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Viewing 181 to 210 of 6715
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0082
Venu Ganti, Yogesh Kumar Dewangan, Ganesan Subramanian
Abstract In an automotive transmission system, gear mesh misalignment implies the shift in the position of the meshing surfaces. Misalignment at the mesh results in non-uniform load distribution leading to gear failure, increased noise and thus affects the transmission performance. In general, misalignment along the line of action (MLOA) of 0-5 mrad is common in the gear meshes of automotive transmissions. Major factors contributing to mesh misalignment are deflections of various elastic components in the transmission like shaft, gear web, bearing, housing etc. Contribution from other factors include clearance between the components, temperature gradient and manufacturing process limitations. Different approaches for compensating gear mesh misalignment involves control over the above factors at design and manufacturing stages. This paper focuses on three different approaches for compensating MLOA in the design stage.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0172
Praharsh Srivastava, Kamal Sharma, Raushan Jha
Abstract Rapid advent of mobile air conditioning industry has witnessed a wide use of fixed displacement swash plate compressor due to its small size, compact structure and light weight. An accurate prediction of volumetric efficiency and power of compressor at early stages of design serves as a very useful information for designer. No work regarding the power and volumetric efficiency prediction for double headed fixed displacement swash plate compressor is reported in the existing literature. This paper presents a mathematical model for a double acting fixed displacement swash plate compressor with the objective of evaluating the shaft torque and volumetric efficiency of compressor. Shaft torque, in turn is a measure of compressor power. The geometrical description of swash plate yields a kinematic model to obtain the piston displacement as an explicit function of angle of rotation of shaft.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0175
Siddharth Dahiya, Adithya Asok Sharma, Rahul Srinivasan, Ritesh Tekriwal, Kamalkishore Vora, B Ashok, C Kavitha
Abstract This paper describes the design methodology and algorithm development towards the design of an automatic external gear-shifting and clutch-actuation system for a sequential gearbox with the aim of providing the drivers with easier and an efficient means of shifting gears. Automatically actuated manual transmission system bridges the gap between automatic and manual transmissions which provides the advantages of both type of transmissions. This would ideally leads to faster shifting time and provide significant benefits in the form of electronic-aids like launch control and traction control. Removal of mechanical clutching would reduce fatigue and lead to ergonomic benefit. Based on the benchmarking performed on an easily available ready-to-install aftermarket alternative, options will be considered for the actuating mechanism and the most feasible will be used to develop a shifting system.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0224
Akshay Ramesh Karjol, Ajay Virmalwar
Abstract Reducing overall weight of the vehicle is one of the main areas of research in automotive industries. Current trend, CO2 reduction, is a major incentive for this process. For this, engineers are finding out various ways to reduce weight to strength ratio of the different components. The immediate pay-off of such developments is lower fuel consumption, which is followed by lower CO2 emissions. For this engineers opt for, use of low-density and high-strength materials, along with optimization of the geometry of the components. One of the solutions is to convert metal parts to plastics which have desired properties. The main focus of this paper is to convert the sheet metal brackets to plastic brackets which will ultimately reduce weight and production cost associated with automobile. In this paper, an optimum process, using Topology optimization and Mold Flow Analysis, is developed to convert sheet metal bracket to plastic bracket.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0251
Kantilal Patil, Siva Reddy, Nadeem Zafar
Abstract In the event of a frontal car crash, occupant sitting in a car meets various types of injuries like Head injury, Chest compression, Neck injury etc. These injuries may lead to the death of an occupant if exceeded beyond biomechanical limits. Seat belt is a primary restraint system, which when worn controls the motion of occupant sitting inside the car during the event of a car crash. An Anchorage location of three point seat belt system has significant effect on occupant injuries during the crash event. By changing the mount locations of a seat belt anchor points i.e. D-ring, Anchor & Buckle, performance of seatbelt system can be enhanced further thereby reducing occupant injuries to certain extent. As per regulation AIS015, locations of safety belt anchorage points should be within prescribed zone.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0001
Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Suresh Gadekar, Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Abstract Fuel-air mixing is the main parameter, which affects formation of NOx and PM during CI combustion. Hence better understanding of air-flow characteristics inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine became very important. In this study, in-cylinder air-flow characteristics of four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). For visualization of air-flow pattern, fine graphite particles were used for flow seeding. To investigate the effect of different operating parameters, experiments were performed at different engine speeds (1200 rpm and 1500 rpm), intake air temperatures (room temperature and 50°C) and intake port configurations (swirl port, tangential port and combined port). Intake air temperature was controlled by a closed loop temperature controller and intake ports were deactivated by using a customized aluminum gasket.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0113
Anurag Kamal, Kaarthic Kaundabalaraman, Hemantkumar Rathi, Alok Muley
Abstract This work is an effort to find the parallelism between the volumetric efficiency of a Gerotor, and its inherent design parameters: number of teeth, tooth profile, outer dimensions of diameter and thickness, and the input power (torque and speed). The preliminary relations are derived from the software simulation of a range of Gerotor models with varying aforementioned parameters. These results are augmented by a previously proposed method of theoretically estimating the displacement of a Gerotor. Then, these results are validated and revised by practical results from three different Gerotors with epitrochoidal and its conjugate profiles, which are used in automotive applications like engines and transmissions. These relations can be used for choosing parameters yielding the maximum efficiency in specific environments: the packaging space, the input available, and the output required.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0118
J. Sureshkumar, K. Vijayakumar, R. Elayaraja
Abstract The main challenge in today's modern engines is to design the parts, which should withstand higher temperatures. To achieve this, selection of materials and process tolerances are very important factors. The product identified in this study is a conventional oil pump, which is an engine auxiliary component. The function of the oil pump is to supply oil to different parts of the engine to lubricate and reduce the overall engine friction. The different speed and load conditions for which the engine is subjected, pose a challenge to the oil pump, to supply the necessary quantity of oil at the required pressure and temperature. Normally, the oil pump is subjected to a temperature of 120°C at higher speeds. However, the peak oil temperature in modern diesel engines can be as high as 140°C to 150°C for a short period of time. For this study, two engine grade oils were selected. Numerical analysis was performed to predict the oil flow rate for these oil grades.
2016-01-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9085
Vinod Upadhyay, Xiaoning Qi, Nick Wilson, Dante Battocchi, Gordon Bierwagen, Joy Forsmark, Robert McCune
Abstract This work reports on measurement and analysis of the galvanic interaction between steel self-piercing rivets (SPRs) having several different surface conditions and magnesium alloy substrates under consideration for use in automotive structural assemblies. Rivet surface conditions included uncoated steel, conventional Zn-Sn barrel plating and variations of commercial aluminizing processes, including supplemental layers and sealants. Coating characteristics were assessed using open circuit potential (OCP) measurement, potentiodynamic polarization scanning (PDS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degree of galvanic coupling was determined using zero-resistance ammeter (ZRA) and the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET), which also permitted characterization of galvanic current flows in situ.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0742
Kenta Goto, Shinji Noda, Kohei Nakashima, Yoshio Murakami
To improve engine torque and specific fuel consumption in a supermilage vehicle, we experimentally adjusted the valve lift and opening period in rocker arms, testing various follower configurations and adjust screws. Using the follower configuration in a commercially-available rocker arm, we compared 4 different levels of valve lift and opening period in the intake, and 4 different levels in the exhaust, making 16 combinations. Then, utilizing 5 kinds of modified follower configurations of the rocker arms in the intake, and 3 in the exhaust, we also compared 24 combinations (including the commercially-available follower configurations). We tested our experimental supermilage engine under full-load at 2000 to 4500rpm, simulating powering a supermilage vehicle.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0701
Takayuki Sugita
An existing 4 stroke-cycle gasoline engine has been partially modified without dynamically changing its mechanism for the purpose to utilize the compressed air as an alternative energy source. The principle is to mechanically control the compressed air flow through the intake and exhaust valve every revolution of a crankshaft by modifying the camshaft cam's lobes, which changes the engine operation from 4 strokes to 2 strokes cycle mode. In the previous investigation the principle was verified with a current 50 cc motorcycle modified engine and the pressure behavior inside the cylinder of the compressed air engine was evaluated. It turned out as a most promising result that the back pressure, which is defined as the positive pressure left in an expansion chamber while a piston is moving back from BDC to TDC, has a high influence on the performance of the compressed air reciprocating engine.
