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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1499
Tadatsugu Takada, Kazuki Tomioka
Honda developed the right and left independent toe-angle control system (first-generation P-AWS) in the Acura RLX in 2013 and announced it as the first in the world. As indicated in a previous paper, “Independent Left and Right Rear Toe Control System,” with this system Honda has realized an excellent balance between the fun of handling that is at the driver’s will (INOMAMA) and driving performance with a sense of stability. This first-generation P-AWS is designed to be optimal to the vehicle specifications (suspension axial force, steering gear ratio, etc.) of the Acura RLX. Honda is due to widely adapt P-AWS to other models from now on. Following this, we developed the next-generation P-AWS system (second-generation P-AWS) in order to reconcile system performance and low cost wherever possible, in order to be adaptable for all ACURA models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1347
Fiona Ruel, Pierre-Olivier Santacreu, Saghi Saedlou, Guillaume Badinier, Jean Herbelin
In order to meet new environmental regulations (i.e. mass of CO2 rejected in the atmosphere per km), car manufacturers are looking for new solutions to lighten chassis and structural parts in cars. High strength steels formed by hot stamping have proved to be good candidates for achieving better in-use performances together with a lighter structure. In particular, our martensitic stainless steel MaX fulfils the industrial targets for chassis parts in terms of mechanical and fatigue properties which could potentially lead to a 15% to 20% weight saving. However, those parts are often made of a complex assembly of different materials (high strength steels, aluminium and cast iron among others) which are subjected to aggressive environments in service. Therefore galvanic corrosion of those complex assemblies has to be evaluated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0785
Dockoon Yoo, Jihun Song, Yeongchu Kim, Wook Jung, Duksang Kim
Abstract As presented in the previous study [1], a 2.4L ULPC(Ultra Low PM Combustion) diesel engine was achieved through optimal matching with piston bowl geometry and nozzle spray angle that significantly reduce the amount of engine out soot generated in the combustion. This engine complies with US Tier 4 Final regulation without DPF (only DOC) which was developed for off-road applications such as skid-loader, forklift and construction equipment. Improvement in fuel consumption of diesel engine for off-road applications and construction equipment which are operating continuously for a long time at high load conditions will be very important for reducing the operating costs. This paper explains a detailed review of improvement BSFC of 2.4L ULPC diesel engine by optimizing the combustion system with swirl ratio, nozzle flow rate and piston bowl geometry while maintaining non-DPF solution.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0494
Sulki Seong, Wangoo Kim, Daesung Bae, Seungpyo Lee, Younggeol Cho, Kyeongdeok Yang
Bearing is an important part for supporting the weight and transmits power. Rotating bearing is required excellent durability. Various studies have been conducted long time, for predict performance and durability of the bearing. However, prediction of the bearing durability has been used expression computation method using a theoretical formula between the raceway and ball. Flange analysis is commonly used structural analysis. Such an approach, have assumed to be static load. So it is difficult to consider the dynamic characteristics (Centrifugal force, Gyroscope effect) of the bearing. In order to predict the accurate bearing endurance life, it should be considering the dynamic characteristics. This paper proposes the method for bearing endurance life prediction considering dynamic characteristic. Between the raceway and ball contact is one of the important factors to take into account the dynamic characteristics of the bearing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0431
KI Woo Sung, Jong Gurl Kim, Dae-Un Sung, Hye Mi Kim
Abstract This study examined various warranty data analysis methods to identify and study the one most suitable for Hyundai Motor warranty data. The drawbacks of the conventional life table method were overcome to develop an analysis method optimized for vehicle characteristics. The proposed method was examined for its suitability to various applications, such as providing the information necessary for determining the service life of parts, verifying the effects of design changes, and designing warranty and maintenance policies. The analysis data used in this study were derived from the 10-year powertrain parts warranty data of vehicles sold in the USA, South Korea, and China.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0221
Soham Banerjee, Anand Ganesan, Sudharsan Sundaram, Kiran Jasti
Abstract The life of a two-wheeler and its parts depend much on its usage during its years of running. The quality of its parts determine the life and efficiency; however the handling of the two-wheeler also plays a major role in estimating it's life and other performance parameters. Hence, it is beneficial to have an efficient system which enhances the life of a two-wheeler and also gives better mileage. This paper constitutes an efficient drive pattern system which addresses the above. This system consists of two main parts: the data collection system and an Android-based mobile application which runs on a mobile phone. The data collection system collects data from various sensors on the vehicle and then the data is processed and sent to the mobile phone of the rider during the run time of the two-wheeler. The application uses this data to depict useful information like drive pattern and various indicators.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0692
