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2015-01-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-9101
Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu, Edwin K.L. Tam
Abstract Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) conducted, to date, of the end-of-life phase of vehicles rely significantly on assumed values and extrapolations within models. The end phase of vehicles, however, has become all the more important as a consequence of increasing regulatory requirements on materials recovery, tightening disposal restrictions, and the rapid introduction of new materials and electronics, all potentially impacting a vehicle's efficacy for achieving greater levels of sustainability. This article presents and discusses selected research results of a comprehensive gate-to-gate life-cycle-inventory (LCI) of end-of-life vehicle (ELV) dismantling and shredding processes, constructed through a comprehensive and detailed case study, and argues that managing and implementing creative dismantling practices can improve significantly the recovery of both reusable and recyclable materials from end-of-life vehicles. Although the amount of parts and materials recovered and directed for reuse, remanufacturing or recycling may be as much as 11.6% by weight of the ELVs entering a dismantling process [1], greater rates of reuse and/or recycling may be achieved by the strategic management of the ELVs entering the dismantling process according to age.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0026
Alessandro Franceschini, Emanuele Pellegrini, Raffaele Squarcini
Nowadays the challenge in design auxiliary device for automotive small engine is focused on the packaging reduction and on the increase of the performances. This requirements are in contrast to each other and in order to fulfil the project specifications, new and more refined design tools and procedures need to be developed. This paper presents a calculation loop developed by Pierburg Pump Technology Italy S.p.a. (PPT). It supports the design of a variable displacement oil pump component for engine applications. The work is focused on the fatigue life evaluation of a joint, which transmits the drive torque from the engine to the oil pump. The aim of the procedure is to calculate the onset of the surface fatigue phenomenon in the hexagonal joint which drives the oil pump, taking into account the axes misalignment and the flat to flat clearance. The study has involved several matters, experimental measures, CFD, MBA and FEM analyses. A calculation procedure has been set up in order to consider all the necessary loads applied on the joint.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0028
T Manikandan, S Sarmadh Ameer, A Sivakumar, Davinder Kumar, R Venkatesan, VenkataKalyana Kumar
The proposed paper is on advanced vehicle information panel which shall display instant mileage zone in which the user is operating with inputs from engine crank sensor and vehicle speed sensor alone. And moreover, gear assistance and throttle assistance through visuals is provided. Mileage data for different engine loading at different Speeds is pre-calculated at standard conditions and fed into a micro-controller. In real time, the engine loading, by means of intelligent software, is sensed by engine crank sensor and based on the pre-fed value, the mileage zone of the vehicle at that particular instant is to be displayed using an information panel. Based on the relation between speed sensor and engine crank sensor when the vehicle is running, the gear in which the vehicle is running is to be calculated. For a vehicle running in a certain gear and in certain speed, the ideal engine loading and mileage zone is predefined. So when the user is riding in a certain gear with certain engine load, the micro controller compares that with the programmed data which is the ideal condition data, and assists the user, in case the rider is not riding the vehicle as per the ideal data, by gear up/down prompt or throttle up/down prompt by means of the said information panel.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0027
T Manikandan, S Sarmadh Ameer, A Sivakumar, Samaraj Dhinagar
The proposed paper is on electrical energy conservation in a two wheeler. Electrical energy generation adds a maximum of 10% excess load torque on an engine and hence saving electrical energy would ultimately reduce the consumption of fuel. Load Control Module is a single intelligent device which is placed in between electrical energy generation and consumption. The Module controls and distributes energy to the corresponding loads depending on parameters like battery voltage, engine RPM, overhead light illumination levels and load usage time. The Module prioritizes battery charging for maintaining the life of the battery. The Module has a microcontroller and it is programmed with algorithm for prioritization and energy distribution with respect to input conditions. A vehicle fitted with the Load Control Module was tested in city driving cycle (CDC) condition as per ARAI (Automotive Research Association of India) standard and it was found that the electrical loading decreased to about 30% when compared to vehicle with uncontrolled loading.
2014-10-20
Standard
AS3282C
Scope is unavailable.
2014-10-20
Standard
AS3293B
Scope is unavaialble.
2014-10-17
WIP Standard
ARP5312
The recommended test method applies to hydraulic actuators that are components of commercial and military aircraft control systems. This recommended practice establishes guidelines for comparison testing and reporting the effectiveness of rod scrapers only against dry dust and ingression of ISO standardized test dust into the fluid and should not be construed as a qualification process for rod scrapers since the macro contaminants which are not being tested here can affect scraper performance. To fully evaluate rod scraper effectiveness, the subject actuator design and its full operating environment needs to be evaluated.
2014-10-16
WIP Standard
AS25050B
This specification covers the chromaticity and transmission requirements of equipment light transmitting ware in the descending order of transmission. It is intended for use in military aircraft lighting.
2014-10-15
WIP Standard
AS85731/1B
No scope available.
2014-10-15
WIP Standard
AS85731B
This specification covers positive locking fasteners intended for use in aircraft to secure electronic line replaceable units (LRUs).