2015-11-17
Journal Article
2015-32-0743
Hiroyuki Yoshida, Hiroshi Hirayama, Shinsuke Mochizuki, Manabu Inoue, Yasuhiro Kato, Toshiki Inomata
A black surface treatment without using hexavalent chromium and applicable to bolts of motorcycles has been developed. The surface treatment also satisfies the requirements of bolts for motorcycles such as fastening performance, corrosion resistance, weather resistance and appearance of outer finish. There is a method of coating a black chemical conversion film using trivalent chromium on the zinc-plated surface as one of the surface treatments that do not use the hexavalent chromium. Such a black film, however, is thinner than the film using hexavalent chromium, and unable to ensure satisfactory black appearance. Meanwhile, although the dip-coating using a black paint can provide a sufficient black color, it is necessary to apply coating two times to eliminate an irregular color. As a result, thick paint films are formed on the roots of thread, making it difficult to fit into the internal thread. To simultaneously solve the above-mentioned two issues, two measures were executed.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2765
Shannon K. Sweeney
Abstract This paper presents simple but comprehensive modeling of the loads on the rubber sandwich-type mounts that often suspend the drum(s) in vibratory compactors or asphalt rollers. The goal of the modeling is to predict the overall performance of the rubber mount system. The modeling includes calculations to 1) identify and quantify all predictable low-frequency loads on the rubber mounts during normal vehicle operations, 2) predict the steady-state high-frequency vibration response of the drum, rubber mounts, and vehicle frame during compaction operations, 3) predict the heat generation in the rubber mounts from their hysteretic damping, and 4) predict the fatigue life and life distribution of the rubber mounts. Some typical results of the modeling are provided along with some brief criteria to assess suspension performance. Other, unpredictable suspension loads are discussed but not modeled.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2725
Amine Nhila, Daniel E. Williams
Abstract Today's hydraulic steering systems suffer from poor efficiency due to their use of throttling valves to build pressure inside the steering gear. In this work, we propose a novel way to build and control pressure by controlling the flow from the pump and without throttling. As a result, such a system will be more energy efficient. Moreover, the ability to control pressure inside a steering gear, and thus assistance torque, allows the steering system to become an active closed-loop system rather than a passive open-loop system. Specifically, by controlling pressure, one can closely control the hand wheel torque the operator feels. Consequently, the new pressure control concept has the potential to not only significantly improve the efficiency of steering systems, but also offers the numerous benefits of torque overlay without the use of an electric motor.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2761
Boris Belousov, Tatiana I. Ksenevich, Sergei Naumov, Vitalii Stepnov, Anna Klimachkova
An electro-hydraulic servo system makes the basis for a mechatronic locomotion module (LM) and for a complex comprising an LM and an undercarriage of a vehicle. The servo system of the wheel module/LM complex is a combination of the information and power channels of the electro-hydraulic wheel drive within the steering system. A combination of the servo systems makes up a complex of servo systems of the steering system of the multi axis wheel mover of the vehicle. Theoretical and experimental studies of the functioning all-wheel steering were aimed on substantiation the rational algorithmic maintenance of the automatic control system. The results of the study allowed formulating the basic principles of designing and calculating the functionality algorithms for the steering system of the complex of mechatronic modules of the multi-axis vehicle.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2855
Massimiliano Ruggeri, Giorgio Massarotti, Pietro Marani, Carlo Ferraresi
Abstract Losses reduction and oil flow optimization management in construction machines and, in general, in heavy duty vehicles are two of the most challenging missions of today fluid power research. One of the most promising ideas is to implement multiple hydraulic power sources but this requires a flexible pump switch system; in fact, depending on flow request and machine mode, one or more pumps can be switched to serve each actuator. To put into practice these concepts it is necessary to in-depth design the distribution system, through which hydrostatic transmissions supply the different loads. The new component here presented realizes the pump switch management, creating a matrix framework of the hydraulic flow connections. Putting this concept it into practice the new architecture is able to connect alternatively a pump to one actuator at a time providing also for cross connections, enabling different sources flow summation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2720
