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Viewing 181 to 210 of 6758
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0776
Mateos Kassa, Carrie Hall, Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner
Abstract Advanced internal combustion engines, although generally more efficient than conventional combustion engines, often encounter limitations in multi-cylinder applications due to variations in the combustion process. This study leverages experimental data from an inline 6-cylinder heavy-duty dual fuel engine equipped with a fully-flexible variable intake valve actuation system to study cylinder-to-cylinder variations in power production. The engine is operated with late intake valve closure timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode featuring a port-injection and a direct-injection fueling system in order to improve fuel efficiency and engine performance. Experimental results show increased cylinder-to-cylinder variation in IMEP as IVC timing moves from 570°ATDC to 610°ATDC, indicating an increasingly uneven fuel distribution between cylinders.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1022
Ahsanul Karim, Anthony Morelli, Keith Miazgowicz, Brian Lizotte, Robert Wade
The use of Swirl-Vanes or Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) in gas engines is well-known and has demonstrated their ability to improve compressor surge margin at low flow rates. But, the use of swirl-vanes is not too common in large diesel engine turbo-chargers where compressor housing inlet has some form of Casing-Treatment (CT). Recently, Ford engineers tested swirl-vanes in a diesel engine turbocharger where the compressor inlet had a ported shroud casing-treatment and the experimental data showed no improvement in surge margin. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to investigate reasons why the surge margin did not improve after introducing swirl-vanes at the compressor inlet. The CFD results showed strong interactions between swirling flow at the compressor inlet and flow stream coming out of the compressor inlet casing-treatment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1037
Lars Eriksson, Vaheed Nezhadali, Conny Andersson
Modelbased systems engineering is becoming an important tool when meeting the challenges of developing the complex future vehicles that fulfill the customers and legislators ever increasing demands for reduced pollutants and fuel consumption. To be able to work systematically and efficiently it is desirable to have a library of components that can be adjusted and adapted to each new situation. Turbocharged engines are complex and the compressor model serves as an in-depth example of how a library can be designed, incorporating the basic physics and allowing fine tuning as more information becomes available. A major part of the paper is the summary and compilation of a set of rules of thumb for compressor map extrapolation. The considerations discussed are extrapolation to surge, extrapolation to restriction region, and extrapolation out to choking.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1027
Bertrand Kerres, Vineeth Nair, Andreas Cronhjort, Mihai Mihaescu
Abstract Turbocharger compressors are limited in their operating range at low mass flows by compressor surge, thus restricting internal combustion engine operation at low engine speeds and high mean effective pressures. Since the exact location of the surge line in the compressor map depends on the whole gas exchange system, a safety margin towards surge must be provided. Accurate early surge detection could reduce this margin. During surge, the compressor outlet pressure fluctuates periodically. The Hurst exponent of the compressor outlet pressure is applied in this paper as an indicator to evaluate how close to the surge limit the compressor operates. It is a measure of the time-series memory that approaches zero for anti-persistence of the time series. That is, a Hurst exponent close to zero means a high statistical preference that a high value is followed by a low value, as during surge.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1348
Kenichi Higuchi, Fumihiko Toyoda, Hirohito Terashima, Shinji Ikeda, Eitaku Nobuyama
Abstract 1 There are two design challenges of the flow path switching valve in a three-stage variable discharge oil pump. The first is to obtain the required discharge pressure characteristics and the other is to prevent hydraulic vibration. Therefore, we established technologies to determine the shape of the valve and the valve housing that resolve these two challenges. The technology to obtain the required discharge pressure characteristics solves equations that are statically true, such as the equations for the equilibrium of forces and hydraulic orifice. The hydraulic vibration control technology derives a differential equation that takes transient behavior, including oil elasticity and inertia, into account first. Then, the derived equations are converted to a transfer function that indicates the valve behavior according to the input of oil pressure changes. And then the stability criterion is applied to judge whether hydraulic vibration occurs or not.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1356
