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Viewing 31 to 60 of 15628
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0235
Shiv Shankar Prasad, Jahangir Mansoori, Jin Seo Park
Abstract A vehicle horn is a sound-making device used to warn others of any approaching vehicle or of its presence. Some countries require horns by law. Conventional Horns are electromechanical with steel diaphragm and electromagnet acting upon it. Switching of horn is performed by mechanical contact breaker assembly that repeatedly interrupts the current to electromagnetic. Up-Down movement of diaphragm with response to the current creates a sound wave across horn. Conventional Horn faces the problem of wear and tear of mechanical contact and internal parts. Switching of contacts results in arcing. There is no current and surge voltage protection for the coil of conventional horn. These problems of conventional system might be accepted in the general market, but in specific markets which are using horn frequently; these have to be considered as serious issues. Especially, horns are one of the most abusive parts of vehicle in India.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1285
Dingfeng Deng, Fanghui Shi, Louis Begin, Isaac Du
Abstract Instances have occurred where the outer surface of turbocharger fully floating journal bearing bushings have exhibited damage from oil debris resulting in constant tone noise and subsequent warranty claims. This paper studies the effect of oil debris in Turbocharger journal bearings on Subsynchronous NVH. A CFD model is built to study the behavior of oil debris particles with different sizes. It is found that the dominant centrifugal forces prevent larger particles from reaching the inner film while smaller particles travel more easily to the inner film. It is also found that the turbine side is more likely to become damaged from debris than the compressor side bearing due to higher temperatures. A tribology analysis shows that oil debris particles in the outer film will reduce the speed ratio, while oil debris particles in inner film will increase the speed ratio. The tribology analysis also predicts the effects of oil debris on bearing stiffness and damping.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1326
Sivanandi Rajadurai, Guru Prasad Mani, Kavin Raja, Sundaravadivelu Mohan
Abstract Generation of discretization with prescribed element sizes are adapted to the geometry. From the rules of thumb, for a complicated geometry it is important to select the reasonable element order, shapes and size for accurate results. In order to that, this paper describes the influence of elemental algorithm of the catalytic converter mounting brackets. Brackets are main source of mounting of various systems mainly intake and exhaust in the engine. In hot end exhaust system, a bracket design plays a vital role because it has to withstand heavy structural vibrations without isolation combined with thermal loads. Bracket design and stiffness determines the whole catalytic converter system's rigidity. So, here discretization of converter brackets by linear and parabolic elements is studied with different elements types and compared.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1319
Eitaro Koya, Yukihide Fukuda, Shinya Kitagawa, Mitsunori Murakami, Atsushi Kawauchi, Sadanori Furue
Abstract When using aluminum for vehicle body parts to reduce weight, the high pressure die casting (HPDC) is widely applied due to its adaptability to thin-wall products, near-net-shape castability, and short casting cycle time. Since a hollow construction is advantageous to increase stiffness of body parts, there has been a need of development of techniques for casting of hollow parts by HPDC. So far, hollow casting by HPDC has been realized for small parts using sand cores. When applying that method to large parts, however, it is necessary to increase filling speed. When the filling speed is increased, the core tends to break. In this project, we have developed a method to estimate changes of pressure distribution when filling molten metal by the casting simulation in order to analyze damages to the core. Through the analysis, we discovered occurrence of impulsive pressure waves.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1347
Fiona Ruel, Pierre-Olivier Santacreu, Saghi Saedlou, Guillaume Badinier, Jean Herbelin
Abstract In order to meet new environmental regulations (i.e. mass of CO2 rejected in the atmosphere per km), car manufacturers are looking for new solutions to lighten chassis and structural parts in cars. High strength steels formed by hot stamping have proved to be good candidates for achieving better in-use performances together with a lighter structure. In particular, the martensitic stainless steel MaX fulfils the industrial targets for chassis parts in terms of mechanical and fatigue properties. For instance, from a cold formed baseline made of 600 MPa carbon steel, a 50 % mass reduction can be expected with a hot stamped suspension arm made of MaX and included a new clamshell design. However, those parts are often made of a complex assembly of different materials (high strength steels, aluminium and cast iron among others) which are subjected to aggressive environments in service. Therefore galvanic corrosion of those complex assemblies has to be evaluated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0692
Sylvain Calmels, Benoit Bidaine, Kurt Danielson
