped metal plates. The anode and cathode separators sandwich the MEA(Membrane Electrode Assembly) between them. It has flow paths for the hydrogen, air and FC coolant. The Anode Separator has hydrogen flow paths on one side, and cooling liquid flow paths on the other side. The pitch used in the flow paths is very fine and it improves both the uniformity of the gas flow and of the surface pressure on the MEA. Therefore, it has contributes to improve the electric power generation performance. The FC Stack manifold is a component that attaches to the end of one side of the FC stack. It is a component that integrates end plate and pipes. The end plate is a portion of the FC stack which holds the fastening load of stack and is made of cast aluminum casting alloy.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0146
Salah Alhasia, Sharif Gindy, Selin Arslan, Badih Jawad, Chris Riedel
Abstract As the need for super high speed components (pumps, motors, etc) continue to grow rapidly, so does the need to make measurements at speeds higher than ever before. Bearings are a major component in any rotating system. With continually increasing speeds, bearing failure modes take new unconventional forms that often are not understood. Such measurements are impossible if bearings fail to perform. This paper will address the dynamic modes a bearing passes through and the potential failure modes associated with each. A review of the state of the art of current failure modes will be given, and then a hypothesis on some new failure modes associated with particular speeds will be discussion. The paper will also describe an apparatus that was designed especially to study these phenomena. Range of speed studied is 0- 60,000 rpm.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0529
Jody N. Hall, Jason Coryell, Bill Wendt, Donald Adamski
Abstract With the implementation of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) becoming more common for automotive manufacturers to reduce mass and/or improve performance, special stamping considerations must be made. Certain production parts may split at trimmed edges where strain levels are well below the forming limit curve of the respective grade, which is more applicable to necking fractures/splits. Similar to the presence of hard inclusion stringers (i.e. MnS) that can cause edge fractures in high strength low alloy steels, AHSS steels most susceptible to this phenomenon typically consist of dual phase or multiphase microstructures containing both a hard phase (martensite) and a soft phase (ferrite). Specific examples of these parts will be discussed, including studies to determine the root cause of the edge fracture and to communicate the solutions for consideration in appropriate standards and specifications.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0547
Dengfeng Wang, Rongchao Jiang
Abstract In this paper, the dynamic stress of the front subframe of a passenger car was obtained using modal stress recovery method to estimate the fatigue life. A finite element model of the subframe was created and its accuracy was checked by modal test in a free hanging state. Furthermore, the whole vehicle rigid-flexible coupling model of the passenger car was built up while taking into account the flexibility of the subframe. Meanwhile, the road test data was used to verify the validity of the dynamic model. On this basis, the modal displacement time histories of the subframe were calculated by a dynamic simulation on virtual proving ground consisting of Belgian blocks, cobblestone road and washboard road. By combining the modal displacement time histories with modal stress tensors getting from normal mode analysis, the dynamic stress time histories of the subframe were obtained through modal stress recovery method.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0605
Guoyu Yang, Scott Kish
Strength and fatigue life prediction is very difficult for stamped structural steel parts because the manufacturing process alters the localized material properties. Traditional tensile tests cannot be used to obtain material properties due to size limitations. Because of this, FEA predictions are most often “directional” at best. In this paper an improved prediction methodology is suggested. With a material library developed from standard homogenous test specimens, or even textbook material property tables, localized strength and plastic strain numbers can be inferred from localized hardness tests(1). The new method, using standard ABAQUS static analysis (not commercial fatigue analysis software with many unknowns), is shown to be very accurate. This paper compares the new process FEA strength and fatigue life predictions to laboratory test results using statistical confidence intervals.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0601
Madhavan Manivannan, Vesselin Stoilov, Derek O. Northwood
Abstract Ferritic nitrocarburizing offers excellent wear, scuffing, corrosion and fatigue resistance by producing a thin compound layer and diffusion zone containing ε (Fe2-3(C, N)), γ′ (Fe4N), cementite (Fe3C) and various alloy carbides and nitrides on the material surface. It is a widely accepted surface treatment process that results in smaller distortion than carburizing and carbonitriding processes. However this smaller distortion has to be further reduced to prevent the performance issues, out of tolerance distortion and post grinding work hours/cost in an automotive component. A numerical model has been developed to calculate the nitrogen and carbon composition profiles of SAE 1010 torque converter pistons during nitrocarburizing treatment. The nitrogen composition profiles are modeled against the part thickness to predict distortion.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1319
Eitaro Koya, Yukihide Fukuda, Shinya Kitagawa, Mitsunori Murakami, Atsushi Kawauchi, Sadanori Furue