Sylvain Calmels, Benoit Bidaine, Kurt Danielson
Abstract Most of the carmakers show a clear interest in the replacement of metal by continuous carbon fiber composites to reach their targets in terms of lightweighting while keeping or improving the global performances of each new vehicle. Thanks to its complex heterogeneous microstructure this material provides a better ratio mass/strength than metal for this purpose, especially for crash objectives. One of the challenge to fully integrate this advanced material into the next vehicles structures is to be able to accurately predict its post-failure behavior in order to define the best optimized design. An efficient behavior prediction for crash performances is reached when the simulation is able to capture the correct dissipated energy and the associated damage not only globally but also locally.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1740
Kelsie S. Richmond, Stephen Henry, Russell Richmond, David Belton
Gasket materials are utilized for various different types of high temperature testing to prevent leaking at bolted joints. In particular, the automotive test services field uses flanged-gasket bolted exhaust joints to provide a convenient method for installation & removal of exhaust components like catalytic converters for aging, performance testing, etc. Recent improvements in the catalyst aging methods require flanged-gasket joints that can withstand exhaust temperatures as high as 1200°C. Gasket materials previously used in these applications like the graphite based gasket materials have exhibited physical breakdowns, severe leakage, and general thermal failures under these extreme temperatures. In order to prevent these leaks, metal-reinforced gasket materials in a number of configurations were introduced to these extreme temperature environments to evaluate their robustness to these temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1743
Tanmay Santra, Vikas Kumar Agarwal
An inadequate sealing of the combustion chamber gasket interface may have severe consequences on both the performance & emission of an engine. In this investigation, both the distribution of the contact pressure on the gasket and the stresses of the cylinder head at different loading conditions are explored and improved by modifying the design. A single cylinder gasoline engine cylinder head assembly has been analyzed by means of an uncoupled FEM simulation to find the sealing pressure of the multi-layer steel gasket (MLS), strength & deformation of the components involved. The thermal loads are computed separately from CFD simulations of cylinder head assembly. The cylinder head assembly consisting of head, block, liner, cam shaft holder, bolts, gaskets, valve guides & valve seats, is one of the most complicated sub-assembly of an IC engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0867
Ashish Shah, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Abstract It has previously been shown by the authors that the pre-chamber ignition technique operating with fuel-rich pre-chamber combustion strategy is a very effective means of extending the lean limit of combustion with excess air in heavy duty natural gas engines in order to improve indicated efficiency and reduce emissions. This article presents a study of the influence of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on the resultant ignition characteristics. The two parameters varied are the ratio of pre-chamber volume to engine's clearance volume and the ratio of total area of connecting nozzle to the pre-chamber volume. Each parameter is varied in 3 steps hence forming a 3 by 3 test matrix. The experiments are performed on a single cylinder 2L engine fitted with a custom made pre-chamber capable of spark ignition, fuel injection and pressure measurement.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0235
Shiv Shankar Prasad, Jahangir Mansoori, Jin Seo Park
Abstract A vehicle horn is a sound-making device used to warn others of any approaching vehicle or of its presence. Some countries require horns by law. Conventional Horns are electromechanical with steel diaphragm and electromagnet acting upon it. Switching of horn is performed by mechanical contact breaker assembly that repeatedly interrupts the current to electromagnetic. Up-Down movement of diaphragm with response to the current creates a sound wave across horn. Conventional Horn faces the problem of wear and tear of mechanical contact and internal parts. Switching of contacts results in arcing. There is no current and surge voltage protection for the coil of conventional horn. These problems of conventional system might be accepted in the general market, but in specific markets which are using horn frequently; these have to be considered as serious issues. Especially, horns are one of the most abusive parts of vehicle in India.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0520
Takaaki Kitahara, Takuo Imai, Osamu Ishigo, Miodrag Perovic
Abstract There has been a requirement for automotive bearings materials to be free of the toxic material lead, in accordance with ELV regulations and from the perspective of environmental problems. Currently, bismuth is used as a replacement for lead in copper alloy based main journal bearings and connecting rod bearings for automotive engines. In recent years, there has been changing to lead-free materials for truck engine bearings. Compared with automotive engines, lots of contaminations in the oil and local contact between the shaft and bearings can occur in truck engines. The ability to tolerate contamination and local contact is therefore required for truck engine bearings. In this development, we find that the addition of 8 mass% bismuth and 1.5 mass% molybdenum carbide particles into copper-tin alloy is effective for improving the ability which allow the contamination and local contacts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1174