Can Li, Yadong Deng, Yuhua Xin
Abstract As a key component of airstream system equipped in the road sweeper, the structure of the suction nozzle determines its internal flow field distribution, which affects the dust-sucking efficiency to a great degree. This research is aiming to determine a better suction nozzle structure. Starting with an analysis of the one used in a certain type of road sweeper, the initial model of the suction nozzle is established, and the internal flow field is simulated with typical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software named FLUENT. Based on the simulation results, the dust-sucking capability of the initial structure is evaluated from the aspects of pressure and velocity distribution. Furthermore, in order to explore the influence of different structural parameters on the flow field distribution within the suction nozzle, models with different cavity heights and shoulder angles are established, and Univariate Method is utilized to analyze the contrast models.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0851
Alexander Nygaard, Mireia Altimira, Lisa Prahl Wittberg, Laszlo Fuchs
Abstract It has been observed that intermittent injection leads to improved spray characteristics in terms of mixing and gas entrainment. Although some experimental work has been carried out in the past, the disintegration mechanisms that govern the breakup of intermittent jets remain unknown. In this paper we have carried out a systematic numerical analysis of the breakup of pulsated jets under different injection conditions. More specifically, the duty cycle (share of active injection during one cycle) is varied, while the total cycle time is kept constant. The advection of the liquid phase is handled through the Volume of Fluid approach and, in order to provide an accurate, yet computationally acceptable, resolution of the turbulent structures, the implicit Large Eddy Simulation has been adopted. The results show that the primary disintegration results from a combination of stretching, collision and aerodynamic interaction effects.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0873
Saeed Jahangirian, Aleksandra Egelja, Huiying Li
Abstract Demands for higher power engines have led to higher pressures in fuel injectors. Internal nozzle flow plays a critical role in the near nozzle flow and subsequent spray pattern. The internal flow becomes more difficult to model when the injector pressure and internal shape make it more prone to cavitation. Two Bosch injectors, proposed for experimental and computational studies under the Engine Combustion Network (namely “Spray C” and “Spray D”) are modeled in the computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS Fluent. Both injectors operate with n-dodecane as fuel at 150 MPa inlet pressures. The computational model includes cavitation effects to characterize any cavitating regions. Including compressibility of both liquid and vapor is found to be critical. Also, due to high velocity gradients and stresses in the nozzle, turbulent viscous energy dissipation is considered along with pressure work resulting from significant pressure changes in the injector.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0863
Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Maurizio Lazzaro, Giovanni Meccariello
Abstract In spark ignition engines, the nozzle design, fuel pressure, injection timing, and interaction with the cylinder/piston walls govern the evolution of the fuel spray inside the cylinder before the start of combustion. The fuel droplets, hitting the surface, may rebound or stick forming a film on the wall, or evaporate under the heat exchange effect. The face wetting results in a strong impact on the mixture formation and emission, in particular, on particulate and unburned hydrocarbons. This paper aims to report the effects of the injection pressure and wall temperature on the macroscopic behavior, atomization, and vaporization of impinging sprays on the metal surface. A mono-component fuel, iso-octane, was adopted in the spray-wall studies inside an optically-accessible quiescent vessel by imaging procedures using a Z-shaped schlieren-Mie scattering set-up in combination with a high-speed C-Mos camera.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0837
Per A. Risberg, Sara Alfredsson
Abstract A problem for the diesel engine that remains since its invention is injection nozzle hole fouling. More advanced injection systems and more complex fuels, now also including bio-components, have made the problem more intricate. Zinc and biodiesel have often been accused of being a big part of the problem, but is this really the case? In this study, nozzle fouling experiments were performed on a single cylinder engine. The experiments were divided in three parts, the first part studied the influence of zinc neodecanoate concentration on nozzle hole fouling, the second part studied the effect of neodecanoates of zinc, sodium, calcium, copper, and iron on fuel flow loss and in the last part it was examined how RME concentration in zinc neodecanoate contaminated petroleum diesel affected nozzle hole fouling propensity. After completed experiments, the nozzles were cut open and the deposits were analyzed in SEM and with EDX.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0372
