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Viewing 1 to 30 of 19492
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0518
Choonsoo Han
Thermoplastic polyester elastomer (TPEE) has the properties of both rubber and engineering plastic. The most important characteristics of this material are its high elasticity and rigidity. So, those properties are enable to high durability against fatigue and large deformation cycles. In this study, the rebound bumper of suspension system in vehicle, using thermoplastic polyester elastomer was conducted. The plastic elastomer rebound bumper allows cost reduction and light weight on by integrating several components, such as coil spring, spring guides, blocker, stop rubber etc. In order to satisfy several component requirements such as specific compression set and Load-Displacement curve etc, we evaluated the performance change according to the design and material of the component. This study shows that how to modify the design of the rebound bumper to meet the requirments, and to choose the optimum material through the verification comparing several materials.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0512
Chae-Hwan Hong
A unique crystallization behavior of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA)/poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) stereocomplex(SC) was observed when a PLLA/PDLA blend was subjected to the specific melting conditions. We tried to blend PLLA and PDLA at overall compositions to form PLA stereocomplexes. Moreover, impact modifier and reinforcement materials such as talc and glass fiber were added to enhance the mechanical and thermal properties such as impact strength and HDT. As a result, we got one representative result, one composite recipe with HDT 115oC. For more economic technology, we tried to blend PLLA and Polypropylene at overall compositions and we got another representative result which could be applied to current PP/talc composites and ABS materials. The core technology of this might be the well dispersion of glass fibers into the matrix resin such as PP, PLLA and impact strength modifier. HDT value of this PP/PLA/GF composite increased over 150oC and impact strength also increased to 70 J/m.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0839
Wenbin Yu, Wenming Yang, Balaji mohan, Kunlin Tay, Feiyang zhao, Yunpeng zhang, Siawkiang chou, Markus Kraft, Malcolm Andrew Alexander, Alfred Yong, Kwokhow Lou
In this study, the internal nozzle flow and macroscopic spray characteristics of a kind of wide distillation fuel (WDF) – kerosene were investigated both with numerical and experimental approaches. Simulation results indicate that compared with diesel fuel, kerosene cavitates more due to higher turbulent kinetic energy as a result of lower viscosity. The results from experiment indicate that under lower charge density, the spray penetration for kerosene is obviously shorter than that for diesel, especially for the lower injection pressure. This is because lower fuel viscosity results in a reduction in the size of the spray droplets, leading to lower momentum. However the spray angle of kerosene is larger compared with diesel due to stronger turbulence in the nozzle flow caused by increased cavitation for kerosene, which also accords well with the simulation results.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1388
Baoke Huang, Jun Sun, Hu Wang, Xiaoyong Zhao, Qin Teng
In current design optimization of engine crankshaft bearing, only the crankshaft bearing is considered as the studying object. However, the corresponding relations of major structure dimensions exist between the crankshaft and the crankshaft bearing in engine, and there are the interaction effects between the crankshaft and the crankshaft bearing during the operation of engine. In this paper, the crankshaft-bearing system of a four-cylinder engine is considered as the studying object, the multi-objective design optimization of crankshaft bearing is developed. The crankshaft mass and the total frictional power loss of crankshaft bearings are selected as the objective functions in the design optimization of crankshaft bearing. The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm based on the idea of decreasing strategy of inertia weight with the exponential type is used in the optimization calculation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1356
Can Li, Yadong Deng, Yuhua Xin
As a key component of airstream system equipped in the road sweeper, the structure of the suction nozzle determines the distribution of the internal flow field, which affects the dust-sucking efficiency and capability to a great degree. The goal of this research is to determine a better structure of the suction nozzle. Starting with an analysis of the one used in a certain type of road sweeper, the initial model of the suction nozzle is established, and the internal flow field is simulated with typical CFD software named FLUENT. Based on the simulation results, the dust-sucking capability of the initial structure is evaluated from the aspects of pressure and velocity distribution. Furthermore, in order to explore the influence of different structural parameters on the flow field distribution within the suction nozzle, models with different cavity heights and shoulder angles are established, and Univariate Method is used to analyze the contrast models.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0801
Dimitri Seboldt, David Lejsek, Marlene Wentsch, Marco Chiodi, Michael Bargende