Sundarram Arunachalam, Ramprabhu Kannan, Jayaramareddy Sekar
Abstract Steering gear box function is one of the important requirements in heavy vehicles in order to reduce driver fatigue. Improper functioning of steering gear box not only increases the driver fatigue, also concerns the safety of the vehicle. In this present investigation, the engine oil mixing up with steering oil has been identified and steering gear box failure has been observed in the customer vehicle. The root cause of failure has been analyzed. Based on the investigations, in particular design of steering pump has been failed at customer end. The same design of steering pump were segregated and analyzed. Initial pressure mapping study has been conducted. The pressure mapping results revealed that the cavity pressure obstructs the flow of suction pressure. It indicates that obstacle at suction port due to the existence of internal leakage that causes back pressure in the internal cavity of steering pump which sucks engine oil.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2791
Srinivas Anantharaman, Manoj Baskaran
Abstract Nozzles tip Temperature (NTT) of an injector is a critical parameter for an engine as far as reliability of engine is concerned. It is required to ensure that the injectors operate under its operational limit because higher operating temperatures would result in enlargement of the nozzle spray tip, resulting in higher through flow, producing more undesirable power. This could result in failure of other components in the engine. In this paper we identify the various parameters that are critical for NTT and thereby predict the NTT by having the known input parameters. Response surface methodology and artificial neural network are used to identify the parameters, estimate the significance of each parameter and predict the NTT. Based on this analysis, even without the use of an instrumented injector NTT can be predicted at various working conditions of the vehicle on different terrains.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2730
Prasad S. Warwandkar, Naveen Sukumar, Preeti Gupta
Abstract Ever-increasing operational cost, reducing profit margins & increase in competition, it is of upmost significance for fleet owners & drivers to opt for a vehicle having maximum uptime. OEM's are under immense pressure to design & develop vehicles/subsystems which are reliable enough to minimize downtime & withstand heavy overloading plus extreme operating conditions especially tippers. Vehicle systems like Wheel end (hub, bearing, and grease) which are designed & packaged according to a very stringent envelop & operate as a closed system facing all the extremities of operating conditions. This undoubtly make them prone to no. of failure modes which are resulting in vehicle unplanned stoppages, so any failure mode related to the same must be taken care with utmost importance. In commercial vehicles the bearing outer cup is in interference fit with the hub. These bearings of wheel hub have to be maintained at the wheel end play of few microns.
2015-09-27
Journal Article
2015-01-2672
Aihong Meng, Jian Song
Abstract High speed on-off valve is applied widely in vehicle control systems. When high speed on-off valve is controlled by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) of high frequency, the valve core can float at a certain position which is adjusted by changing the duty ratio within a certain effective range. Then the high speed on-off valve can control the flow and pressure linearly like proportional valve. Thus it is essential to extend the effective range of duty ratio to improve the linear control performance of high speed on-off valve. In this paper, the high speed on-off valve of the automotive Electronic Stability Program (ESP) is the focus, and its flow force is analyzed in detail to get the effects of hydraulic parameters on the valve performance. The mathematic model of the high speed on-off valve is derived. Then the valve structural parameters are optimized according to the Genetic Algorithm(GA), offering the theoretical references for extending the effective duty ratio of PWM.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0451
Marcos Rogério Sanches Barbetti, Aureo Jum Sibuya, Henrique Martelli, João Fernando M. Amparo
Abstract This Paper presents the “Frequency Sweep Virtual Analysis” as a tool to help to define the best powertrain mount concept in order to identify the resonance mode frequency on Powertrain System. Applying this method, we can identify proposals to reduce loads in the Powertrain system due the resonance mode and consequently minimize possibility of exceeding material strength. The “Frequency Sweep Virtual Analysis” drives the powertrain mounts design to avoid running many Road Load Data Acquisitions (RLDA) in a trial-and-error process (Cost reduction and timing savings).