Abstract Most of the carmakers show a clear interest in the replacement of metal by continuous carbon fiber composites to reach their targets in terms of lightweighting while keeping or improving the global performances of each new vehicle. Thanks to its complex heterogeneous microstructure this material provides a better ratio mass/strength than metal for this purpose, especially for crash objectives. One of the challenge to fully integrate this advanced material into the next vehicles structures is to be able to accurately predict its post-failure behavior in order to define the best optimized design. An efficient behavior prediction for crash performances is reached when the simulation is able to capture the correct dissipated energy and the associated damage not only globally but also locally.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0547
Dengfeng Wang, Rongchao Jiang
Abstract In this paper, the dynamic stress of the front subframe of a passenger car was obtained using modal stress recovery method to estimate the fatigue life. A finite element model of the subframe was created and its accuracy was checked by modal test in a free hanging state. Furthermore, the whole vehicle rigid-flexible coupling model of the passenger car was built up while taking into account the flexibility of the subframe. Meanwhile, the road test data was used to verify the validity of the dynamic model. On this basis, the modal displacement time histories of the subframe were calculated by a dynamic simulation on virtual proving ground consisting of Belgian blocks, cobblestone road and washboard road. By combining the modal displacement time histories with modal stress tensors getting from normal mode analysis, the dynamic stress time histories of the subframe were obtained through modal stress recovery method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0548
Andrew Halfpenny, Robin Anderson, Xiaobin Lin
Abstract This paper reviews the topic of Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue (TMF) as applied to automotive components such as cylinder heads, pistons, manifolds, turbochargers and exhaust components. The paper starts by looking at the physical influence of temperature on the microscopic failure of materials, in particular concentrating on the mechanisms of creep, fatigue, oxidation and their interactions. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) techniques suitable for high-temperature environments are discussed briefly, in particular the applications of elastic, elastic-plastic or elastic-viscoplastic analyses. Finally, methods for high-temperature fatigue and creep-fatigue based on the Chaboche approach are reviewed. The paper concludes with a review of laboratory tests on several materials at elevated temperatures under combined creep and fatigue conditions. Two case studies are then presented on a turbocharger housing and an exhaust-gas recirculation valve housing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0596
Oliver Scholz, Nikolas Doerfler, Lars Seifert, Uwe Zöller
Abstract Polymer seals are used throughout the automobile for a variety of purposes, and the consequences of a failure of such a seal can range from annoying in case of an A/C component to catastrophic in the case of brake components. With the constantly increasing demands for these components regarding e.g. pressure, tighter tolerances or new refrigerants come more stringent requirements for ensuring surface properties according to the specification for the specific application. While automatic inspection systems are available for a variety of defects, the area of seal inspection is still dominated by manual labor, partly because handling of these small, inexpensive parts is difficult and partly because visual coverage of the entire sealing surface poses a problem. It is also difficult for a human inspector to objectively assess whether or not a surface defect is critical, especially given that inspection of each seal must be completed within a few seconds.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0605
Guoyu Yang, Scott Kish
Strength and fatigue life prediction is very difficult for stamped structural steel parts because the manufacturing process alters the localized material properties. Traditional tensile tests cannot be used to obtain material properties due to size limitations. Because of this, FEA predictions are most often “directional” at best. In this paper an improved prediction methodology is suggested. With a material library developed from standard homogenous test specimens, or even textbook material property tables, localized strength and plastic strain numbers can be inferred from localized hardness tests(1). The new method, using standard ABAQUS static analysis (not commercial fatigue analysis software with many unknowns), is shown to be very accurate. This paper compares the new process FEA strength and fatigue life predictions to laboratory test results using statistical confidence intervals.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0601
Madhavan Manivannan, Vesselin Stoilov, Derek O. Northwood
Abstract Ferritic nitrocarburizing offers excellent wear, scuffing, corrosion and fatigue resistance by producing a thin compound layer and diffusion zone containing ε (Fe2-3(C, N)), γ′ (Fe4N), cementite (Fe3C) and various alloy carbides and nitrides on the material surface. It is a widely accepted surface treatment process that results in smaller distortion than carburizing and carbonitriding processes. However this smaller distortion has to be further reduced to prevent the performance issues, out of tolerance distortion and post grinding work hours/cost in an automotive component. A numerical model has been developed to calculate the nitrogen and carbon composition profiles of SAE 1010 torque converter pistons during nitrocarburizing treatment. The nitrogen composition profiles are modeled against the part thickness to predict distortion.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0600
Marc Rosenbaum
