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Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Alessandro Franceschini, Emanuele Pellegrini, Raffaele Squarcini
Nowadays the challenge in design auxiliary device for automotive small engine is focused on the packaging reduction and on the increase of the performances. This requirements are in contrast to each other and in order to fulfil the project specifications, new and more refined design tools and procedures need to be developed. This paper presents a calculation loop developed by Pierburg Pump Technology Italy S.p.a. (PPT). It supports the design of a variable displacement oil pump component for engine applications. The work is focused on the fatigue life evaluation of a joint, which transmits the drive torque from the engine to the oil pump. The aim of the procedure is to calculate the onset of the surface fatigue phenomenon in the hexagonal joint which drives the oil pump, taking into account the axes misalignment and the flat to flat clearance. The study has involved several matters, experimental measures, CFD, MBA and FEM analyses. A calculation procedure has been set up in order to consider all the necessary loads applied on the joint.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
T Manikandan, S Sarmadh Ameer, A Sivakumar, Samaraj Dhinagar
The proposed paper is on electrical energy conservation in a two wheeler. Electrical energy generation adds a maximum of 10% excess load torque on an engine and hence saving electrical energy would ultimately reduce the consumption of fuel. Load Control Module is a single intelligent device which is placed in between electrical energy generation and consumption. The Module controls and distributes energy to the corresponding loads depending on parameters like battery voltage, engine RPM, overhead light illumination levels and load usage time. The Module prioritizes battery charging for maintaining the life of the battery. The Module has a microcontroller and it is programmed with algorithm for prioritization and energy distribution with respect to input conditions. A vehicle fitted with the Load Control Module was tested in city driving cycle (CDC) condition as per ARAI (Automotive Research Association of India) standard and it was found that the electrical loading decreased to about 30% when compared to vehicle with uncontrolled loading.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
T Manikandan, S Sarmadh Ameer, A Sivakumar, Davinder Kumar, R Venkatesan, VenkataKalyana Kumar
The proposed paper is on advanced vehicle information panel which shall display instant mileage zone in which the user is operating with inputs from engine crank sensor and vehicle speed sensor alone. And moreover, gear assistance and throttle assistance through visuals is provided. Mileage data for different engine loading at different Speeds is pre-calculated at standard conditions and fed into a micro-controller. In real time, the engine loading, by means of intelligent software, is sensed by engine crank sensor and based on the pre-fed value, the mileage zone of the vehicle at that particular instant is to be displayed using an information panel. Based on the relation between speed sensor and engine crank sensor when the vehicle is running, the gear in which the vehicle is running is to be calculated. For a vehicle running in a certain gear and in certain speed, the ideal engine loading and mileage zone is predefined. So when the user is riding in a certain gear with certain engine load, the micro controller compares that with the programmed data which is the ideal condition data, and assists the user, in case the rider is not riding the vehicle as per the ideal data, by gear up/down prompt or throttle up/down prompt by means of the said information panel.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Robert H. Barbour, Robert Quigley, Avtar Panesar
Abstract Diesel powered vehicles have grown in popularity over the last 15 years due to the introduction of advanced, high pressure, direct injection fuel systems that enable improved emissions, power and a more desirable driving experience. However, such vehicles only perform optimally when the fuel system is in a clean condition. When deposits form inside the injector nozzle holes, a measurable deterioration in power is observed. The CEC F-98-08 Peugeot DW10 engine test was introduced in 2008 in order to evaluate the nozzle fouling propensity of fuels and the beneficial effect of deposit control additives. Papers have been published demonstrating such effects, in particular the propensity of zinc and biodiesel contaminants to cause injector fouling and the performance of additives in both deposit control (keep clean) and removal (clean-up) modes. While running such tests with an advanced, proprietary deposit control additive, both the fuel flow (kg/hr) and engine power (kW) measured with the additised fuel were higher than the corresponding measurements made at the start of test with clean injectors running on base fuel.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Yingyi Wen, Shunichi Oshima
Agitation torque associated with oil lubricant is one important factor of torque loss in bearings under sufficient lubricating conditions. So far, efforts on reducing agitation torque were taken mostly by means of conventional experimental trials. Aiming for speedy, low-cost development, a calculation program for predicting the amount of agitation torque and oil distribution tendency in rolling bearings has been developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. At first, since rolling bearings are axially symmetric, sector models of bearings were adopted. To verify the method, torque losses and oil quantities in ordinary-sized bearings have been measured. Calculated values based on sector models are qualitatively in good agreement with measured results. The difference between the absolute values of measured and calculated torque may be caused by the difference between the vertical model used in CFD analysis and the horizontal torque-testing rig used in measurement. To improve the accuracy, full models of the bearings have been developed and verified by experiment.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Markus Behringer, Pavlos Aleiferis, Dave OudeNijeweme, Paul Freeland
Abstract One of the latest advancements in injector technology is laser drilling of the nozzle holes. In this context, the spray formation and atomisation characteristics of gasoline, ethanol and 1-butanol were investigated for a 7-hole spark eroded (SE) injector and its ‘direct replacement’ Laser-drilled (LD) injector using optical techniques. In the first step of the optical investigation, high-speed spray imaging was performed in a quiescent injection chamber with global illumination using diffused Laser light. The images were statistically analyzed to obtain spray penetration, spray tip velocity and spray ‘cone’ angles. Furthermore, droplet sizing was undertaken using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). A single spray plume was isolated for this analysis and measurements were obtained across the plume at a fixed distance from the nozzle exit. The droplet measurements were grouped into bins and maps were created showing droplet sizes and velocities against time and position during and post injection.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Matt Zwick
