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2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0140
Milind Ambardekar, Adatiya Yogesh, Sudhakara Naidu
A Power-train Mounting System [PTMS] of a passenger car or a Truck provides isolation and damping against excitations from engine and driveline to the vehicle-body to assure low levels of tactile vibrations and structure-borne noise for the passengers. In a competitive market where faster product development is expected, design sign-off for is needed much before Final Design Judgment of the vehicle. This Paper discusses robustness needed in the Design Validation Plan [DVP] of PTMS to capture Voice of Customer against a typical case like idle-shake of a high powered Truck [Fig. 1]. Production variations of Truck vibrations were measured and then analyzed through an Ishikawa diagram. Noise Factors, Error Status and Control factors of the Truck under study were indentified. Modal Alignment of PTMS was studied by an in-house developed multi-body dynamics tool.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0019
Werner Bick, Cagri Cevik, Christoph Steffens
In order to minimize the development and production costs in the automotive industry, despite steadily increasing variety of models and applications offered by the OEMs, the pressure on standardization of components and production processes is increasing continuously. As a direct consequence, modular engine families are already established with high degrees of equal parts and kits as well as standardized interfaces for all vehicle platforms with most manufacturers these days. At the same time, the world adopted and announced massive legal demands concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions for the entire vehicle fleet. In addition to the optimization of the combustion process, the exhaust gas aftertreatment and thermal management, the use of improved and more resilient materials for higher reduction of mechanical friction leads to a significant amount of the realized lowering in fuel consumption resp. CO2 emissions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0154
Anand Ramalingam, Saravanakumar Thangamani
In the highly competitive automotive industry, safety and robustness become indispensable. Vibration requirements and crash-worthiness of automotive components have become stringent over the years. Therefore designers are facing huge challenges for fulfilling both criteria as these requirements become contradictory in some applications. The Fuel Delivery Module (FDM) comprising flange and swirl pot assembly, is mounted on fuel tank. It pumps fuel from tank to the engine. Flange mounted on fuel tank opening, provides proper sealing. Swirl pot assembly comprises of fuel pump, pump holder and fuel level sensor. It is positioned inside the tank by two axially spring loaded struts connected to the flange. During crash, FDM undergoes sudden deceleration. Due to inertia, swirl pot assembly creates bending moment in the flange-strut interface. At such adverse condition, flange should not exhibit crack on the sealing side, as it might expose fuel in the fuel tank to the atmosphere.
2015-01-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9101
Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu, Edwin K.L. Tam
Abstract Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) conducted, to date, of the end-of-life phase of vehicles rely significantly on assumed values and extrapolations within models. The end phase of vehicles, however, has become all the more important as a consequence of increasing regulatory requirements on materials recovery, tightening disposal restrictions, and the rapid introduction of new materials and electronics, all potentially impacting a vehicle's efficacy for achieving greater levels of sustainability. This article presents and discusses selected research results of a comprehensive gate-to-gate life-cycle-inventory (LCI) of end-of-life vehicle (ELV) dismantling and shredding processes, constructed through a comprehensive and detailed case study, and argues that managing and implementing creative dismantling practices can improve significantly the recovery of both reusable and recyclable materials from end-of-life vehicles.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0026
Alessandro Franceschini, Emanuele Pellegrini, Raffaele Squarcini
Abstract Nowadays the challenge in design of auxiliary devices for automotive small engines is focused on packaging reduction and on the increase of the performance. These requirements are in contrast to each other and in order to fulfil the project specifications, new and more refined design tools and procedures need to be developed. This paper presents a calculation loop developed by Pierburg Pump Technology Italy S.p.A. (PPT). It supports the design of a variable displacement oil pump component for engine applications. The work is focused on the fatigue life evaluation of a joint, which transmits the drive torque from the engine to the oil pump. The aim of the procedure is to calculate the onset of the surface fatigue phenomenon in the hexagonal joint which drives the oil pump, taking into account the axes misalignment and the flat-to-flat clearance. The study has involved several matters, experimental measures, CFD, MBA and FEM analyses.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2743
Luca Marchitto, Simona Merola, Cinzia Tornatore, Gerardo Valentino
