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Viewing 31 to 60 of 133
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0101
Pedro Marti-Aldaravi, Kaushik Saha, Jaime Gimeno, Sibendu Som
Abstract Actual combustion strategies in internal combustion engines rely on fast and accurate injection systems to be successful. One of the injector designs that has shown good performance over the past years is the direct-acting piezoelectric. This system allows precise control of the injector needle position and hence the injected mass flow rate. Therefore, understanding how nozzle flow characteristics change as function of needle dynamics helps to choose the best lift law in terms of delivered fuel for a determined combustion strategy. Computational fluid dynamics is a useful tool for this task. In this work, nozzle flow of a prototype direct-acting piezoelectric has been simulated by using CONVERGE. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach is used to take into account the turbulence. Results are compared with experiments in terms of mass flow rate. The nozzle geometry and needle lift profiles were obtained by means of X-rays in previous works.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0111
Heechang Oh, JuHun Lee, Seungkook Han, Chansoo Park, Choongsik Bae, Jungho Lee, In Keun Seo, Sung Jae Kim
Abstract In this study, the effect of the nozzle tip geometry on the nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions was investigated. Various designs for the injector nozzle hole were newly developed for this study, focusing on the step hole geometry to reduce the nozzle tip wetting. The laser induced fluorescence technique was applied to evaluate the fuel wetting on the nozzle tip. A vehicle test and an emissions measurement in a Chassi-Dynamo were performed to investigate the particulate emission characteristics for injector nozzle designs. In addition, the in-cylinder combustion light signal measurement by the optical fiber sensor was conducted to observe diffusion combustion behavior during the vehicle test. Results showed that the step hole surface area is strongly related to nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions characteristics.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0108
Alessandro Montanaro, Marianna Migliaccio, Luigi Allocca, Carlo Beatrice, Valentina Fraioli, Roberto Ianniello
Abstract In the present paper, a new concept of open nozzle spray was investigated as possible application for compression ignition engines. The study concerns an experimental and numerical characterization of a spray generated through a prototype high-pressure hollow-cone nozzle (HCN). The experimental description of the injection process was carried out under evaporative and non-evaporative conditions injecting the fuel in a constant-volume combustion vessel controlled in pressure and temperature in order to measure the spatial and temporal fuel pattern at engine-like gas densities. OpenFOAM libraries in the lib-ICE version of the numerical code were employed for simulating the spray dynamics after a first validation phase based on the experimental data. Results show a typical spray structure of the outward-opening nozzle with the overall fluid-dynamic arrangement having a good fuel distribution along the hollow-cone geometry but showing a reduced spatial penetration.
2017-08-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9002
Abdul Hakim Siddique Miah, Stephen Morse, James Goddin, Gary Moore, Kevin M Morris, Jayne Rogers, Isabelle Delay-Saunders, Andrew Clifton, Jacquetta Lee
Abstract Within the aerospace industry there is a growing interest in evaluating and reducing the environmental impacts of products and related risks to business. Consequently, requests from governments, customers, manufacturers, and other interested stakeholders, for environmental information about aerospace products are becoming widespread. Presently, requests are inconsistent and this limits the ability of the aerospace industry to meet the informational needs of various stakeholders and reduce the environmental impacts of their products in a cost-effective manner. Energy consumption is a significant business cost, risk, and a simple proxy value for overall environmental impact. This paper presents the initial research carried out by an academic and industry consortium to develop standardised methods for calculating and reporting the embodied manufacturing energy content of aerospace products.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1934
Anil Thakur, Md Tauseef Alam, Venkatesh Kumar PS, P D Kulkarni, Senthur Pandian
Abstract Current high rating thermal loaded engines must have super-efficient lubrication system to provide clean oil at appropriate pressure and appropriate lube oil temperature to every part of the engine at all engine RPM speeds and loads. So oil pump not only have to satisfy above parameters but also it should be durable till engine life. Gerotor pumps are internal rotary positive-displacement pumps in which the outer rotor has one tooth more than the inner rotor. The gear profiles have a cycloidal shape. Both are meshed in conjugate to each other. Gerotor takes up engine power through crankshaft and deliver to various engine consumers at required pressure and required time. Over the complete engine rpm speed and loads range, oil pump need to perform efficiently to provide proper functioning of the engine.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1947
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Kamal Rohilla, Naveen Sukumar, Kunal Kamal