Nobuhiko Nakagaki
Abstract Toyota Boshoku developed two completely new components for the fuel cell vehicle (FCV), Mirai. These are the fuel cell (FC) Separator, and Stack manifold. The separators are made from stamped metal plates. The anode and cathode separators sandwich the MEA(Membrane Electrode Assembly) between them. It has flow paths for the hydrogen, air and FC coolant. The Anode Separator has hydrogen flow paths on one side, and cooling liquid flow paths on the other side. The pitch used in the flow paths is very fine and it improves both the uniformity of the gas flow and of the surface pressure on the MEA. Therefore, it has contributes to improve the electric power generation performance. The FC Stack manifold is a component that attaches to the end of one side of the FC stack. It is a component that integrates end plate and pipes. The end plate is a portion of the FC stack which holds the fastening load of stack and is made of cast aluminum casting alloy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0548
Andrew Halfpenny, Robin Anderson, Xiaobin Lin
Abstract This paper reviews the topic of Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue (TMF) as applied to automotive components such as cylinder heads, pistons, manifolds, turbochargers and exhaust components. The paper starts by looking at the physical influence of temperature on the microscopic failure of materials, in particular concentrating on the mechanisms of creep, fatigue, oxidation and their interactions. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) techniques suitable for high-temperature environments are discussed briefly, in particular the applications of elastic, elastic-plastic or elastic-viscoplastic analyses. Finally, methods for high-temperature fatigue and creep-fatigue based on the Chaboche approach are reviewed. The paper concludes with a review of laboratory tests on several materials at elevated temperatures under combined creep and fatigue conditions. Two case studies are then presented on a turbocharger housing and an exhaust-gas recirculation valve housing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0527
Pierre-Olivier Santacreu, Guillaume Badinier, Jean-Benoit Moreau, Jean-Marc Herbelin
Abstract A new Ni-free martensitic stainless steel (MSS) was developed for hot stamped automotive parts, especially in order to design lightweight chassis part. After hot stamping simulation, the material exhibited a 1.2 GPa ultimate tensile strength with a minimum of 10% total elongation, in the as-quenched condition (Q) without any tempering treatment (Q+T). Moreover the material's chemical composition was optimized to improve the ductility at low temperature and during high strain rate mechanical testing. As a result, no brittle fracture in impact testing at −40°C was observed, and a good behavior in crash was recorded. To further assess the material's performances, high cycle fatigue properties of the grade have been characterized including the effects of machining and surface treatments. Results show that the fatigue limits at 2 million cycles for a stress ratio of −1, for both bare and shot peened surface are quite high and in the range of 580 MPa to 640 MPa.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0600
Marc Rosenbaum
Abstract A new generation of 3D inspection machines is now available to verify in line 3D dimensional conformity of complex parts - especially Powertrain ones - with accuracy down to 0.1 μm within manufacturing cycle time of large series. Inspecting in line 100% of production with an accuracy and at speed compatible with the most demanding part accuracy and fastest cycle time is presently already a reality for some large tier1 suppliers in Europe. Purpose of this paper is to introduce this breakthrough technology using state of the art non-contact sensing technology allied with innovative mechanics and the latest developments in 3D metrology software
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0596
Oliver Scholz, Nikolas Doerfler, Lars Seifert, Uwe Zöller
Abstract Polymer seals are used throughout the automobile for a variety of purposes, and the consequences of a failure of such a seal can range from annoying in case of an A/C component to catastrophic in the case of brake components. With the constantly increasing demands for these components regarding e.g. pressure, tighter tolerances or new refrigerants come more stringent requirements for ensuring surface properties according to the specification for the specific application. While automatic inspection systems are available for a variety of defects, the area of seal inspection is still dominated by manual labor, partly because handling of these small, inexpensive parts is difficult and partly because visual coverage of the entire sealing surface poses a problem. It is also difficult for a human inspector to objectively assess whether or not a surface defect is critical, especially given that inspection of each seal must be completed within a few seconds.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1285
Dingfeng Deng, Fanghui Shi, Louis Begin, Isaac Du
Several instances have occurred where the outer surface of turbocharger fully floating journal bearing bushings have exhibited damage from oil debris resulting in loud constant tone noises and subsequent warranty claims. This paper studies the effect of oil debris in Turbocharger journal bearings on Subsynchronous NVH. A CFD model is built to study the behavior of oil debris particles with different sizes. The oil debris particles tend to navigate to the inner film or outer film of bearing bushing depending on the drag and centrifugal forces. It is found that the dominant centrifugal forces prevent larger particles from reaching the inner film while smaller particles travel more easily to the inner film. It is also found that the turbine side is more likely to become damaged from debris than the compressor side bearing due to higher temperatures. A tribology analysis is executed to determine the effect of oil debris particles on the speed ratio of the bearing bushing to the shaft.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1371