The growing transport sector and the associated environmental pollution due to combustion engine emissions raise public awareness with respect to the development of economical and low-emission propulsion systems. In the scope of this problem the use of CNG as fuel for internal combustion engines appears to be even more as the right choice compared to the conventional liquid fuels. Especially, the direct injection of natural gas provides a strong potential to establish this environmentally friendly propulsion. But due to the fact that this technology is not ready for series production there is still major need for research on a suitable injection system and mixture formation. Despite the fuel's gaseous state and the lack of evaporation the mixture preparation is made worse by the low mass density. This property leads to an enhanced jet deflection by the in-cylinder flow which is for itself extremely spatial and time dependent.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0511
Na Qiu, Yunkai Gao, Jianguang fang, Shanshan Wang
As a potential material for lightweighting, PMMA has proven to perform well in optical behavior and weather resistance. However, the application in automotive glazing, especially rear window considering its large size has seldom been studied. This paper aims to investigate the defrost performance of PMMA rear window using both numerical and experimental methods. The finite element analysis results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated finite element model, we further optimized the defrost efficiency by changing the arrangement of heating line. The results demonstrated the frost layer on the version-related region of PMMA rear window can melt within 30 minutes, which meet the requirement of defrost efficiency.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0508
Hyung Seok KIM
This study provides a tire puncture sealant including NR latex and acrylic emenrseion, which has a reduced viscosity at -40℃, and is also exellent storage stability at -40℃ to 70℃, initial sealaing performance. Also, this study provides device for sealaing inflatable objects. 'One- Piece Tire Repair Kit' can reduced weight and operation steps.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1381
Jiaqi Li, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi
Sealing system is an important subsystem of modern high-performance engine. Sealing system reliability directly affects the engine operating conditions. Cylinder head gaskets(CHG) sealing system is of the most importance to the engine sealing system, which is not only responsible for sealing chamber, the cooling fluid and lubricating oil passage, for preventing gas leakage, water leakage and oil leakage, but also for force transferring between cylinder head and cylinder body. Basing on nonlinear solution method, the sealing performance of multi-layer-steel cylinder head gaskets to a gasoline engine is studied with the finite element software ABAQUS. The deformations of the cylinder liners and engine block are also considered.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0496
Leonardo Farfan-Cabrera, Ezequiel A. Gallardo
Debris are progressively generated through wear occurred by the interaction of various mechanical elements into engines, steering gear boxes, transmissions, differentials, etc. Besides, they can interfere with the normal operation of such components even generating more damage in other parts due to three-body abrasion. Hence, dynamic seals are devices susceptible to interact with such very fine debris concentrated in the working lubes. Recently, owing to many testing advantages, the micro-scale abrasion test has been extensively used to study three-body abrasion of hard materials, coatings, polymers, etc., however, it has not been applied for elastomeric materials assessment. The paper presents a study of three-body abrasion of an elastomeric dynamic seal (samples extracted from an automotive commercial Acrylonitrile-butadiene NBR rotary seal) under lubricated conditions by using a TE66 Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1348
Kenichi Higuchi, Fumihiko Toyoda, Hirohito Terashima, Shinji Ikeda, Eitaku Nobuyama
There are two design challenges of the flow path switching valve in a three-stage variable discharge oil pump. The first is to obtain the required discharge pressure characteristics and the other is to prevent hydraulic vibration. Therefore, we established technologies to determine the shape of the valve and the valve housing that resolve these two challenges. The technology to obtain the required discharge pressure characteristics solves equations that are statically true, such as the equations for the equilibrium of forces and hydraulic orifice. The hydraulic vibration control technology derives a differential equation that takes transient behavior, including oil elasticity and inertia, into account. Then, the equation is converted to a transfer function that indicates the valve behavior according to the input of oil pressure changes and then the stability criterion is applied to judge whether hydraulic vibration occurs or not.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0507
Kazunori Miyake, Tomoya Nishida, Takanori Kurokawa, Hirokazu Arai
Sliding intermediate shaft of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is used for torque transmission from steering wheel or motor and buffering reverse input from tire. Required performances of sliding intermediate shaft are lowering sliding loads and improvement of wear-resistance for prevention of rattle noise. Therefore, polyamide coating material with good sliding properties is treated in the sliding types of intermediate shaft. Conventionally, sliding types of intermediate shaft with polyamide coating have been used in vehicle interior. On the other hand, extension of applied area to engine room is needed. In that case use temperature rises from 80 ℃ to 120 ℃. However, in high temperature conditions, there is concerns about increase of friction coefficient and wear volume of polyamide by deterioration of sliding properties of polyamide. Therefore, improvement of sliding properties of polyamide in high temperature is necessary.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0092
Stijn Kerst, Barys Shyrokau, Edward Holweg