Abstract Alcohols are largely used in spark-ignition (SI) engines as alternative fuels to gasoline. Particularly, the use of butanol meets growing interest due to its properties that are similar to gasoline, if compared with other alcohols. This paper aims to make a comparative analysis on the atomization process of gasoline and n-butanol fuel injected by a multi-hole injector nozzle for spark ignition engines. Phase Doppler Anemometry technique was applied to investigate the behavior of a spray emerging from a six-hole nozzle for direct injection spark ignition engine applications. Commercial gasoline and pure n-butanol were investigated. The fuels were injected at two pressures: namely at 5 and 10 MPa, in a test vessel at quiescent air conditions, ambient temperature and backpressure. Droplets diameter and velocity were estimated along the axis and on the edge direction of a jet through Phase Doppler Anemometry in order to provide useful information on the atomization process.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2721
Robert H. Barbour, Robert Quigley, Avtar Panesar
Abstract Diesel powered vehicles have grown in popularity over the last 15 years due to the introduction of advanced, high pressure, direct injection fuel systems that enable improved emissions, power and a more desirable driving experience. However, such vehicles only perform optimally when the fuel system is in a clean condition. When deposits form inside the injector nozzle holes, a measurable deterioration in power is observed. The CEC F-98-08 Peugeot DW10 engine test was introduced in 2008 in order to evaluate the nozzle fouling propensity of fuels and the beneficial effect of deposit control additives. Papers have been published demonstrating such effects, in particular the propensity of zinc and biodiesel contaminants to cause injector fouling and the performance of additives in both deposit control (keep clean) and removal (clean-up) modes.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2700
Fredrik Königsson, Per Risberg, Hans-Erik Angstrom
Abstract Nozzle coking in diesel engines has received a lot of attention in recent years. High temperature in the nozzle tip is one of the key factors known to accelerate this process. In premixed CNG-diesel dual fuel, DDF, engines a large portion of the diesel fuel through the injector is removed compared to regular diesel operation. This can result in very high nozzle temperatures. Nozzle hole coking can therefore be expected to pose a significant challenge for DDF operation. In this paper an experimental study of nozzle coking has been performed on a DDF single cylinder engine. The objective was to investigate how the rate of injector nozzle hole coking during DDF operation compares to diesel operation. In addition to the nozzle tip temperature, the impact of other parameters on coking rate was also of interest.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2745
Markus Behringer, Pavlos Aleiferis, Dave OudeNijeweme, Paul Freeland
Abstract One of the latest advancements in injector technology is laser drilling of the nozzle holes. In this context, the spray formation and atomisation characteristics of gasoline, ethanol and 1-butanol were investigated for a 7-hole spark eroded (SE) injector and its ‘direct replacement’ Laser-drilled (LD) injector using optical techniques. In the first step of the optical investigation, high-speed spray imaging was performed in a quiescent injection chamber with global illumination using diffused Laser light. The images were statistically analyzed to obtain spray penetration, spray tip velocity and spray ‘cone’ angles. Furthermore, droplet sizing was undertaken using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). A single spray plume was isolated for this analysis and measurements were obtained across the plume at a fixed distance from the nozzle exit.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2850
Yingyi Wen, Shunichi Oshima
Agitation torque associated with oil lubricant is one important factor of torque loss in bearings under sufficient lubricating conditions. So far, efforts on reducing agitation torque were taken mostly by means of conventional experimental trials. Aiming for speedy, low-cost development, a calculation program for predicting the amount of agitation torque and oil distribution tendency in rolling bearings has been developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. At first, since rolling bearings are axially symmetric, sector models of bearings were adopted. To verify the method, torque losses and oil quantities in ordinary-sized bearings have been measured. Calculated values based on sector models are qualitatively in good agreement with measured results. The difference between the absolute values of measured and calculated torque may be caused by the difference between the vertical model used in CFD analysis and the horizontal torque-testing rig used in measurement.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2351
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
Abstract Diesel exhaust aftertreatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector plays an important role in successfully utilizing this type of technology, and the CFD tool provides not only a time and cost-saving, but also a reliable solution for extensively design iterations for optimizing the injector internal nozzle flow design. Inspired by this fact, a virtual test methodology on injector dosing rate utilizing CFD was proposed for the design process of injector internal nozzle flows.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2330
Matt Zwick
Abstract The base design of commercial vehicle wheel end systems has changed very little over the past 50 years. Current bearings for R-drive and trailer wheel end systems were designed between the 1920's and the 1960's and designs have essentially remained the same. Over the same period of time, considerable gains have been made in bearing design, manufacturing capabilities and materials science. These gains allow for the opportunity to significantly increase bearing load capacity and improve efficiency. Government emissions regulations and the need for fuel efficiency improvements in truck fleets are driving the opportunity for redesigned wheel end systems. The EPA and NHTSA standard requires up to 23% reduction in emissions and fuel consumption by 2017 relative to the 2010 baseline for heavy-duty tractor combinations.