Samuel T. Bartlett
Abstract With the many model variations produced on the same production line because of increasing power train options, fuel efficiency targets, performance and customer demands we saw limitations with our existing suspension mount equipment. Layout options were limited due to guided shifts and transfers. Large supporting frame work took up valuable floor space. Model wheelbase sizes and suspension pallets were limited to the model requirements of the original equipment. We needed an adaptable system to install the engine/front suspension assemblies and the rear suspension assemblies. We found a solution by utilizing the capabilities of 6-axis industrial robots to make the core components of the equipment simpler; many of the functions of a traditional machine can now be accomplished by the robot. We were able to vary install position to optimize handling characteristics and accommodate the model-to-model varieties on the same production line.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1326
Sivanandi Rajadurai, Guru Prasad Mani, Kavin Raja, Sundaravadivelu Mohan
Generation of discretization with prescribed element sizes are adapted to the geometry. From Rules of thumb, for a complicated geometry it is important to select the reasonable element order, shapes and size for accurate results. In order to that, this paper describes the influence of elemental algorithm of the catalytic converter mounting brackets. Brackets are main source of mounting of various systems mainly intake and exhaust in the engine .In exhaust hot end system, bracket designs play a vital role because it has to withstand heavy structural vibrations without isolation combined with thermal loads. Bracket design and stiffness determines the whole Catalytic converter system's rigidity. So, here discretization of converter brackets by linear and parabolic elements is studied with different elements types and compared.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0686
Kenji Matsumoto, Hideharu Koga, Yuji Mihara
Abstract When evaluating the wear properties of slide bearings for car engines, it is a common practice to conduct long-term physical test using a bearing tester for screening purposes according to the revolution speed of the shaft, supply oil temperature and bearing pressure experienced in the actual use of engines. The loading waveform applied depends on the capability of the tester that is loaded, and it is often difficult to apply a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines. To design an engine that is more compact or lighter, it is necessary to reduce the dimensions of slide bearings and the distance between bearings. This requires loading tests on a newly designed engine by applying a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines to slide bearings and their vicinity before conducting a firing test. We therefore conducted an engine firing test by attaching thin-film sensors to the slide bearing part of the engine and measured the actual load distribution.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0892
Alastair Smith, Rod Williams
Abstract The formation of deposits within injector nozzle holes of common-rail injection fuel systems fitted to modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the flow of fuel into the combustion chamber. This disruption in fuel flow results in reduced or less efficient combustion and lower power output. Hence there is sustained interest across the automotive industry in studying these deposits, with the ultimate aim of controlling them. In this study, we describe the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging to characterise fuel injector hole deposits at intervals throughout an adaptation of the CEC Direct Injection Common Rail Diesel Engine Nozzle Coking Test, CEC F-98-08 (DW10B test)[1]. In addition, a similar adaptation of a previously published Shell vehicle test method [2] was employed to analyse fuel injector hole deposits from a fleet of Euro 5 vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0918
Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Kamel Fezzaa, Christopher Powell
Abstract Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle's internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly from phase interfaces. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0911
Juliane Wetzel, Michael Henn, Mark Gotthardt, Hermann Rottengruber
Abstract The optimization of the mixture formation represents great potential to decrease fuel consumption and emissions of spark-ignition engines. The injector and the nozzle are of major importance in this concern. In order to adjust the nozzle geometry according to the requirements an understanding of the physical transactions in the fuel spray is essential. In particular, the primary spray break-up is still described inadequately due to the difficult accessibility with optical measuring instruments. This paper presents a methodology for the characterization of the nozzle-near spray development, which substantially influences the entire spray shape. Single hole injectors of the gasoline direct injection (GDI) with different nozzle hole geometries have been investigated in a high pressure chamber by using the MIE scattering technique. To examine the spray very close to the nozzle exit a long-distance microscope in combination with a Nd:YAG-laser was used.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0921
Raul Payri, Jaime Gimeno, Pedro Marti-Aldaravi, Marcos Carreres