Active safety systems can be made more efficient, more robust and less complex if wheel load information would be available. This data can be obtained via different methods as for instance wheel force transducers or ‘smart tyres’. Both approaches however have difficulties related to usage in active vehicle dynamics control. The first approach, based on strain measurements in the rim, is too expensive for series application whilst the latter, based on accelerometers inside the tire, suffers from difficulties regarding its estimation bandwidth. In this paper a novel approach for the determination of wheel loading is proposed. The novel approach, based on strain measurements on the surface of the bearing outer-ring, is tested on both a dedicated bearing test setup as well as on a test vehicle. As a case study, a pure load based Anti-lock Braking algorithm is tested, which demonstrates that the novel approach provides the accuracy and bandwidth needed for active vehicle dynamics control.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0393
Kevin P. Barbash, William V. Mars
We demonstrate here an accounting of damage accrual under road loads for a filled natural rubber bushing. The accounting is useful to developers who wish to avoid the typical risks in development programs: either the risk of premature failure, or of costly overdesign. The accounting begins with characterization of the elastomer to quantify governing behaviors: stress-strain response, fatigue crack growth rate, crack precursor size, and strain crystallization. Finite Element Analysis is used to construct a nonlinear mapping between loads and strain components within each element. Multiaxial, variable amplitude strain histories are computed from road loads. Damage accrues in this reckoning via the growth of cracks. Crack growth is calculated via integration of a rate law from an initial size to a size marking end-of-life.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1025
Daniela Cempirkova, Rostislav Hadas, Lukáš Matějovský, Rolf Sauerstein, Matthias Ruh
As emission regulations tighten across various regions of the world there is a growing trend in the use of alternative fuels such as Ethanol being blended with Gasoline. A notable case of Ethanol usage is found in South America with the widespread use of E100, which has no gasoline content and can often contain up to 10% water. Engine oil contamination by fuel is of major concern and under certain conditions can have negative effects on the durability of Turbocharger components which come into contact with contaminated oil, particularly sliding bearings, but also compressor wheels. The manner in which this effect takes hold can cause a decrease in the lubrication properties of the engine oil as well as a corrosiveness.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1092
Gabriela Achtenova, Jiri Pakosta
In the laboratories of CTU in Prague was newly built an inertia test stand, dedicated mainly for endurance tests of the internal shift mechanisms. With regard to the instrumentation of the stand, it can be used also for determination of lost power of the not-loaded transmission. In the article will be published the values for the no-load losses measured during the different conditions (temperature, shifted speed, speed of rotation) on the automotive mechanical gearbox for the transversal disposition of the drivetrain. For the further usage of the measured values is important to determine the portion of the different sources of losses. We are mainly interested to recognise how big portion play the churning losses and losses in the sealing, while these two losses remain the same, whatever the load of the gearbox will be. The losses of bearings on input and secondary shaft were calculated with the tool available from SKF.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0107
Sjon Moore
Traditional methods of costing wire harnesses focus primarily on the material and labor costs for manufacturing the final product. Rarely are costs related to variation based complexity considered and when they are they tend to be simple approximations at best. In reality, the additional costs of excessive variation resulting in large part counts (unique harness level part numbers) can have a significant impact on the final cost incurred by an organization, and is often difficult to account for. It's important that these costs first be understood and modeled, and second that the designs be optimized based on this model. This paper will discuss these complexity based costs, including common sources, how they can be modeled, and methods for optimizing designs to account for these costs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0488
Takashi Izawa, Motohiko Koushima
The sliding bearing generally used for engine main bearing in passenger vehicles are known to show a reduction in seizure limit performance relative to ideal conditions when the bearing are subjected to the influence of various noise factor (factor exerting negative influence) under actual operating conditions. Recent passenger vehicle engine development has sought to meet the demand for higher fuel economy and specific torque by reducing the width of the bearing and increasing the input load. The environment in which bearing are used is growing ever more demanding. The influence of noise factor on seizure limit performance is believed to be on an increasing trend in conjunction with this change. The importance of ascertaining that influence is growing greater, but few attempts have been made to verify those factors quantitatively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1349
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