Abstract A propeller shaft is a mechanical component of drive train that connects transmission to drive wheels/axle with the goal to transfer rotation and torque. It is used when the direct connection between transmission and drive axle is not possible due to large distance between their respective assigned design spaces. In commercial vehicles especially in heavy duty (GVW/GCW>15 tons) a single piece propeller shaft is seldom used due to its inherent disadvantages and therefore, most if not all, of the setups consists of multiple pieces of propeller shaft which are directly mounted on to frame cross members with the help of mounting brackets. As such the mounting bracket assembly undergoes various dynamic and static loading conditions and should be able to withstand these loads. This paper will focus on the FEA analysis of propeller shaft mounting assembly system.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1961
Shishir Sirohi, Saurabh Yadav, B. Ashok, V Ramesh Babu, C Kavitha, K Nantha Gopal
Abstract The main objective of the study is to design and analyze casing and supports of a transmission system for an electric vehicle. The system comprises of motors as the power source, constant mesh gear box coupled with limited slip differential as the power transmitting source. The space occupied by the transmission system is a foremost constraint in designing the system. The wear and tear in the system is caused by the gear meshing process and transmission error which lead to failure of the transmission system. This internal excitation also produces a dynamic mesh force, which is transmitted to the casing and mounts through shafts and bearings. In order to overcome such issues in a transmission system, a gear box casing, differential mounts and motor mounts have been designed by the use of CAD-modeling software “SOLIDWORKS”. The designs were imported to FEA software “ANSYS” for carrying out static structural analysis.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1973
Sakthivel Balasubramaniyan, Sridhar Ramachandran, Srinivasan Bashyam, Suresh Kumar
Abstract Solenoids are type of inductive actuators extensively used in mobility industries as flow control valves. Now a day, the conventional mechanical actuators are replaced by solenoids, because the solenoids have high precision control and faster response within a controlled magnetic field. Solenoids are classified into two types based on the mode of operation. Solenoid is operated either in ON/OFF mode for switching applications or in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) for high frequency applications. A solenoid consists of two critical parts, one is the reciprocating plunger and another is the static valve case. During higher number of repeated operations, the solenoid plunger hits the valve case and induces wear on the seating surface. The solenoids are also exposed to the corrosive environment in some applications.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1948
John Samuel Kopppula, Thundil Karuppa Raj Rajagopal, Edison Gundabattini
Abstract The present work is concentrated to study the effect of varying inlet pressures on the dynamics of the suction valve obtained from a hermetic reciprocating compressor. The effect of valve functioning on the efficiency of a compressor is highly acceptable. Rather than the delivery valve, the suction valve has a significant impact on the compressor efficiency. The reed valve in a hermetic compressor is a cantilever type arrangement. The valve operates due to the pressure difference between the suction muffler and the cylinder. The numerical analysis which includes Fluid-structure interaction is used in the present study. The flow and structural domain employed in the present study are modelled with Solidworks 15.0. The fluid structure interaction analysis is a combination of ANSYS Fluent and ANSYS structural. These two are coupled with a system coupling in ANSYS Workbench 16.0. The numerical results obtained from the simulation are validated with the experimental data.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1928
Rajesh Babu Channamaneni, P Kannan, Prasad Padavala
Abstract Engine mounts and mounting brackets play a critical role in determining NVH performance of a vehicle. A lot of work has been done in the area of virtual simulation using FE models to study engine mounting system performance and its impact on vehicle level performance. An overall approach towards engine mounting system validation at vehicle level is also very critical to validate simulation results in a prototype based on which further refinement work will be carried. In this paper a detailed procedure for engine mount and mounting bracket physical validation at vehicle level is presented. Various tests to be performed at vehicle level to quantify engine mount and mounting bracket performance parameters is discussed in detail along with measurement procedures and techniques. Test results are interpreted and its impact on overall performance is also explained.
2017-06-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9453
Tobias Hoernig
Abstract Within the scope of today’s product development in automotive engineering, the aim is to produce lighter and solid parts with higher capabilities. On the one hand lightweight materials such as aluminum or magnesium are used, but on the other hand, increased stresses on these components cause higher bolt forces in joining technology. Therefore screws with very high strength rise in importance. At the same time, users need reliable and effective design methods to develop new products at reasonable cost in short time. The bolted joints require a special structural design of the thread engagement in low-strength components. Hence an extension of existing dimensioning of the thread engagement for modern requirements is necessary. In the context of this contribution, this will be addressed in two ways: on one hand extreme situations (low strength nut components and high-strength fasteners) are considered.