Thomas Thesing, Neil Bishop
Abstract Conventional approaches for the fatigue life evaluation of automotive parts like headlamps involves the evaluation of random stress conditions in either the time or frequency domain. If one is working in the frequency domain the fatigue life can be evaluated using one of the available methods like the Rayleigh (Narrow Band) approach or the more recent Dirlik method. Historically, the random stresses needed as input to these methods have been evaluated by the FEA solver (eg Abaqus, or Nastran) and these “in built” stress evaluations have limitations which relate to the fact that the stress conditions are complex and so the common “equivalents” for stress like von-Mises or Principal have not been available. There have also been limitations in the location and method of averaging for such stresses. In addition, the fatigue calculation approach for doing the evaluation has been constrained to the linear stress based (S-N) method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0496
Leonardo Farfan-Cabrera, Ezequiel A. Gallardo
Abstract Debris are progressively generated just after wear occurred by the interaction of various mechanical elements inside the engines, steering gear boxes, transmissions, differentials, etc. Besides, debris could interfere with the normal operation of such components generating even more damage in other parts due to three-body abrasion. Hence, dynamic seals are susceptible to interact with very fine debris accumulated in the working lubes. Recently, owing to many test advantages, the micro-scale abrasion test has been extensively used to reproduce three-body abrasion in hard materials, coatings, polymers, etc., however, it has not been before employed for the wear assessment of elastomeric materials. This paper presents an adaptation of the micro-scale test method to study three-body abrasive behavior of an elastomeric dynamic seal (samples extracted from an automotive commercial Acrylonitrile-butadiene NBR rotary seal) under lubricated conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0247
Jiu Xu, Predrag Hrnjak
Abstract Automotive air conditioning compressor produces an annular-mist flow consisting of gas-phase refrigerant flow with oil film and oil droplets. This paper reports a method to calculate the oil retention and oil circulation ratio based on oil film thickness, wave speed, oil droplet size, oil droplet speed, and mass flow rate. Oil flow parameters are measured by high-speed camera capture and video processing in a non-invasive way. The estimated oil retention and oil circulation ratio results are compared quantitatively with the measurements from system experiments under different compressor outlet gas superficial velocity. The agreement between video result and sampling measurement shows that this method can be applied in other annular-mist flow analysis. It is also shown that most of the oil exists in film from the mass point of view while oil droplets contributes more to the oil mass flow rate because they travel in a much higher speed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1061
Guiping Yue, Wenbo Niu, Jian Zhao, Dandan Kong, Yun Li, Hangsheng Hou
Abstract Gear whine noise impacts customer perception of vehicle interior quietness in general and sound quality in particular. It has been a frequently occurred annoying phenomenon during vehicle development and much discussed topic regarding transmission NVH refinement in automotive industry. This work pertains to a transmission gear whine issue encountered in prototype evaluations during a vehicle program development process. The effort centers itself on the optimization of transmission gear macroscopic and microscopic parameters to fix the issue which is deemed unacceptable for customers. Specifically, by using multi-body dynamics approach, this work carries out a transmission system whine noise simulation based on optimal gear macro parameter selection and micro tooth flank modification. The obtained results show that the proposed design changes could successfully resolve the issue, which is verified by subsequent test measurement and confirmed by subjective evaluations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1025
Daniela Cempirkova, Rostislav Hadas, Lukáš Matějovský, Rolf Sauerstein, Matthias Ruh
Abstract As emission regulations tighten across various regions of the world there is a growing trend in the use of alternative fuels such as Ethanol being blended with gasoline. A notable case of Ethanol usage is found in South America with the widespread use of E100, which has no gasoline content and can often contain up to 10% water. Engine oil contamination by fuel is of major concern and under certain conditions can have negative effects on the durability of turbocharger components which come into contact with contaminated oil, particularly sliding bearings, but also compressor stage through crankcase ventilation system fed gas. The manner in which this effect takes hold can cause a decrease in the lubrication properties and increase in corrosiveness of the engine oil.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0845