2014-09-28
Journal Article
2014-01-2492
Sukumar T, Murugan Subramanian
Abstract This paper presents a systematic procedure for design and evaluation of snap fit for Quadruple System Protection Valve (QSPV) piston assembly. The QSPV piston is assembled with housing by means of snap joint. Snap joints are a very simple, economical and rapid way of joining two different components. All types of snap joints have in common the principle that a protruding part of one component, e.g., a hook, stud or bead is deflected briefly during the joining operation and catches in a depression (undercut) in the mating component. After the joining operation, the snap-fit features should return to a stress-free condition. The joint may be separable or inseparable depending on the shape of the undercut; the force required to separate the components varies greatly according to the design. It is particularly important to bear the following factors in mind when designing snap joints: Mechanical load during the assembly operation and force required for assembly.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2144
Marco Amrhein, Jason Wells, Eric Walters, Seana McNeal, Brett Jordan, Peter Lamm
Abstract Transient operating conditions in electrical systems not only have significant impact on the operating behavior of individual components but indirectly affect system and component reliability and life. Specifically, transient loads can cause additional loss in the electrical conduction path consisting of windings, power electronic devices, distribution wires, etc., particularly when loads introduce high peak vs. average power ratios. The additional loss increases the operating temperatures and thermal cycling in the components, which is known to reduce their life and reliability. Further, mechanical stress caused by dynamic loading, which includes load torque cycling and high peak torque loading, increases material fatigue and thus reduces expected service life, particularly on rotating components (shaft, bearings).
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2242
Samuel Baha II
Hybrid (bolted/bonded) joining is becoming one of the innovative joining processes for light weight structures in the transport industry, especially in the aerospace industry where weight reduction and high joining requirements are permanent challenges. Combining the adhesive bonding with the mechanical joining -riveting for instance- can lead to an enhancement of the properties of the joint compared to the wide established riveting, as a result of a synergistic load bearing interaction between the fastener and the adhesive bondline. The influence of the rivet installation process on a hybrid joint regarding the joint stress state, the change of the bondline thickness as well as its effects on the joint performance and load transfer are some of the factors that drive the users to a better understanding of the hybrid joining process.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2241
Jamie Skovron, Laine Mears, Durul Ulutan, Duane Detwiler, Daniel Paolini, Boris Baeumler, Laurence Claus
Abstract A state of the art proprietary method for aluminum-to-aluminum joining in the automotive industry is Resistance Spot Welding. However, with spot welding (1) structural performance of the joint may be degraded through heat-affected zones created by the high temperature thermal joining process, (2) achieving the double-sided access necessary for the spot welding electrodes may limit design flexibility, and (3) variability with welds leads to production inconsistencies. Self-piercing rivets have been used before; however they require different rivet/die combinations depending on the material being joined, which adds to process complexity. In recent years the introductions of screw products that combine the technologies of friction drilling and thread forming have entered the market. These types of screw products do not have these access limitations as through-part connections are formed by one-sided access using a thermo-mechanical flow screwdriving process with minimal heat.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2263
Eric Barton, Dan Hasley, Joey Jackson
Abstract The following is a unique case study expounding on automatic fastening technology designed and engineered to ramp up a Tier 2 supplier that had no experience with automatic fastening, to efficiently produce a large volume of fuselage panel assemblies with demanding process requirements in a very short amount of time. The automation technology integrated for the skin to stringer & skin to window frame fastening were two GEMCOR G12 five-axis CNC All-Electric fastening systems coupled with a Cenit offline part programming system. This joint solution served as a launch vehicle for Center Industries to efficiently supply the full rate of fuselage panel assemblies for a large volume commercial aircraft program without having any automatic riveting experience.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2268
Pietro Ladisa, Gabriele Santonico
Abstract The marman interface is widely used in space applications to fit the spacecrafts to the launch vehicle and it is the same interface that allows the integration, test and transport of the satellites (AIT). It is usually designed for launch loads with related flight design safety factors and margins, but this is not always compatible with the handling and transport environment. In particular some criticalities are evidenced during the transport of satellites, where they are mounted in the container in horizontal position therefore subjected to bending loads due to gravity and transport dynamic loads. The study deals with a finite element analysis approach in the calculation and verification of marman clamp bands used for spacecraft AIT operations. The paper describes the details of modeling of the clamp band parts, the involved spacecraft launch vehicle interface ring and the MGSE interface.