2017-06-29
Journal Article
2017-01-9001
Hermann Ferschitz, Michael Wannemacher, Otto Bucek, Florian Knöbel, Wolfgang Breitfuß
Abstract RTA Rail Tec Arsenal Fahrzeugversuchsanlage GmbH has focused on the simulation of in-flight icing conditions since 2012. Following the successful implementation of the icing conditions specified in EASA CS-25 Appendix C, it was expected that the facility could also be used to simulate the SLD conditions required by EASA CS-25 Appendix O. This paper sets forth theoretical considerations concerning the selection of suitable nozzles and their operation in the existing facility. The transport of large droplets through the contraction nozzle was simulated using a CFD program. The results then served as a basis for deriving secondary droplet breakup. The validations carried out confirm the theoretical considerations and identify potential limits and open research questions.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1760
Weimin Thor, J. Stuart Bolton
Abstract Due the increasing concern with the acoustic environment within automotive vehicles, there is an interest in measuring the acoustical properties of automotive door seals. These systems play an important role in blocking external noise sources, such as aerodynamic noise and tire noise, from entering the passenger compartment. Thus, it is important to be able to conveniently measure their acoustic performance. Previous methods of measuring the ability of seals to block sound required the use of either a reverberation chamber, or a wind tunnel with a special purpose chamber attached to it. That is, these methods required the use of large and expensive facilities. A simpler and more economical desktop procedure is thus needed to allow easy and fast acoustic measurement of automotive door seals.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1815
Pranab Saha, Satyajeet P. Deshpande
Abstract This paper discusses the importance of a dissipative sound package system in the automotive industry and how it works. Although this is not a new technique at this stage, it is still a challenge to meet the subsystem target levels that were originally developed for parts based on the barrier decoupler concept. This paper reviews the typical construction of a dissipative system and then emphasizes the importance of different layers of materials that are used in the construction, including what they can do and cannot do. The paper also discusses the importance of the proper manufacturing of a part.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1809
Dhanesh Purekar
Abstract Engine noise is one of the significant aspects of product quality for light and medium duty diesel engine market applications. Gear whine is one of those noise issues, which is considered objectionable and impacts the customer’s perception of the product quality. Gear whine could result due to defects in the gear manufacturing process and/or due to inaccurate design of the gear macro and micro geometry. The focus of this technical paper is to discuss gear whine considerations from the production plant perspective. This includes quick overview of the measurement process, test cell environment, noise acceptance criteria considerations. A gear whine case study is presented based on the data collected in the test cell at the engine plant. Gear whine data acquired on current product and next generation of prototype engines is analyzed and presented. This paper concludes by highlighting the lessons learned from the case study.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1823
Dennis J. Kinchen
Abstract Powertrain mounting systems design and development involves creating and optimizing a solution using specific mount rates and evaluation over multiple operating conditions. These mount rates become the recommended “nominal” rates in the specifications. The powertrain mounts typically contain natural materials. These properties have variation, resulting in a tolerance around the nominal specification and lead to differences in noise and vibration performance. A powertrain mounting system that is robust to this variation is desired. The design and development process requires evaluation of these mounts, within tolerance, to ensure that the noise and vibration performance is consistently met. During the hardware development of the powertrain mounting system, a library of mounts that include the range of production variation is studied. However, this is time consuming.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1907
Yang Wang, Yong Xu, Xiao Tan
Abstract The vibration isolation performance of vehicle powertrain mounting system is mostly determined by the three-directional stiffness of each mount block. Because of the manufacturing tolerance and the coupling effect, the stiffness of mounts cannot be maintained stable. The purpose of this study was to find out the way to optimize the stiffness of mounts via the design of experiments (DOE). According to the DOE process, a full factorial design was implemented. The z-direction stiffness of three mount blocks in the mounting system was selected as the three analysis factors. The maximum and the minimum stiffness of each mount block within the manufacturing tolerance were selected as the two levels. The measured vibration of vehicle body under certain loading case was selected as the response factor. After eight times of experiment, the DOE parameters were analyzed with statistical methods.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1820
Martin Sopouch, Josip Hozmec, Alessandro Cadario
Abstract This paper presents a simulation environment and methodology for noise and vibration analyses of a driven rear axle in a bus application, with particular focus on medium to high frequency range (400 Hz to 3 kHz). The workflow demonstrates structure borne noise and sound radiation analyses. The fully flexible Multi-Body Dynamics (MBD) model - serving to cover the actual mechanical excitation mechanisms and the structural domain - includes geometrical contacts of hypoid gear in the central gear and planetary gear integrated at hubs, considering non-linear meshing stiffness. Contribution of aforementioned gear stages, as well as the propeller shaft universal joint at the pinion axle, on overall axle noise levels is investigated by means of sensitivity analysis. Based on the surface velocities computed at the vibrating axle-housing structure the Wave Based Technique (WBT) is employed to solve the airborne noise problem and predict the radiated sound.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1818
Ramya Teja, T. R. Milind, Rodney C. Glover, Sunil Sonawane