Michele Bardi, Gilles Bruneaux, Louis-Marie Malbec
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) has become a leading group concerning the experimental and computational analysis of engine combustion phenomena. In order to establish a coherent database for model validation, all the institutions participating in the experimental effort carry out tests at well-defined boundary conditions and using wellcharacterized hardware. In this framework, the reference Spray A injectors have produced different results even when tested in the same facility, highlighting that the nozzle employed and its fouling are important parameters to be accounted for. On the other hand, the number of the available Spray A injectors became an issue, due to the increasing number of research centers and simultaneous experiments taking place in the ECN community. The present work has a double aim: on the one hand, to seek for an appropriate methodology to “validate” new injectors for ECN experiments and to provide new hardware for the ECN community.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0671
Yan Chang, Margaret Wooldridge, Stanislav V. Bohac
Using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a diluent instead of air allows the use of a conventional three-way catalyst for effective emissions reduction. Cooled EGR can also reduce fuel consumption and NOx emissions, but too much cool EGR leads to combustion instability and misfire. Negative valve overlap (NVO) is explored in the current work as an alternative method of dilution in which early exhaust valve closing causes combustion products to be retained in the cylinder and recompressed near top dead center, before being mixed with fresh charge during the intake stroke. The potential for fuel injection during NVO to extend the dilution limit of spark ignition combustion is evaluated in this work using experiments conducted on a 4-cylinder 2.0 L gasoline direct injection engine with variable intake and exhaust valve timing. The results demonstrate fuel injection during NVO can extend the dilution limit, improve brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and reduce CO and NOx emissions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0485
Jiaqi Li, Jimin Ni, Qiwei Wang
Abstract Turbochargers improve performance in internal combustion engines. Due to low production costs, TC assemblies are supported on floating ring bearings. In current lubrication analysis of floating ring bearing, inner and outer oil film are usually supposed to be adiabatic. The heat generated by frictional power is carried out by the lubricant flow. In reality, under real operating conditions, there existed heat transfer between the inner and outer film. In this paper, the lubrication performance of floating ring bearing when considering heat transfer between inner film and outer film is studied. The lubrication model of the floating ring is established and the heat transferred through the ring between the inner and outer film is calculated. The calculation results show that heat flow between the inner and outer film under different outer film eccentricity ratio and rotate ratio has a large difference.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0493
Roger Gorges, David Latham, Ian Laing, Ronald Brock
Abstract Modern High-Speed Diesel (HSD) engines place increasing demands on engine components. Specifically, for connecting rod bearings there is a requirement to endure increased peak cylinder pressures and the resulting loads transmitted through the connecting rods to the crankshaft. In addition to these high loads, the operating environment for bearings is becoming more aggressive. Reductions in oil film thickness combined with the move towards lower viscosity oils means that the seizure and wear resistance of the bearings play a crucial role in modern engine development. In order to attend to these demands, MAHLE has developed a novel high-performance polymer coating containing lubricant-filled microcapsules. The Microcapsules are designed to rupture during nascent scuff and high wear events and consequently release the contained lubricant ‘on demand’. This introduces additional lubrication when required to prevent seizure.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0870
Kaushik Saha, Sibendu Som, Michele Battistoni, Yanheng Li, Eric Pomraning, P. K. Senecal
Abstract This work involves modeling internal and near-nozzle flows of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) nozzle. The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G condition has been considered for these simulations using the nominal geometry of the Spray G injector. First, best practices for numerical simulation of the two-phase flow evolution inside and the near-nozzle regions of the Spray G injector are presented for the peak needle lift. The mass flow rate prediction for peak needle lift was in reasonable agreement with experimental data available in the ECN database. Liquid plume targeting angle and liquid penetration estimates showed promising agreement with experimental observations. The capability to assess the influence of different thermodynamic conditions on the two-phase flow nature was established by predicting non-flashing and flashing phenomena.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0862
