The following is the history of SAE Committee A-10.
Location of Crew and Passenger Oxygen Masks, Portable Oxygen System, and Protective Breathing Equipment
Various emergency situations may require the dispensing of oxygen to all occupants of aircraft during flight. During an emergency event, depending on the aircraft operational flight capability, all cabin occupants must be serviced by a mask presentation system connected to an operational oxygen source. Several regulations specify the functional characteristics and requirements of the oxygen systems for aircraft in support of different missions. These should be referred to for the exact functional performance requirements. It is not the intent of this document to ensure conformance with these regulations, but only to recommend general concepts for the location of the oxygen masks and oxygen system outlets for proper accessibility by the aircraft occupants, whether cabin occupants or crew members. Different requirements may apply when the mission of the pressurized aircraft or the operational altitude of the aircraft is not in excess of FL250.
This report presents, paraphrased in tabular format, an overview of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) for aircraft oxygen systems. It is intended as a ready reference for those considering the use of oxygen in aircraft and those wishing to familiarize themselves with the systems requirements for existing aircraft. This document is not intended to replace the oxygen related FAR but rather to index them in some order. For detailed information, the user is referred to the current issue of the relevant FAR paragraph referenced in this report.
This standard is intended to apply to portable compressed gaseous oxygen equipment. When properly configured, this equipment is used either for the administration of supplemental oxygen, first aid oxygen or smoke protection to one or more occupants of either private or commercial transport aircraft.
This document provides guidance for oxygen cylinder installation on commercial aircraft based on rules and methods practiced in aerospace industry and applicable in other associations. It covers considerations for oxygen systems from beginning of project phase up to production, maintenance, and servicing. The document is focused on requirements regarding DOT approved oxygen cylinders. However, its basic rules may also be applicable to new development pertaining to use of such equipment in an oxygen environment. For information regarding oxygen cylinders itself, reference should be made to AIR825/12 also.
The scope of this document is related to the particular needs of oxygen equipment with regards to packaging and transportation. The document provides guidance for handling chemical, gaseous and liquid oxygen equipment. It summarizes national and international regulations to be taken into account for transportation on land, sea and air and provides information on classification of hazardous material. The aim of this document is to summarize information on packaging and transportation of oxygen equipment. Statements and references to regulations cited herein are for information only and should not be considered as interpretation of a law. Processes to maintain cleanliness of components and subassemblies during processing and assembly or storage of work-in-progress are outside the scope of this document.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the overall requirements applicable to oxygen flow indicating devices intended to operate in conjunction with an oxygen regulator and mask system. Flow indicators covered by this document are for use with pressure demand, diluter-demand and continuous flow oxygen systems.
This Aerospace Standard will provide the basis for a certification approach and contain the methods or criteria for verification of performance required for Oxygen Dispensing Units to be used by Cabin Crew up to 25,000 ft. cabin altitude.
The information provided in AIR825/6 applies to On Board Oxygen Generating Systems (OBOGS) - Molecular Sieve, that utilize the ability of molecular sieve materials by using Pressure Swing Adsorption Process (PSA) to separate and concentrate oxygen in the product gas from the surrounding air, respectively air provided by any compressor or by the aircraft engine (so called: Bleed Air), and to provide this oxygen enriched air or product gas as supplemental oxygen for breathing gas supply of crew and passengers onboard aircraft. The distribution system and the provided oxygen concentration have to fulfill the respective airworthiness regulations. Equipment using this technology is to provide supplemental oxygen for breathing gas supply of crew and passengers onboard aircraft, the suitable breathing gas oxygen partial pressure or oxygen concentration requirements are specified in AIR825/2 and the oxygen purity requirements in AS8010.
The scope of this document is to provide guidance concerning the use of oxygen when flying into and out of high elevation airports. Normally for aircraft operations that fly at high altitude, oxygen requirements involving a decompression are generally easy to understand and follow because of the increased delta between cabin and ambient pressures. This document is intended to address a transition zone where cabin and ambient pressures are closely the same and oxygen usage can be compounded by physiologic subjectivity that often accompanies hypoxia. This transition zone is further diluted by regulations which are based not on science but rather sociological mores often not supported by empirical science. An example of this is reflected by differential regulatory requirements between CFR’s 91, 121 and 135. Operators who fly into these high altitude airports will undoubtedly be required to address the inherent threats and errors associated with this transition zone.
Performance Standard for Cabin Crew Portable Protective Breathing Equipment for Use During Aircraft Emergencies
This aerospace standard (AS) defines the requirements of portable protective breathing equipment for use during smoke/fire conditions on board an aircraft.
The aim of this document is to provide a comprehensive synopsis of regulations applicable to aircraft oxygen systems. The context of physiological requirements, international regulations, operational requirements and airworthiness standards is shown to understand the role of aircraft oxygen systems and to demonstrate under which circumstances is needed on aircraft. With regards to National Aviation Regulations States are committed to the Convention on International Aviation (Chicago Convention). The majority of states have adopted, with some deviations, FAA and EASA systems including operational and airworthiness requirements. Accordingly the extent of this document is primarily focused on FAA/EASA requirements.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers procedures or methods to be used for fabricating, handling, testing, and installation of oxygen lines in an aircraft oxygen system.