2014-06-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2063
Farokh Kavarana, Kin Yu, Tyler Robbins, John DeYoung
Abstract The advantages of hydraulic mounts over conventional elastomeric mounts for NVH refinement are well known, particularly in the area of engine and suspension mounts. Recently, hydraulic mounts have been successfully employed as body mounts between the frame and cab, principally to control freeway hop in pickup trucks. Due to their ability to provide increased damping at small displacements, hydraulic body mounts also have good potential to reduce smooth road shake. This paper documents the reduction in smooth road shake performance of a full size pickup truck. Hydraulic body mounts tuned to the frequency of the smooth road shake sensitivity area were added to the rearmost cab mount location. Both tire-wheel balance and uniformity were set to the highest production level specification allowed and the effect of hydraulic cab mount was measured experimentally during smooth road driving at medium to high speeds.
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0024
Marcos dos Santos, Ricardo Guedes Manini, Jayme B. Curi, Cleber Chiqueti
Abstract ”U” bolts are fixing elements and they are used to clamp an elastic joint. From the past, they still looking as an old design and unfortunately, suspension engineers are not specialists in fasteners and elastic joints. That is why we will show important assumptions and concepts to design and specifications this clamp element “U” bolt and its influence over leaf-springs. Currently, “U” bolt is used to clamp an elastic or elastic-plastic joint of heavy duty suspension, formed by leaf-spring, axle, spring pad, “U” bolt plate. This kind of suspension is typically used to trucks, buses and trailers. We are wondering, which one important assumption that an engineer must be careful when designs a new suspension changing from old designs to an updated technology. We provide a theoretical analysis and a FEA analysis to compare torque efficacy x leaf-spring reactions and what are effects this relationship can cause in a suspension.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0035
Shiva Kumar Manoharan, Christoph Friedrich
Abstract Self-loosening of bolted connections is a crucial failure mode for joints under transverse dynamic load. For some years, three dimensional finite element analysis has been enabled for avoiding experimental investigations of self-loosening. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the effect of joint design on the self-loosening of bolted connections, which is important for product development in early design stage. Joints consisting of internally threaded nut components are often heavier and stiffer as compared with light weight designs consisting of a separate nut. The difference of self-loosening is significant between arrangements with nut thread component and separate nut, although the design versions only contain slight modifications. Hence it is necessary to evaluate the effect of light weight design on self-loosening.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0037
Shreyas Shingavi, Pankaj Bhirud, M. Nagi Reddy, Darshan Mishal
Abstract In Automotive world, different types of shield are used to safe guard the assembly from dirt and dust. These can deteriorate the performance and functioning of systems. Typically the dirt shields are not load carrying members, so preferred to have low gauges and low weight. Dirt shield has to cover many subassemblies, so it has intricate shape as well. Due to low gauge and complicated shape, the manufacturing of these shields becomes challenging in terms of maintaining assembly tolerances. In order to overcome these concerns, concurrent design approach is used. Using this approach manufacturing process of the parts is virtually simulated and residual stresses, strains, permanent set, spring back effect are evaluated. These results are cascaded to assembly load analysis, and results are monitored for deflections.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0041
A. R. Kumbhar, S. A. Kulkarni, J. M. Paranjpe, N. V. Karanth
Abstract New process development of forging component require lot of process knowledge and experience. Even lots of trial-and-error methods need to be used to arrive at optimum process and initial billet dimensions. But with help of reliable computer simulation tools, now it is possible to optimize the complete process and billet dimensions without a single forging trial. This saves lot of time, energy and money. Additionally, simulation gives much more insight about the process and possible forging defects. In this paper, a complete forging process was needed to be designed for a complex component. With the help of computer simulation, the complete conventional forging process and modified forging process were simulated and optimized. Forging defects were removed during optimization of the process. Also billet weight optimization was carried out. Deciding the pre-forming shape of the billet was the main challenge.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0013
Ingrid Rasquinha, Reji Koshy Daniel
Abstract Environment, energy and safety concerns for vehicles have made improving strength-to-weight ratio of vehicles an imperative issue for the automobile industry. Tube hydroforming (THF) is an innovative forming technology, which can efficiently reduce the weight of a component or assembly, and at the same time, increase the part strength. THF produces parts with a high degree of part complexity (various cross-sections in a single piece) and dimensional stability. Tube hydroforming involves the expansion and sizing of tubes in a closed die under dynamic action of pressurized fluid, with simultaneous axial or radial compression.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0016