Abstract When using aluminum for vehicle body parts to reduce weight, the high pressure die casting (HPDC) is widely applied due to its adaptability to thin-wall products, near-net-shape castability, and short casting cycle time. Since a hollow construction is advantageous to increase stiffness of body parts, there has been a need of development of techniques for casting of hollow parts by HPDC. So far, hollow casting by HPDC has been realized for small parts using sand cores. When applying that method to large parts, however, it is necessary to increase filling speed. When the filling speed is increased, the core tends to break. In this project, we have developed a method to estimate changes of pressure distribution when filling molten metal by the casting simulation in order to analyze damages to the core. Through the analysis, we discovered occurrence of impulsive pressure waves.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1377
Hiroshi Yokoyama, Atsushi Otani, Naoyuki Shirota, Takao Umezawa
Abstract As an integral element of automotive wiper systems, an automotive washer system is designed to contribute to the security and safety of automobile-based societies by providing drivers with a clear field of vision. Washer fluid is discharged from washer nozzles, typically mounted on the engine hood, to distances of more than 300 mm across the windshield. However, the fluid discharged may fail to reach targeted areas due to the effects of wind pressure when the vehicle is moving at high speed or due to the increased viscosity of methanol in the washer fluid (at concentrations of 30-60 %) at low temperatures, resulting in failure to ensure a clear field of vision. We developed a self-oscillating washer nozzle to remedy these shortcomings of conventional washer systems. Based on CFD and optimization, the flow passage is designed to generate a stable discharge of washer fluid, even under conditions of high-speed air flow or low temperature.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0779
Gerald Gentz, Bryce Thelen, Paul Litke, John Hoke, Elisa Toulson
Abstract Turbulent jet ignition is a pre-chamber ignition enhancement method that produces a distributed ignition source through the use of a chemically active turbulent jet which can replace the spark plug in a conventional spark ignition engine. In this paper combustion visualization and characterization was performed for the combustion of a premixed propane/air mixture initiated by a pre-chamber turbulent jet ignition system with no auxiliary fuel injection, in a rapid compression machine. Three different single orifice nozzles with orifice diameters of 1.5 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm were tested for the turbulent jet igniter pre-chamber over a range of air to fuel ratios. The performance of the turbulent jet ignition system based on nozzle orifice diameter was characterized by considering both the 0-10 % and the 10-90 % burn durations of the pressure rise due to combustion.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0686
Kenji Matsumoto, Hideharu Koga, Yuji Mihara
Abstract When evaluating the wear properties of slide bearings for car engines, it is a common practice to conduct long-term physical test using a bearing tester for screening purposes according to the revolution speed of the shaft, supply oil temperature and bearing pressure experienced in the actual use of engines. The loading waveform applied depends on the capability of the tester that is loaded, and it is often difficult to apply a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines. To design an engine that is more compact or lighter, it is necessary to reduce the dimensions of slide bearings and the distance between bearings. This requires loading tests on a newly designed engine by applying a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines to slide bearings and their vicinity before conducting a firing test. We therefore conducted an engine firing test by attaching thin-film sensors to the slide bearing part of the engine and measured the actual load distribution.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0892
Alastair Smith, Rod Williams
Abstract The formation of deposits within injector nozzle holes of common-rail injection fuel systems fitted to modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the flow of fuel into the combustion chamber. This disruption in fuel flow results in reduced or less efficient combustion and lower power output. Hence there is sustained interest across the automotive industry in studying these deposits, with the ultimate aim of controlling them. In this study, we describe the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging to characterise fuel injector hole deposits at intervals throughout an adaptation of the CEC Direct Injection Common Rail Diesel Engine Nozzle Coking Test, CEC F-98-08 (DW10B test)[1]. In addition, a similar adaptation of a previously published Shell vehicle test method [2] was employed to analyse fuel injector hole deposits from a fleet of Euro 5 vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0918
Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Kamel Fezzaa, Christopher Powell
Abstract Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle's internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly from phase interfaces. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle.
2015-04-10
Standard
AMS5045J
This specification covers a carbon steel in the form of sheet and strip.
2015-04-10
Standard
AMS5629/H1000A
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel product in the solution and precipitation heat treated (H1000) condition.
2015-04-10
Standard
AMS5659R
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of bars, wire, forgings, flash welded rings, and extrusions in the solution heat treated condition (See 8.3), and stock for forging, flash welded rings, or extruding.
2015-04-09
WIP Standard
AS5975C
Scope is unavailable.
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