Determine the required minimum oxygen concentration to be breathed prior to, during, and after a loss of cabin pressurization, and
Purpose of this standard is to provide qualification requirements of an Full Face Quick Donning Mask Assembly with regards to function and performance under conditions of aircraft environments. Function and performance requirements shall take into account varying modes of use and handling during aircraft operation. It shall be demonstrated that subcomponents of the assembly ,like regulator or microphone are harmonized to comply with the overall requirements of this standard.
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) indicates those dimensions, deemed critical by the manufacturer to assure proper mating of disconnect hose fittings. The dimensions are critical, but not necessarily complete, in defining these fittings since there are other criteria which must also be met.
This document provides guidance concerning the maintenance and serviceability of oxygen cylinders beginning with the quality of oxygen that is required, supplemental oxygen information, handling and cleaning procedures, transfilling and marking of serviced oxygen assemblies. This document attempts to outline in a logical sequence oxygen quality, serviceability and maintenance of oxygen cylinders.
Solid chemical oxygen supplies of interest to aircraft operations are "chlorate candles" and potassium superoxide (KO2). Chlorate candles are used in passenger oxygen supply units and other emergency oxygen systems, such as submarines and escape devices. Potassium superoxide is not used in aircraft operations but is used in closed-cycle breathing apparatus. Characteristics and applications of both are discussed, with emphasis on chlorate candles.
This AIR5933 gives an overview of contemporary technologies to determine the oxygen concentration respectively partial pressure in air. The aerospace application and its special constraints have been emphasized regarding weight, power supply, overall size, reliability and safety, cost and useful life.
This Aerospace Information Report provides general information to aircraft designers and engineers, regarding LOX, its properties, its storage and its conversion to gas. Much useful information is included herein for aircraft designers regarding important design considerations for a safe and effective installation to an aircraft. The associated ground support equipment needed to support operations of LOX equipped aircraft is also discussed. It is important to realize that LOX equipped aircraft cannot be supported unless this support infrastructure is also available. A significant part of this document will address the specific advantages, disadvantages and precautions relating to LOX systems. These are important issues that must be considered in deciding which oxygen system to install to the aircraft. Also, many commercial and military aircraft use aeromedical LOX equipment that is mostly portable equipment.
Bibliography of References Pertaining to The Effects of Oxygen on Ignition and Combustion of Materials
The scope of this document is to provide a list of documents of types pertaining to the effects of oxygen on ignition and combustion of materials. Consolidating these references in one place makes it easier to find documents of this type as these references are difficult to locate.
Oxygen Equipment, Provisioning and Use in High Altitude (to 40,000 ft.) Commercial Transport Aircraft
The recommendations embodied in this document are applicable to commercial transport aircraft for operations between 8,000 and 40,000 ft. altitude.
This standard covers both general type and quick-donning type mask assemblies in the following classes: Class A, oronasal, demand Class B, oronasal, pressure-demand Class C, full face, demand Class D, full face, pressure-demand
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a general overview of oxygen systems for general aviation use. Included are a brief review of the factors and effects of hypoxia, system descriptions, and mission explanations for system or component selection, and techniques for safe handling of oxygen distribution systems.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) applies to performance and testing of solid chemical oxygen generators which produce oxygen at essentially ambient pressure for use aboard aircraft whose cabin pressure altitude does not exceed 40,000 ft (about 12,200 m). Portable chemical oxygen devices are covered by AS1303.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) will provide general guidelines and procedures for servicing and maintaining oxygen systems. Such methods and procedures may be applied to gaseous, liquid, chemical and portable oxygen systems. These guidelines and recommendations will be provided to engineering and maintenance personnel for airlines, modification centers and third party maintenance contractors, to be used while performing maintenance on oxygen systems and components.
The scope of this document is to provide a guideline for the preparation of a plan for testing of inservice chemical oxygen generators to confirm their design useful life. The test program should also allow determination with a sufficient level of confidence, whether generators are suitable for further use (i.e., life extension, or if the useful life limit has been reached).
This guide is intended to promote safe designs, operations and maintenance on aircraft and ground support oxygen systems. This is also a summary of some work by the ASTM G 4 Committee related to oxygen fire investigations and design concerns to reduce the risk of an oxygen fire. There have been many recent technological advances and additional test data is available for evaluating and controlling combustion hazards in oxygen equipment. Standards that use this new information are rapidly evolving. A guide is needed to assist organizations and persons not completely familiar with this process to provide oxygen systems with minimum risks of combustion. This guide does not necessarily address all the detailed issues and provide all data that will be needed. For a complete analysis, supplemental publications need to be consulted. This guide does discuss the basics of oxygen systems fire hazards. The hazard analysis process is discussed and a simple example to explain this process.
This document presents a glossary of many of the terms that can be found in literature covering issues related to aviation oxygen systems and associated topics. Such a listing can never be all inclusive but the majority of important terms are anticipated to be included for reference.
The intent of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to describe the effects of the environmental changes on human physiology and the protection required to avoid negative consequences resulting from altitude exposure. A brief presentation of basic terms and considerations required to discuss the topic of human physiology at altitude are followed by an overview of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Issues specifically related to human exposure to altitude are then discussed.