In current scenario, tremendous amount of thrust is there on CAE to simulate the customer usage pattern or lab test using virtual simulation methods. And is of prime importance to reduce the number of soft tooled or hard tooled prototype for a test if it can be well predicted in CAE. Door slam event in automobiles is one, where structure’s behaviour is complex due to vibration of panels. Current work focuses to derive load histories at different mounting points like hinges, latch and contact patch of door seal area through dynamic analysis using LSDyna. The extracted load histories are then applied to trimmed door Nastran model and Modal transient analysis performed to find the stress history. There is computational advantage with Nastran for performing multiple design iterations compared to LSDyna. Also, stress convergence is achieved with Nastran model. The stresses shown higher in the region where actual failure happened.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1130
Mike Johns, Heinz Kamping, Kristian Krueger, James Mynderse, Chris Riedel
Tapered roller bearings used to support pinion and differential gears in automotive drive axles perform best, with accurate assembled preload. If the preload is too high, durability goes down and drag losses go up. If the preload is too low, the result can be poor roller load distribution and edge loading inside the bearing also resulting is lower life. Low preload also results in low system stiffness and noise and vibration issues. The most common assembly methods rely on bearing friction or dimensional measurements to adjust preload. These methods are difficult to automate or result in a wide preload range. Tapered roller bearings require the rotation as the preload is applied, to seat the rollers and avoid uneven load distribution and localized brinelling. To apply preload and measure torque at the same time, requires a specialized machine. In addition friction torque is sensitive to lubricant and rust preventative properties.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0860
Fredrik R. Westlye, Michele Battistoni, Scott A. Skeen, Julien Manin, Lyle M. Pickett, Anders Ivarsson
This work investigates the effects of cavitation on spray characteristics by comparing measurements of liquid and vapor penetration as well as ignition delay and lift-off length. A smoothed-inlet, converging nozzle (nominal KS1.5) was compared to a sharp-edged nozzle (nominal K0) in a constant-volume combustion vessel under thermodynamic conditions consistent with modern compression ignition engines. Within the near-nozzle region, the K0 nozzle displayed larger radial dispersion of the liquid as compared to the KS1.5 nozzle, and shorter axial liquid penetration. Moving downstream, the KS1.5 jet growth rate increased, eventually reaching a growth rate similar to the K0 nozzle while maintaining a smaller radial width. The increasing spreading angle in the far field creates a virtual origin, or mixing offset, several millimeters downstream for the KS1.5 nozzle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0873
Saeed Jahangirian, Aleksandra Egelja, Huiying Li
Demands for higher power engines has led to higher pressures in fuel injectors. Internal nozzle flow plays a critical role in the near nozzle flow and subsequent spray pattern. This flow becomes more difficult to model when the injector pressure and internal shape make it more prone to cavitation. Two Bosch injectors, proposed for experimental and computational studies under the Engine Combustion Network (namely “Spray C” and “Spray D”) are modeled in the computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS- FLUENT. Both injectors operate with n-dodecane at 150 MPa inlet pressures. The model includes cavitation effects to characterize any cavitation regions. It is found critical to include compressibility of both liquid and vapor. Also, due to high velocity and shear in the nozzle, turbulent viscous energy dissipation is considered along with pressure work resulting from large pressure changes in the injector.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0372
Thomas Thesing, Neil Bishop
Traditional approaches for the fatigue life evaluation of automotive parts like headlamps involves the evaluation of random stress conditions from which fatigue life can be evaluated using one of the available methods like the Rayleigh (Narrow Band) approach or the more recent Dirlik method. Historically, the random stresses needed as input to these methods have been evaluated by the FEA solver (eg Abaqus, Nastran, Ansys) and these “in built” stress evaluations have limitations which relate to the fact that the stress conditions are complex and so the common “equivalents” for stress like von-Mises or Principal have not been available. There have also been limitations in the location and method of averaging for such stresses. In addition, the fatigue calculation approach for doing the evaluation has been constrained to the linear stress based (S-N) method. And finally, random methods implemented inside such solvers are inherently inefficient.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0517
Kentaro Kimura, Ryoji Habuchi, Tetsuya Kono, Tadashi Mori, Kaname Arimizu
The automotive industry is constantly trying to improve in areas of passenger comfort, especially in areas of noise reduction. In addition to noise reduction, the weight reduction of automotive parts needs to be achieved in order to improve fuel efficiency. These items are all driven by the end customer's demands for more environmentally friendly vehicles that still meet their comfort expectations. General soundproofing methods for noisy vehicle systems consists of two components: 1. a resin molded rigid cover and 2. a sound absorption material. Sound proofing performance is generally enhanced in proportion with the added weight to a rigid cover in the form an outer-shell. This makes it difficult to improve on both the silencing characteristic and weight saving at the same time.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0485
Jiaqi Li, Jimin Ni, Qiwei WANG