Abstract Helical gears are commonly used instead of spur gears due to their potential higher load carrying capacity, efficiency and lower noise. Transmission Error (TE) is defined as deviation from perfect motion transfer by a gear pair. TE is dominant source of gear whine noise and hence gears pairs are generally analyzed and designed for low TE. In the process of designing helical gears for lower TE, the shuttling moment can become a significant excitation source. Shuttling moment is caused due to shifting of the centroid of tooth normal force back and forth across the lead. The amount of shuttling force or moment is produced by combination of design parameters, misalignment and manufacturing errors. Limited details are available on this excitation and its effect on overall noise radiated from gear box or transmission at its gear mesh frequency and harmonics.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1839
Edward T. Lee
Abstract It is common for automotive manufacturers and off-highway machinery manufacturers to gain insight into the system’s structural dynamics by evaluating the system inertance functions near the mount locations. The acoustic response of the operator’s ears is a function of the vibro-acoustic characteristics of the system structural dynamics interacting with the cavity, with the actual load applied at the mount locations. The overall vibro-acoustic characteristics can be influenced by a change in local stiffness. To analyze the response of a system, it is necessary to go beyond analyzing its transfer functions. The actual load needs to be understood and applied to the transfer function set. Finite element (FE) based analysis provides a good foundation for deterministic solutions. However the finite element method decreases in accuracy as frequency increases.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1767
Zhenghong Shi, Teik Lim
Abstract Nonlinear interaction between time-varying hypoid gear mesh and bearing support is investigated in this study. Mesh parameters are time-varying due to complex tooth profile of hypoid gear. Bearing stiffness is formulated based on real geometry and instantaneous orbital position of rolling elements. Linear model is firstly analyzed to study the modal frequency and mode shape variations under different stiffness ratio between gear mesh and bearing support. Then, nonlinear analysis is conducted to compare the differences between linear and nonlinear dynamic response based on specific nonlinear conditions of geared rotor system. It is found that the coupling between hypoid gear mesh and bearing support can be either strong or weak depending on the ratio between mesh stiffness along line-of-action (LOA) and bearing stiffness in radial direction. Parametric studies indicate that dynamic mesh force is sensitive to bearing clearance for certain stiffness ratio.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1776
Mohsen Kolivand, Glen Steyer, Clifford Krieger, Max-Ferdinand Stroh
Abstract Hypoid gears transmission error (TE) is a metric that is usually used to evaluate their NVH performance in component level. The test is usually done at nominal position as well as out of positions where the pinion and gear are moved along their own axis and also along offset direction to evaluate sensitivity of the measured TE to positional errors. Such practice is crucial in practical applications where the gear sets are inevitably exposed to off position conditions due to a) housing machining and building errors, b) deflections of housing, bearings, etc. under load and c) thermal expansions or contractions of housing due to ambient temperature variations. From initial design to development stage, efforts should be made to design the gear sets to be robust enough to all combinations of misalignments emanated from all three mentioned categories.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1772
Yawen Wang, Xuan Li, Guan Qiao, Teik Lim
Abstract The prediction and control of gear vibration and noise has become very important in the design of a quiet, high-quality gearbox systems. The vibratory energy of the gear pair caused by transmission error excitation is transmitted structurally through shaft-bearing-housing assembly and radiates off from exterior housing surface. Most of the previous studies ignore the contribution of components flexibility to the transmission error (TE) and system dynamic responses. In this study, a system level model of axle system with hypoid gear pair is developed, aiming at investigating the effect of the elasticity of the shafts, bearings and housing on TE as well as the contribution of flexible bearings on the dynamic responses. The load distribution results and gear transmission errors are calculated and compared between different assumptions on the boundary conditions.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1771
Mohamed El morsy, Gabriela Achtenova
Abstract Gear fault diagnosis is important in the vibration monitoring of any rotating machine. When a localized fault occurs in gears, the vibration signals always display non-stationary behavior. In early stage of gear failure, the gear mesh frequency (GMF) contains very little energy and is often overwhelmed by noise and higher-level macro-structural vibrations. An effective signal processing method would be necessary to remove such corrupting noise and interference. This paper presents the value of optimal wavelet function for early detection of faulty gear. The Envelope Detection (ED) and the Energy Operator are used for gear fault diagnosis as common techniques with and without the proposed optimal wavelet to verify the effectiveness of the optimal wavelet function. Kurtosis values are determined for the previous techniques as an indicator parameter for the ability of early gear fault detection. The comparative study is applied to real vibration signals.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1909
Joel Bruns, Jason Dreyer
Abstract The application of hydraulic body mounts between a pickup truck frame and cab to reduce freeway hop and smooth road shake has been documented in literature and realized in production vehicles. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of these devices, often through iterative prototype evaluation. Component dynamic characterization has also shown that these devices exhibit significant dependence to preload and dynamic amplitude; however, analysis of these devices has not addressed these dependences. This paper aims to understand the amplitude and preload dependence on the spectrally-varying properties of a production hydraulic body mount. This double-pumping, three-spring mount construction has a shared compliant element between the two fluid-filled chambers.