Abstract The base design of commercial vehicle wheel end systems has changed very little over the past 50 years. Current bearings for R-drive and trailer wheel end systems were designed between the 1920's and the 1960's and designs have essentially remained the same. Over the same period of time, considerable gains have been made in bearing design, manufacturing capabilities and materials science. These gains allow for the opportunity to significantly increase bearing load capacity and improve efficiency. Government emissions regulations and the need for fuel efficiency improvements in truck fleets are driving the opportunity for redesigned wheel end systems. The EPA and NHTSA standard requires up to 23% reduction in emissions and fuel consumption by 2017 relative to the 2010 baseline for heavy-duty tractor combinations. This paper summarizes the history of current wheel end bearing designs and the opportunity for change to lighter-weight, cooler-running and more fuel-efficient wheel bearing designs to help meet the new industry standards.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
Abstract Diesel exhaust aftertreatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector plays an important role in successfully utilizing this type of technology, and the CFD tool provides not only a time and cost-saving, but also a reliable solution for extensively design iterations for optimizing the injector internal nozzle flow design. Inspired by this fact, a virtual test methodology on injector dosing rate utilizing CFD was proposed for the design process of injector internal nozzle flows. For a low-pressure (less than 6 bar) injector application, the characteristic Reynolds number based on the diameter and mass flow rate of the inlet, return flow outlet, and nozzle exit of the injector might range from 2000 to 20000, therefore, employing a flow-physics based viscous model for building up a virtual test methodology is critical to properly capture the fluid dynamics of injector internal nozzle flow.
WIP Standard
2014-09-30
This SAE Aerospace Standard will cover airframe plain spherical bearings ustilizing a Copper Nickel Tin ball and a Corrosion Resistant Steel outer race for use between -65F and+350F.
WIP Standard
2014-09-30
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies standardized gland design criteria and dimensions for static face seals for internal pressure and external pressure applications for aerospace hydraulic and pneumatic applications using the same size range as AS4716 and AS5857 where applicable. Some small diameter sizes are excluded because they are not practical. The glands have been specifically designed for applications using AS568 size elastomeric O-rings with related Class 2 tolerances at nominal system operating pressures up to 3000 psi (20 680 kPa) utilizing no anti-extrusion (backup) rings. While the gland dimensions herein have been designed for pressures up to 3000 psi (20 680 kPa) these glands may be used for higher pressures, but extra precautions need to be taken and testing should be performed to ensure to ensure integrity of performance. This specification covers the basic design criteria and recommendations for use with standard size elastomeric O-rings, however, these glands are also suitable for use with other elastomeric and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) based seal geometries.
Standard
2014-09-29
Applies to hydraulic cylinders which are components of Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines defined in SAE J1116.
Standard
2014-09-29
This standard establishes the requirements for antifriction ball bearings primarily intended for use in aircraft electrical generators and motor-generators.
Standard
2014-09-29
Applies to hydraulic seals used to seal the rods of hydraulic cylinders which are components of Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines defined in SAE J1116.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Sukumar T, Murugan Subramanian
Abstract This paper presents a systematic procedure for design and evaluation of snap fit for Quadruple System Protection Valve (QSPV) piston assembly. The QSPV piston is assembled with housing by means of snap joint. Snap joints are a very simple, economical and rapid way of joining two different components. All types of snap joints have in common the principle that a protruding part of one component, e.g., a hook, stud or bead is deflected briefly during the joining operation and catches in a depression (undercut) in the mating component. After the joining operation, the snap-fit features should return to a stress-free condition. The joint may be separable or inseparable depending on the shape of the undercut; the force required to separate the components varies greatly according to the design. It is particularly important to bear the following factors in mind when designing snap joints: Mechanical load during the assembly operation and force required for assembly.
Standard
2014-09-25
Form: This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of an extrusion. Application: This product has been used in aerospace applications requiring a combination of high strength and compressive properties and with good corrosion resistance, but usage is not limited to such applications.
WIP Standard
2014-09-25
This test method outlines the standard procedure for measuring the radial and axial internal clearance of rolling element bearings used in airframe controls.
WIP Standard
2014-09-25
This specification covers sealed, self-aligning, anti-friction, rod end ball bearings with application in temperature ranges (1) -65°F to 250°F and (2) -65°F to 300°F with 20% reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity when subjected to operation above 250° F.
WIP Standard
2014-09-24
This specification has been declared "CANCELLED " by the Aerospace Materials Division, SAE, as of January 2009. By this action, this document will remain listed in the Numerical Section of the Index of Aerospace Material Specifications indicating that it has been "CANCELLED ".
WIP Standard
2014-09-24
This specification has been declared "CANCELLED " by the Aerospace Materials Division, SAE, as of January 2009. By this action, this document will remain listed in the Numerical Section of the Index of Aerospace Material Specifications indicating that it has been "CANCELLED ".
Standard
2014-09-23
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