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0557
S. F. Rigatto, C.B. Zanelato, F.A.F. Monhol
Abstract The hydrodynamic thrust bearings has been the subject of several studies in the scientific environment. In the hydrodynamic lubrication the surfaces are completely separated by the lubricating film, and therefore it is the most desirable type of lubrication. The lubricant should be chosen in order to reduce power losses by viscous dissipation. The work aims to analyze the power loss by viscous dissipation for various types of lubricating oils. It was investigated a six pivoted-pad thrust bearing in a rotation range between 1500 rpm and 3000 rpm. Eleven different types of lubricating oils were analyzed. It was possible to observe the net power loss - in function of the lubricant type - for each of the thrust bearings located in an automobile. The cost associated with this loss of potency was also obtained. The results showed that the appropriate selection of the lubricating generates an increase of 50% in power gain.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0112
Fernando de Azevedo Silva, Erick Siqueira Guidi
Abstract The union of parts by using bolts is one of the most used, which combines versatility and low cost, and the failure of a single bolt can cause failure of the entire structure or machine. Several factors influence the effectiveness of these bolted joints, including the material of the washer. During the process of applying torque to the bolted joint, an elastic deformation occurs in the bolt and a plastic deformation in the washer while applying the external force. This plastic deformation which occurs in the washer causes a reduction of the elastic deformation of the bolt and, consequently, of the assembly torque, and depending on the values of external loading and deformation of the washer occurs the separation of the pieces of the joint, causing overload in the bolt and a reduction in your fatigue life. The use of numerical simulation using the finite element method makes it possible to change the model variables, such as the geometry and materials of the components.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0141
Alisson Sarmento, André Luiz J. Pereira, Lincoln Lima, Luciana Rodrigues
Abstract The purpose of this paper is present a successfully application of Design For Assembly (DFA) and Design for Manufacturing (DFM) on Pickup-Box reinforcement. Those powerful quality tools are widely used during automotive design development and it might be a competitive design solution. As an introduction, a complete DFA and DFM revision is provided in order to allow methodology comprehension. Currently automakers technologies are shown as well. An introduction about product development process is presented in order to contextualize the DFA/DFM application in a real design situation. A rich and detailed revision about Pickup versions and body structure concept are covered as well. The study of case about DFA/DFM application on Mid-size Pickup-box Inner asm reinforcement generated 36-42% of mass reduction and 58-66% of cost reduction.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0286
Lincoln Lima, Andre Pereira, Jose Lincoln Cavalcanti, Mauricio Kawano, Roberto Ferreira
Abstract In the vehicle development, part design has a huge influence in its mass, cost and performance. In addition, the part design can be helpful to solve some structure issues such as sheet metal cracks and boom noise, and at the same time achieving the project requirements in performance tests as crash, durability, noise and vibration (N&V) etc. Some design changes as adding reinforcements in the structure and increase the part thickness are largely used by the design engineers. On the other hand, these changes has a great potential for increase mass, cost and affect directly the fuel consumption, which are very sensitive factors for the OEM′s. In order to achieve its target some options may be considered like the use of aluminum or premium material such as Advance High Strength Steel (AHSS) or Pre Hardened Steel (PHS), which has a high cost considering the common sheet metal used in the vehicle structures.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0316
Marcelo Luiz Vieira Lóss, Luciana Pisati Jansen
Abstract Costumers today are discerning, savvy, style conscious and extremely well aware of latest design trends and quite naturally, are lot more demanding than any generation before then. The growth in the application of plastic replacing natural leather, fabrics, metallic and ceramic materials, in order to increase productivity and decrease production costs, has been demanding process development to improve quality and not only mirror the appearance of the original materials, with their texture and colors but also presenting new opportunities and alternatives. The Challenge in automotive interior Design for emerging markets are the choice of materials finish, execution and harmony to guarantee customer satisfaction considering that costumers are spending more time on interior vehicles than ever.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0311