Turbochargers improve performance in internal combustion engines. Due to low production costs, TC assemblies are supported on floating ring bearings. In current lubrication analysis of floating ring bearing, inner and outer oil film are usually supposed to be adiabatic. The heat generated by frictional power is carried out by the lubricant flow. In reality, under real operating conditions, there existed heat transfer between the inner and outer film. This fraction of heat may have an effect on the lubrication performance of floating ring bearing. In this paper, the lubrication performance of floating ring bearing when considering heat transfer between inner film and outer film is studied. Based on the floating ring balance model, fluid lubrication model and heat dissipation model, the heat transferred through the ring between the inner and outer film is calculated and it is considered as one of the conditions to analyze lubrication performance.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0493
Roger Gorges, David Latham, Ian Laing, Ronald Brock
Modern high-speed diesel engines place increasing demands on engine components and specifically for crankshaft bearings there is a requirement to endure increased peak cylinder pressures and resulting loads transmitted through the connecting rods and crankshaft. Seizure and wear resistance of the bearings play a crucial role in modern engine development as a result of these loads and their impact on the lubricant film. In order to attend to these demands, MAHLE has developed a novel high-performance polymer coating containing lubricant-filled microcapsules. The Microcapsules are designed to rupture during nascent scuff and high wear events and consequently release the contained lubricant “on demand”, i.e. just when it is needed to prevent seizure. A clear tendency for the novel polymer coating to provide better recovery after scuffing events was measured, allowing for continuing safe operation of the bearings and thus reducing the seizure risk.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0851
Alexander Nygaard, Mireia Altimira, Lisa Prahl Wittberg PhD, Laszlo Fuchs
The process of disintegration of liquid jets is used in multitude of industrial applications, such as spray cooling, coating and fuel injection. Although the exact disintegration mechanisms are not yet known, it has been observed that intermittent injection can lead to better sprays in terms of the jet breakup rate and gas entrainment, which opens a new area of research within the field of atomization. In this paper we have carried out a systematic numerical analysis of the breakup of pulsated liquid jets in gaseous surroundings, under different injection conditions. More specifically, the duty cycle (time share of active injection during one injection cycle) is varied, while the total cycle time is kept constant. In order to provide an accurate, yet computationally acceptable resolution of the turbulent structures, the implicit Large Eddy Simulation framework has been adopted.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0862
PengBo Dong, Keiya Nishida, Takuya INABA, Youichi Ogata
The tiny and normal injection quantity instances usually happen under the multi-injection strategy condition to restrain the uncontrollability of the ignition timing of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion concept. Meanwhile, instead of the traditional and fundamental single-hole diesel injector, the axisymmetric multi-hole injectors are usually applied to couple with the combustion chamber under most practical operating conditions. In the current paper, the internal flow and spray characteristics generated by single-hole and multi-hole (10 holes) nozzles under normal (2 mm3/hole) and tiny (0.3 mm3/hole) injection quantity conditions were investigated in conjunction with a series of experimental and computational methods. High-speed video observation was conducted at 10000 and 100000 fps under the condition of 120 MPa rail pressure, 1.5 MPa ambient pressure, room temperature, and nitrogen environment to visualize different spray properties.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0513
Yohei Miki, Hisao Futamata, Masahiko Inoue, Masashi Takekoshi, Kohbun Yamada
Unexpected noise may occur at around air intake manifold when the air throttle is quickly opened. In order to solve this problem, mesh is often mounted into the air flow between the manifold and the throttle. In this study the effect of mesh design on the noise reduction was investigated. Several designs of the mesh were tested with actual air intake unit, and the mechanism of the noise generation and its attenuation was discussed with visualization studies. Based on those experiments, an optimized mesh design was conducted. Furthermore integration of mesh and rubber gasket was examined. Finally rubber mesh-gaskets which provide sealing and noise attenuation for air intake has been proposed in this study.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0031
Wenxu Niu, Ke Song, Yucheng He, Tong Zhang
X-in-the-loop (XiL) framework is a new validation concept for vehicle product development, which integrates different virtual and real components to improve the development efficiency. With XiL platform the requirements of reproducible test, optimization and validation, in which hardware, equipments and test objects are located in different places, could be realized. In the view of different location and communication form of hardware, equipments and test objects, time delay problem exists in the XiL platform, which could have a negative impact on development and validation process. In this paper, a simulation system of time delay prediction and compensation is founded with the help of BP neural network and RBF neural network. With this simulation system the effect of time delay in a vehicle dynamic model as well as tests of geographically distributed vehicle powertrain system is improved during the validation process.
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