PengBo Dong, Keiya Nishida, Takuya Inaba, Youichi Ogata
Abstract The tiny and normal injection quantity instances usually happen under the multi-injection strategy condition to restrain the uncontrollability of the ignition timing of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion concept. Meanwhile, instead of the traditional and fundamental single-hole diesel injector, the axisymmetric multi-hole injectors are usually applied to couple with the combustion chamber under most practical operating conditions. In the current paper, the internal flow and spray characteristics generated by single-hole and multi-hole (10 holes) nozzles under normal (2 mm3/hole) and tiny (0.3 mm3/hole) injection quantity conditions were investigated in conjunction with a series of experimental and computational methods. High-speed video observation was conducted at 10000 and 100000 fps under the condition of 120 MPa rail pressure, 1.5 MPa ambient pressure, room temperature, and nitrogen environment to visualize different spray properties.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0860
Fredrik R. Westlye, Michele Battistoni, Scott A. Skeen, Julien Manin, Lyle M. Pickett, Anders Ivarsson
Abstract This work investigates the effects of cavitation on spray characteristics by comparing measurements of liquid and vapor penetration as well as ignition delay and lift-off length. A smoothed-inlet, converging nozzle (nominal KS1.5) was compared to a sharp-edged nozzle (nominal K0) in a constant-volume combustion vessel under thermodynamic conditions consistent with modern compression ignition engines. Within the near-nozzle region, the K0 nozzle displayed larger radial dispersion of the liquid as compared to the KS1.5 nozzle, and shorter axial liquid penetration. Moving downstream, the KS1.5 jet growth rate increased, eventually reaching a growth rate similar to the K0 nozzle while maintaining a smaller radial width. The increasing spreading angle in the far field creates a virtual origin, or mixing offset, several millimeters downstream for the KS1.5 nozzle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0839
Wenbin Yu, Wenming Yang, Balaji Mohan, Kunlin Tay, Feiyang Zhao, Yunpeng Zhang, Siawkiang Chou, Markus Kraft, Malcolm Andrew Alexander, Alfred Yong, Kwokhow Lou
Abstract In this study, the internal nozzle flow and macroscopic spray characteristics of a kind of wide distillation fuel (WDF) - kerosene were investigated both with numerical and experimental approaches. Simulation results indicate that compared with diesel fuel, kerosene cavitates more due to higher turbulent kinetic energy as a result of lower viscosity. The results from experiment indicate that under lower charge density, the spray penetration for kerosene is obviously shorter than that for diesel, especially for the lower injection pressure. This is because lower fuel viscosity results in a reduction in the size of the spray droplets, leading to lower momentum. However the spray angle of kerosene is larger compared with diesel due to stronger turbulence in the nozzle flow caused by increased cavitation for kerosene, which also accords well with the simulation results.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1013
Matthieu Duchemin, Vincent Collee
Abstract MCE-5 DEVELOPMENT has been developing its variable compression ratio engine (VCRi) for over a decade aiming at reducing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. In order to transmit power from the piston (combustion) to the crankshaft, the MCE-5 VCRi technology is based on three innovative components: a gear wheel and two racks. This gear mechanism ensures a very low friction compared to other continuous VCR solutions based on bearings. However, this transmission is used in nonstandard conditions: the direction of rotation is reversed repeatedly, and the parts are submitted to high and rapidly varying loads. To avoid interferences and alteration caused by high contact pressure at high load, and ensure a regular transmission at low load, the profile of the teeth is carefully considered. A crowning shape is placed on the teeth in the direction of the gear axis, and a correction is applied to the tooth active profiles in the area of tooth roots and tooth tips.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1388
Baoke Huang, Jun Sun, Hu Wang, Xiaoyong Zhao, Qin Teng
Abstract In current design optimization of engine crankshaft bearing, only the crankshaft bearing is considered as the studying object. However, the corresponding relations of major structure dimensions exist between the crankshaft and the crankshaft bearing in engine, and there are the interaction effects between the crankshaft and the crankshaft bearing during the operation of engine. In this paper, the crankshaft-bearing system of a four-cylinder engine is considered as the studying object, the multi-objective design optimization of crankshaft bearing is developed. The crankshaft mass and the total frictional power loss of crankshaft bearings are selected as the objective functions in the design optimization of crankshaft bearing. The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is used in the optimization calculation. The optimization results are compared to the ones of original engine design and the single-objective design optimization of crankshaft bearing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1381