Larissa Galera, Alex de Souza Rodrigues, Mark C. Malburg
Abstract In recent years, the concern about pollutants emissions has increased along with as customer requirements for more efficient internal combustion engine (ICE). To satisfy these demands, new technologies have been introduced in ICE, such as smaller engine bearings, a reduction in the number of cylinders, variable displacements, peak cylinder pressure (PCP) increases, among other things. Sliding bearings are responsible for vital function under engine operation and also friction losses, impacting on fuel consumption as well as pollutants emissions. To maximize the bearing’s performance, it is important to guarantee a hydrodynamic regime, in order to reduce wear and avoid power loss due to metal-to-metal friction, and consequently, premature failure of engine components. Material roughness indicates, with oil film, the lubrication regime as boundary, mixed or hydrodynamic.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0477
Carmine Maria Di Sanctis, Waldyr Luiz Ribeiro Gallo
Abstract New devices and control techniques have been adopted to take advantage of variable valve timing properties to improve engine performance or load control. This paper presents a study focused on engine load control strategies associated with early intake valve closing or late intake valve closing. It can be shown that these load control modes can improve the indicated thermal efficiency of the engine as compared with the conventional throttle control. These strategies are sometime called Miller cycle or Atkinson cycle, since the real compression ratio becomes smaller than the expansion ratio. A thermodynamic spark-ignition engine simulation model was employed. The advantage of a simulation model is to conduct parametric studies without the need of complex experimental apparatus. In this way, a deep understanding of the physical phenomena can be achieved and the sole effect of the desired parameter can be shown.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0267
Roberto Berlini Rodrigues da Costa, Rafael Lara Franco, Carlos Alberto Gomes, Raniro de Oliveira Alvarenga Coelho, Ramón Molina Valle
Abstract The design and development of highly efficient internal combustion engines require a thorough investigation of the fluid dynamic processes. This paper presents the experimentally determination and computational fluid dynamics simulations of the intake valves discharge coefficients of a four valve spark-ignition single cylinder research engine. The mass flow rate and air pressure were measured directly in the intake port for six different values of valve lift (4.68; 6.16; 7.48; 8.62; 9.46; and 10.49mm). The theoretical mass flow rates were obtained based on considerations of subsonic flow. Simulations were carried using the Star CCM+ commercial code. Mesh independence studies, using the velocity fields as monitors, have been made for reliability of the simulations. As a result, a methodology was successfully implemented to obtain the discharge coefficients experimentally and the simulations were validated with a maximum deviation of 6.62%.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0136
Jony Javorski Eckert, Fabio Mazzariol Santiciolli, Eduardo dos Santos Costa, Ludmila Corrêa de Alkmin e Silva, Heron José Dionísio, Fernanda Cristina Corrêa, Franco Giuseppe Dedini
Abstract The gear shifting strategies strongly influence the vehicle fuel consumption because they change the powertrain inertia and the engine operation point. The literature normally presents gear shifting strategies based on the engine power and torque to improve the vehicle acceleration performance. Strategies based on fuel economy are difficult to determine due to a large number of factors that influence the engine behavior such as the available transmission ratios, required acceleration and vehicle speed. In this paper it was evaluated the influence of the addition of more gear ratios in the vehicle gearbox, which initially contains five available gear ratios. For each proposed gearbox configuration, the gear shifting strategy was optimized through an algorithm developed to improve the engine fuel consumption in the Brazilian standard urban driving cycle NBR6601.
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