Abstract Proper initial conditions are essential to successfully perform a simulation, especially for highly transient problems such as Diesel spray injection. Until now, no much attention has been paid to the internal nozzle flow initialization because spray simulations are usually decoupled from the nozzle. However, new homogeneous models like Eulerian Spray Atomization (ESA) model allow to simulate the internal nozzle flow and the spray seamlessly. Therefore, the behavior of the spray for the first microseconds is highly influenced by the initial conditions inside the nozzle. Furthermore, last experiments confirm the presence of gas inside the nozzle between successive injections. This work deals with the initialization procedure in a way that mass flow rate and spray penetration curves are well predicted by the model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0923
Mohamed Chouak, Alexandre Mousseau, Damien Reveillon, Louis Dufresne, Patrice Seers
Abstract The transient characteristics of the internal flow dominate all the ensuing processes: spray, fuel-air mixture formation as well as combustion and pollutants formation. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the dynamics of the injectors' internal flow. The objective of this work is to study all transient effects that may impact the internal flow of a single hole injector under different conditions. Since the numerical investigation of such a complex flow is hampered by several factors for the real operating conditions-namely the turbulence, the cavitation and the needle motion-this work is divided into two parts. In the first part, only the effects of turbulence and cavitation are considered through the study of the effects of the fuel properties as well as the injection conditions at the fully open needle position. The impact of these effects is studied by means of the Reynolds and the cavitation number.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0948
Le (Emma) Zhao, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee, Sam Barros, William Atkinson
Abstract High-speed spray-to-spray liquid impingement could be an effective phenomenon for the spray propagation and droplet vaporization. To achieve higher vaporization efficiency, impingement from two-hole nozzles is analyzed in this paper. This paper focuses on investigating vaporization mechanism as a function of the impingement location and the collision breakup process provided by two-hole impinging jet nozzles. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is adopted to do simulation. Lagrangian model is used to predict jet-to-jet impingement and droplet breakup conditions while KH-RT breakup and O'Rourke collision models are implemented for the simulation. The paper includes three parts: First, a single spray injected into an initially quiescent constant volume chamber using the Lagrangian approach is simulated to identify the breakup region, which will be considered as a reference to study two-hole impinging jet nozzles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0944
Maryam Moulai, Ronald Grover, Scott Parrish, David Schmidt
Abstract A computational and experimental study was performed to characterize the flow within a gasoline injector and the ensuing sprays. The computations included the effects of turbulence, cavitation, flash-boiling, compressibility, and the presence of non-condensible gases. The flow domain corresponded to the Engine Combustion Network's Spray G, an eight-hole counterbore injector operating in a variety of conditions. First, a rate tube method was used to measure the rate of injection, which was then used to define inlet boundary conditions for simulation. Correspondingly, injection under submerged conditions was simulated for direct comparison with experimental measurements of discharge coefficient. Next, the internal flow and external spray into pressurized nitrogen were simulated under the base spray G conditions. Finally, injection under flashing conditions was simulated, where the ambient pressure was below the vapor pressure of the fuel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0949
Mathis Bode, Tobias Falkenstein, Vincent Le Chenadec, Seongwon Kang, Heinz Pitsch, Toshiyuki Arima, Hiroyoshi Taniguchi
Abstract Compared to conventional injection techniques, Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has a lot of advantages such as increased fuel efficiency, high power output and low emission levels, which can be more accurately controlled. Therefore, this technique is an important topic of today's injection system research. Although the operating conditions of GDI injectors are simpler from a numerical point of view because of smaller Reynolds and Weber numbers compared to Diesel injection systems, accurate simulations of the breakup in the vicinity of the nozzle are very challenging. Combined with the complications of experimental techniques that could be applied inside the nozzle and at the nozzle exit, this is the reason for the lack of understanding the primary breakup behavior of current GDI injectors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1675
Yongfu Chen, Zhengfei Tang, Peijun Xu, Yunqing Zhang
A method for dynamic analysis and design of Powertrain Mounting System(PMS) is developed with the aim of reducing the vibration of the PMS, which is very significant to improve ride comfort. A nine degrees of freedom(DoF) dynamic model is established, including a powertrain and a chassis. The dynamic stiffness of the mounting is taken as the design parameter. Decreasing the dynamic force between the powertrain and the frame is the optimization objective. The initial values of the dynamic stiffness are obtained by finite element analysis. Due to the frequency dependence of dynamic stiffness, the dynamic stiffness is optimized at lower frequency section and high frequency section respectively. In addition, the deformation of the mounting under the gravity of powertrain is limited, which further determines the range of dynamic stiffness.
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