2014-10-13
Standard
AMSQQA200/11A
This specification covers the specific requirements for aluminum alloy 7075 bar, rod, shapes, tube, and wire produced by extrusion. AMS-QQ-A-200/11A has been declared "STABILIZED" by AMS Committee D. This document will no longer be updated and may no longer represent standard industry practice. This document was stabilized because it contains requirements that are no longer state of the art and are also contained in alternate documents that contain equivalent requirements. Previously this document was reaffirmed. AMS Committee D has never performed a technical update of this document. Users of this document should refer to the cognizant engineering organization for disposition of any issues with reports/certifications to this specification; including exceptions listed on the certification. NOTE: In many cases, the purchaser may represent a sub tier supplier and not the cognizant engineering organization.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2721
Robert H. Barbour, Robert Quigley, Avtar Panesar
Abstract Diesel powered vehicles have grown in popularity over the last 15 years due to the introduction of advanced, high pressure, direct injection fuel systems that enable improved emissions, power and a more desirable driving experience. However, such vehicles only perform optimally when the fuel system is in a clean condition. When deposits form inside the injector nozzle holes, a measurable deterioration in power is observed. The CEC F-98-08 Peugeot DW10 engine test was introduced in 2008 in order to evaluate the nozzle fouling propensity of fuels and the beneficial effect of deposit control additives. Papers have been published demonstrating such effects, in particular the propensity of zinc and biodiesel contaminants to cause injector fouling and the performance of additives in both deposit control (keep clean) and removal (clean-up) modes. While running such tests with an advanced, proprietary deposit control additive, both the fuel flow (kg/hr) and engine power (kW) measured with the additised fuel were higher than the corresponding measurements made at the start of test with clean injectors running on base fuel.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2700
Fredrik Königsson, Per Risberg, Hans-Erik Angstrom
Abstract Nozzle coking in diesel engines has received a lot of attention in recent years. High temperature in the nozzle tip is one of the key factors known to accelerate this process. In premixed CNG-diesel dual fuel, DDF, engines a large portion of the diesel fuel through the injector is removed compared to regular diesel operation. This can result in very high nozzle temperatures. Nozzle hole coking can therefore be expected to pose a significant challenge for DDF operation. In this paper an experimental study of nozzle coking has been performed on a DDF single cylinder engine. The objective was to investigate how the rate of injector nozzle hole coking during DDF operation compares to diesel operation. In addition to the nozzle tip temperature, the impact of other parameters on coking rate was also of interest. Start of injection, λ, diesel substitution ratio and common rail pressure were varied in two levels starting from a common baseline case, resulting in a total of 10 operating cases.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2743
Luca Marchitto, Simona Merola, Cinzia Tornatore, Gerardo Valentino
Abstract Alcohols are largely used in spark-ignition (SI) engines as alternative fuels to gasoline. Particularly, the use of butanol meets growing interest due to its properties that are similar to gasoline, if compared with other alcohols. This paper aims to make a comparative analysis on the atomization process of gasoline and n-butanol fuel injected by a multi-hole injector nozzle for spark ignition engines. Phase Doppler Anemometry technique was applied to investigate the behavior of a spray emerging from a six-hole nozzle for direct injection spark ignition engine applications. Commercial gasoline and pure n-butanol were investigated. The fuels were injected at two pressures: namely at 5 and 10 MPa, in a test vessel at quiescent air conditions, ambient temperature and backpressure. Droplets diameter and velocity were estimated along the axis and on the edge direction of a jet through Phase Doppler Anemometry in order to provide useful information on the atomization process. Gasoline and n-butanol provided different results in droplets size and velocity.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2850
Yingyi Wen, Shunichi Oshima
Agitation torque associated with oil lubricant is one important factor of torque loss in bearings under sufficient lubricating conditions. So far, efforts on reducing agitation torque were taken mostly by means of conventional experimental trials. Aiming for speedy, low-cost development, a calculation program for predicting the amount of agitation torque and oil distribution tendency in rolling bearings has been developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. At first, since rolling bearings are axially symmetric, sector models of bearings were adopted. To verify the method, torque losses and oil quantities in ordinary-sized bearings have been measured. Calculated values based on sector models are qualitatively in good agreement with measured results. The difference between the absolute values of measured and calculated torque may be caused by the difference between the vertical model used in CFD analysis and the horizontal torque-testing rig used in measurement. To improve the accuracy, full models of the bearings have been developed and verified by experiment.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2745
Markus Behringer, Pavlos Aleiferis, Dave OudeNijeweme, Paul Freeland
Abstract One of the latest advancements in injector technology is laser drilling of the nozzle holes. In this context, the spray formation and atomisation characteristics of gasoline, ethanol and 1-butanol were investigated for a 7-hole spark eroded (SE) injector and its ‘direct replacement’ Laser-drilled (LD) injector using optical techniques. In the first step of the optical investigation, high-speed spray imaging was performed in a quiescent injection chamber with global illumination using diffused Laser light. The images were statistically analyzed to obtain spray penetration, spray tip velocity and spray ‘cone’ angles. Furthermore, droplet sizing was undertaken using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). A single spray plume was isolated for this analysis and measurements were obtained across the plume at a fixed distance from the nozzle exit. The droplet measurements were grouped into bins and maps were created showing droplet sizes and velocities against time and position during and post injection.
2014-10-09
WIP Standard
AIR5883A
This document defines the criteria used for the selection of landing gear shock strut upper and lower bearings. Common problems associated with shock strut bearings are presented.
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