Abstract A new generation of 3D inspection machines is now available to verify in line 3D dimensional conformity of complex parts - especially Powertrain ones - with accuracy down to 0.1 μm within manufacturing cycle time of large series. Inspecting in line 100% of production with an accuracy and at speed compatible with the most demanding part accuracy and fastest cycle time is presently already a reality for some large tier1 suppliers in Europe. Purpose of this paper is to introduce this breakthrough technology using state of the art non-contact sensing technology allied with innovative mechanics and the latest developments in 3D metrology software
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1499
Tadatsugu Takada, Kazuki Tomioka
Abstract Honda announced an independent right and left rear toe control system (first generation) in 2013 and presented it as the world's first. As stated in a previous paper, “Independent Left and Right Rear Toe Control System,” with this system Honda has achieved a balance between an enjoyable driving experience in which handling is performed at the driver's will (“INOMAMA” handling) and stable driving performance.(1) This first generation is optimally designed to the vehicle specifications such as suspension axial force and steering gear ratio of the vehicle to which the system is applied. For more widespread application of independent rear toe control technology, a next generation system (second generation) has been developed, which achieves both cost reduction and flexible system performance which can be adapted to a variety of vehicles. The system development began by setting the required target performance with consideration for adaptation to various car models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1740
Kelsie S. Richmond, Stephen Henry, Russell Richmond, David Belton
Gasket materials are utilized for various different types of high temperature testing to prevent leaking at bolted joints. In particular, the automotive test services field uses flanged-gasket bolted exhaust joints to provide a convenient method for installation & removal of exhaust components like catalytic converters for aging, performance testing, etc. Recent improvements in the catalyst aging methods require flanged-gasket joints that can withstand exhaust temperatures as high as 1200°C. Gasket materials previously used in these applications like the graphite based gasket materials have exhibited physical breakdowns, severe leakage, and general thermal failures under these extreme temperatures. In order to prevent these leaks, metal-reinforced gasket materials in a number of configurations were introduced to these extreme temperature environments to evaluate their robustness to these temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1743
Tanmay Santra, Vikas Kumar Agarwal
An inadequate sealing of the combustion chamber gasket interface may have severe consequences on both the performance & emission of an engine. In this investigation, both the distribution of the contact pressure on the gasket and the stresses of the cylinder head at different loading conditions are explored and improved by modifying the design. A single cylinder gasoline engine cylinder head assembly has been analyzed by means of an uncoupled FEM simulation to find the sealing pressure of the multi-layer steel (MLS) gasket, strength & deformation of the components involved. The thermal loads are computed separately from CFD simulations of cylinder head assembly. The cylinder head assembly consisting of head, blocks, liner, cam shaft holder, bolts, gaskets, valve guides & valve seats, is one of the most complicated sub-assembly of an IC engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0520
Takaaki Kitahara, Takuo Imai, Osamu Ishigo, Miodrag Perovic
Abstract There has been a requirement for automotive bearings materials to be free of the toxic material lead, in accordance with ELV regulations and from the perspective of environmental problems. Currently, bismuth is used as a replacement for lead in copper alloy based main journal bearings and connecting rod bearings for automotive engines. In recent years, there has been changing to lead-free materials for truck engine bearings. Compared with automotive engines, lots of contaminations in the oil and local contact between the shaft and bearings can occur in truck engines. The ability to tolerate contamination and local contact is therefore required for truck engine bearings. In this development, we find that the addition of 8 mass% bismuth and 1.5 mass% molybdenum carbide particles into copper-tin alloy is effective for improving the ability which allow the contamination and local contacts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1174
Nobuhiko Nakagaki
Abstract Toyota Boshoku developed two completely new components for the fuel cell vehicle (FCV), Mirai. These are the fuel cell (FC) Separator, and Stack manifold. The separators are made from stamped metal plates. The anode and cathode separators sandwich the MEA(Membrane Electrode Assembly) between them. It has flow paths for the hydrogen, air and FC coolant. The Anode Separator has hydrogen flow paths on one side, and cooling liquid flow paths on the other side. The pitch used in the flow paths is very fine and it improves both the uniformity of the gas flow and of the surface pressure on the MEA. Therefore, it has contributes to improve the electric power generation performance. The FC Stack manifold is a component that attaches to the end of one side of the FC stack. It is a component that integrates end plate and pipes. The end plate is a portion of the FC stack which holds the fastening load of stack and is made of cast aluminum casting alloy.