2017-05-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9681
Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenova
Abstract Bearing and gear condition monitoring are important to improve a mechanical system reliability and performance. In the early stage of bearing failures, the Bearing Characteristic Frequencies (BCFs) contain very little energy and are often overwhelmed by noise and higher-level macro-structural vibrations, an effective signal processing method would be necessary to eliminate such corrupting noise and interference. Referring to the non-stationary characteristics of roller bearing fault vibration signals, a roller bearing condition monitoring method based on Envelope Process to raw time-domain vibration signal and Autocorrelation enhancement to the residual signal is put forward in this paper. The concept of Envelope and Autocorrelation techniques and its implementation for defect identification are discussed. Also, distinction of bearing fault signal as cyclostationary from periodic signal for gear fault.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0387
Deepak Anand Subramanian, Shanmugam Mathaiya, V Srinivasa Chandra
Abstract In today’s commercial vehicle scenario, designing and developing a component which will never fail throughout its lifespan is next to impossible. For a long time especially in the field of automotive, any crack initiation shall deem the component as failed and the design requires further modification. This paper deals with studying the failure of one such component and understanding the effect the crack has on the overall life of the component i.e. understanding the remnant life of the component. The component under study was gear shift lever bracket and is mounted on the engine exhaust manifold. It experiences two types of loads: inertial load due to the engine vibration and gear shift load. Frequent failures were observed in the field and in order to simulate it at lab, an accelerated test approach was adopted. The engine operating speed was used to identify the possible excitation frequency which the component might experience.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0446
Xiao Chuan Xu, Xiuyong Shi, Jimin Ni, Jiaqi Li, Xiaochuan Xu Sr.
Abstract Oil pump is a critical part of engine lubrication system. The performance and efficiency of oil pump are greatly affected by vibration and noise, which would lead to the pump service life decreasing and pump body easily wearing. Hence the vibration and noise of oil pump is of great importance to study. In this paper, a FEA model of the variable displacement oil pump(VDOP) was established to carry on the modal and noise analysis, while the geometric structure was optimized with test verification. The modal analysis of VDOP was carried out by ABAQUS software, the 3-D unsteady flow field in VDOP was simulated by Pumplinx software, and the sound field was analyzed by ACTRAN acoustic module. Using a special oil pump test bench combined with B&K PULSE vibration and noise test equipment, the NVH and comprehensive performance experiment of the VDOP were carried out here.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0445
Muthukumar Arunachalam, Arunkumar S, PraveenKumar Sampath, Abdul Haiyum, Yash Khakhar
Abstract In recent years, there is increasing demand for every CAE engineer on their confidence level of the virtual simulation results due to the upfront robust design requirement during early stage of an automotive product development. Apart from vehicle feel factor NVH characteristics, there are certain vibration target requirements at system or component level which need to be addressed during design stage itself in order to achieve the desired functioning during vehicle operating conditions. Vehicle passive safety system is one which primarily consists of acceleration sensors, control module and air-bag deployment system. Control module’s decision is based on accelerometer sensor signals so that its mounting locations should meet the sufficient inertance or dynamic stiffness performance in order to avoid distortion in signals due to its structural resonances.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0416
Vishal Barde, Baskar Anthonysamy, Ganeshan Reddy, Senthil S, Visweswara lenka, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Abstract New trend in steering system such as EPS is coming up, but still hydraulic power steering system is more prevalent in today’s vehicles. Power steering pump is a vital component of hydraulic power steering system. Failure of steering pump can lead to loss of power assistance. Prediction of hub load on pump shaft is an important design input for pump manufacturer. Higher hub loads than the actual designed load of pump bearing may lead to seizure of pump. Pump manufacturer has safe limits for hub load. Simulations can assist for optimization of belt layout and placement of accessories to reduce the hub load. Lower hub load can have direct effect on improvement of pump durability. This paper deals with dynamic simulation of belt drive system in MSC.ADAMS as well as vehicle level measurement of hub load on power steering pump.
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