Ashok KK, Bade Simhachalam, Dhanooj Balakrishnan, Krishna Srinivas
Abstract In this paper, the application of tube Extrusion for the development of stepped tubular components is discussed. Thickness increase with respect to cold reduction of diameter is predicted with reasonable accuracy. Thickness increase, length increase and strain hardening coefficient for a given cold reduction of diameter of tube are obtained using LS-DYNA Software. True stress-plastic strain curves from the tensile test are used in the forming simulation using LS-DYNA. A special purpose machine is developed for the production of steering shaft components. Considerable reduction in weight is achieved by using stepped tubular components.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0010
Saral Bhanshali
Abstract This breakthrough development involves material conversion from aluminum die cast to polypropylene long fiber thermoplastic (40% long glass filled) for a two wheeler bracket of a leading automotive OEM. The plastic bracket was developed working in collaboration with the molder, glass supplier, technology collaborator and the OEM. The new part needed to be designed lighter in weight, easier to process and suitable for painting, outdoor exposure and stringent dynamic conditions. The scope of this study includes the evaluation of the new material from different viewpoints and comparison of the same with the existing material. The submission will go through the intricate analyses carried out in the development process and highlight the key advantages over aluminum. Studies will include static and dynamic analysis, fiber orientation studies, gate location studies, etc.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0021
M. J. Rathod, H. A. Deore
Abstract Desired mechanical properties including wear resistance at affordable price are the key parameters for which ductile cast irons are widely selected. Particularly, in many automobile applications like brake cylinders, camshafts, connecting rods, gears, pistons and yokes ductile iron is used. Traditionally surface heat treatments like induction hardening and in recent times electron beam and laser hardening are used to improve wear and fatigue resistance of ductile irons. However, the laser surface hardening has a lot of advantages over others such as low distortion due to high power density, flexibility, accuracy, lack of quenching medium and limited grain growth. In this work, laser surface hardening of Ferrito pearlitic ductile iron grade has been carried out.
2014-04-20
Journal Article
2014-01-9098
Ala Qattawi, Mahmoud Abdelhamid, Ahmad Mayyas, Mohammed Omar
1 The manufacturing of Origami based sheet metal products is a promising technology, mostly in terms of reducing the tooling and process complexity. This procedure can also be called fold forming, as it depends on exclusively shaping the required geometry via sequence of bends. However, the design analysis and modeling of folded sheet metal products are not fully mature, especially in terms of determining the best approach for transferring the analysis from a three-dimensional (3D) to a two-dimensional (2D) context. This manuscript discusses the extension of the Origami technique to the fold forming of sheet metal products represented in modeling approach and design considerations for the topological variations, the geometrical validity, and the variance of stress-based performance. This paper also details the optimization metrics that were developed to reflect the design and manufacturing differences among the possible topological and geometrical options for a single part design.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1421
David Greif, Wilfried Edelbauer, Jure Strucl
Abstract The paper addresses aspects of modeling cavitating flows within high pressure injection equipment while considering the effects of liquid compressibility. The presented numerical study, performed using the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE®, mimics common rail conditions, where the variation in liquid density as a function of pressure may be relevant owing to very high pressure injection scenarios. The flow through the injector has been calculated and the conditions at the outlet of the nozzle orifice have been applied as inlet condition for subsequent Euler-Lagrangian spray calculations to investigate the effects of liquid compressibility treatment on spray propagation. Flows of such nature are of interest within automotive and other internal combustion (IC) related industries to obtain good spray and emissions characteristics.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1018
Robert V. Petrach, David Schall, Qian Zou, Gary Barber, Randy Gu, Laila Guessous
Coatings have the potential to improve bearing tribological performance. However, every coating application process and material combination may create different residual stresses and coating microstructures, and their effect on bearing fatigue and wear performance is unclear. The aim of this work is to investigate coating induced residual stress effects on bearing failure indicators using a microstructural contact mechanics (MSCM) finite element (FE) model. The MSCM FE model consists of a two-dimensional FE model of a coated bearing surface under sliding contact where individual grains are represented by FE domains. Interactions between FE domains are represented using contact element pairs. Unique to this layered rolling contact FE model is the use of polycrystalline material models to represent realistic bearing and coating microstructural behavior. The MSCM FE model was compared to a second non-microstructural contact mechanics (non-MSCM) model.
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