2015-04-10
Standard
AMS5045J
This specification covers a carbon steel in the form of sheet and strip.
2015-04-10
Standard
AMS5629/H1000A
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel product in the solution and precipitation heat treated (H1000) condition.
2015-04-10
Standard
AMS5659R
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of bars, wire, forgings, flash welded rings, and extrusions in the solution heat treated condition (See 8.3), and stock for forging, flash welded rings, or extruding.
2015-04-09
WIP Standard
AS5975C
Scope is unavailable.
2015-04-08
WIP Standard
ARP1907C
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the functional, design, construction, and test requirements for Automatic Braking Systems. Installation information and lessons learned are also included.
2015-04-07
Standard
AMS4824E
Form: This specification covers bearings of a leaded bronze cast on one or both faces of a steel backing with a layer of babbitt metal cast on the leaded bronze.
2015-04-07
WIP Standard
AIR4938B
This is a general curriculum that has been developed to identify the minimum knowledge and skill requirements of a composite and/or metal bond repair technician/specialist. This revision changes the document from an all-inclusive curriculum into a modular set of curricula. Teaching levels have been assigned to the curriculum to define the knowledge, skills and abilities graduates will need to make composite repairs. Minimum hours of instruction have been provided to ensure adequate coverage of all subject matter - lecture and laboratory. These minimums may be exceeded, and may include an increase in the total number of training hours and/or increases in the teaching levels.
2015-04-06
Standard
AS5781A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers scarf-cut polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) retainers (backup rings) for use in glands in accordance with AS4716. They are for use in hydraulic and pneumatic system components as anti-extrusion devices in conjunction with O-rings, packings and other elastomeric seals for static and dynamic applications. Because of the construction of groove dimensions, backup rings specific to rod applications are designated "R" - Rod (Female), backup rings specific to piston applications are designated "P" - Piston (Male). Piston and rod types of virgin pigmented PTFE are also identified by color code which also distinguishes parts to this standard from those made from virgin PTFE to other standards.
2015-04-06
Standard
AS5782A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers solid, uncut polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) retainers (backup rings) for use in glands in accordance with AS4716. They are for use in hydraulic and pneumatic system components as anti-extrusion devices in conjunction with O-rings, packings and other elastomeric seals for static and dynamic applications. Because of the construction of groove dimensions, backup rings specific to rod applications are designated "R" - Rod (Female), backup rings specific to piston applications are designated "P" - Piston (Male). Piston and rod types of virgin pigmented PTFE are also identified by color code which also distinguishes parts to this standard from those made from virgin PTFE to other standards.
2015-04-02
WIP Standard
AS1576E
This document defines the requirements for weld fittings and machine weldments using an orbiting welding head suitable for use on cold worked 3Al 2.5V titanium, 21Cr 6Ni 9Mn CRES and 718 nickel alloy tubing. Fitting standards covered by this specification include non-separable welded elbow, tee, and reducer fittings, and reconnectable 24 degree cone fittings such as sleeves and unions.
2015-04-01
Article
New water-rejecting coating explored by chemists at University College London and other universities makes for tough self-cleaning surfaces that might work on motor vehicles.
2015-03-31
WIP Standard
AS50571B
This specification covers the general requirements for red and white individual instrument lights. This document has been streamlined. Appendix A to MIL-L-5057F lists those documents required for MIL-L-5057F acquisition and is a mandatory part of MIL-L-5057F. Those documents listed in Appendix A have the same status as those referenced directly in MIL-L-5057F (first tier documents). All other documents, referenced through tiering, may be used as guidance and information to supplement MIL-L-5057F. This document’s scope is limited to lamp source designs solely. Furthermore, the use of red lighting should not be considered for new design and included within this document to support requirements for existing military aircraft that still operate with this system of lighting.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0126
Meng Choung Chiong, Srithar Rajoo, Alessandro Romagnoli
Abstract This paper presents a concept for new piston expander utilizing nozzle as part of a secondary steam cycle to recover exhaust energy. A commercial 1D simulation tool, AVL BOOST, was used to model the system, and comparison study was carried out between the conventional and nozzle piston expanders. It was found the nozzle piston expander could increase output power from a minimum of 0.73kW up to a maximum of 4.75kW. The simulation study has shown that the concept of using nozzle to admit steam into the piston expander has potential to improve engine system level efficiency.
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