Jiaqi Li, Jimin Ni, Xiuyong Shi
Abstract Sealing system is an important subsystem of modern high-performance engine. Sealing system reliability directly affects the engine operating conditions. Cylinder head gaskets(CHG) sealing system is of the most importance to the engine sealing system, which is not only responsible for sealing chamber, the cooling fluid and lubricating oil passage, for preventing gas leakage, water leakage and oil leakage, but also responsible for force transferring between cylinder head and cylinder body. Basing on nonlinear solution method, the sealing performance of multi-layer-steel cylinder head gaskets to a gasoline engine is studied with the finite element software ABAQUS. The deformations of the cylinder liners and engine block are also considered.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1349
Siddharth Bhupendra Unadkat, Suhas Kangde, Mahalingesh Burkul, Mahesh Badireddy
Abstract In the current scenario, the major thrust is to simulate the customer usage pattern and lab test using virtual simulation methods. Going ahead, prime importance will be to reduce the number of soft tool prototype for all tests which can be predicted in CAE. Automotive door slam test is significantly complex in terms of prediction through simulation. Current work focuses on simulating the slam event and deriving load histories at different mounting locations through dynamic analysis using LSDyna. These extracted load histories are applied to trimmed door Nastran model and modal transient analysis is performed to find the transient stress history. This approach has a significant advantage of less computation time and stress-convergence with Nastran for performing multiple design iterations compared to LSDyna. Good failure correlation is achieved with the test using this approach.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0391
Tanmay Sushant Santra, Vikas Kumar Agarwal, Mihir Bhambri
This paper depict the difference in the endurance factor of safety with usage of static and quasi static FE analysis and corrective measures take to solve the problem. The importance of the dynamic loading and subsequent effect of it on the multi axial fatigue analysis. Considering the modern trend prevailing among the vehicle manufacturers and specifically talking about two wheeler industry, it is clear that while the engine remains the same but the frame is changed to cater the market with new models to cut down on the development time. Initially the crankcase was designed for a double cradle frame where the crankcase was mounted on the frame. Later, the frame design was changed to single cradle where engine acts as a stress member link. This kind of arrangement makes the crankcase mountings participate in the chassis loads. Therefore, the crankcase mounting experiences road loads when the vehicle encounter the road irregularities.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0011
Salah Alhasia, Sharif Gindy, Badih Jawad, Chris Riedel, Selin Arslan
Abstract Bearings are a major component in any rotating system. With continually increasing speeds, bearing failure modes take new unconventional forms that often are not understood. In high speed applications, rolling element forces and gyroscopic moments can be significantly high compared to the applied forces acting on a bearing. Such moments create a “driving” torque causing outer race to creep. In this paper a mathematical model for the dynamics of a rolling element in a high speed bearing is derived. Preload values counterbalancing the torque driving the outer race to rotate can be predicted from this model. An attempt to experimentally measure this torque using a specially designed apparatus with integrated strain gauge torque sensor is also described. Both model and experimental measurements are aimed at understanding, and therefore preventing bearing failures due to outer race (creep) rotations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1397
Charles Yuan, Erik Kane, Abid Rahman
Abstract New seal cross-section development is a very tedious and time consuming process if conventional analysis methods are used, as it is very difficult to predict the dimensions of the seal that will satisfy the sealing performance targets. In this study, a generic cross-section is defined and the design constraints are specified. Isight then runs the FEA model, utilizing a custom python script for post-processing. Isight then updates the dimensions of the seal and continues running analyses. Isight was run using two different design exploration techniques. The first was a design of experiments (DOE) to discover how the seal’s response varies with its dimensions. Then, after the analyst examined the results, Isight was run in optimization mode focusing on feasible design areas as determined from the DOE.
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