This SAE RP provides a set of test methods and practices for the characterization of the properties of Li-battery separator. The test methods in this RP have been grouped into one of three categories: 1. Manufacturing parameters: Minimum set of separator properties to be measured 2. Chemistry/Customer specific parameters: Properties that are dependent on the application, customer needs and/or requirements, manufacturing process etc. This RP will include the current best practice methodologies for these tests, with an understanding that the best practice methodologies are evolving as more information is learned. 3. R&D parameters: Properties that are dependent on the application, customer needs and/or requirements, manufacturing process etc. The methodologies in this 3rd section are under development and have not yet achieved broad application.
This SAE Information Report provides information on certain fuels that are being used or have been suggested as alternatives to motor gasoline (SAE J312) or automotive diesel fuel (SAE J313) for use in spark-ignition or compressionignition engines. Some of these fuels are derived from petroleum while others are from non petroleum sources.
SAE J2600 applies to the design and testing of Compressed Hydrogen Surface Vehicle (CHSV) fueling connectors, nozzles, and receptacles. Connectors, nozzles, and receptacles must meet all SAE J2600 requirements and pass all SAE J2600 testing to be considered as SAE J2600 compliant. This document applies to devices which have Pressure Classes of H11, H25, H35, H50 or H70. 1.1 Purpose SAE J2600 is intended to: • Prevent vehicles from being fueled with a Pressure Class greater than the vehicle Pressure Class; • Allow vehicles to be fueled with Pressure Class equal to or less than the vehicle Pressure Class, • Prevent vehicles from being fueled by other compressed gases dispensing stations; • Prevent other gaseous fueled vehicles from being fueled by hydrogen dispensing stations.
Develop and document an aerodynamic constant speed procedure for heavy vehicles that can accurately calculate the aerodynamic performance through the typical expected yaw angles during operation at highway speeds.
This SAE Standard applies only to new winches which are primarily designed for intermittent pulls and lifts and whose configuration and condition are the same as when they were shipped by the manufacturer. They are not intended to be used in any manner for the movement of personnel. They may be driven by any power source recommended by the manufacturer and will be capable of being powered in either direction. They will be equipped with an automatic safety brake system to control a load when lowering under power and positively hold a load when power is not being delivered to the winch. A hydraulic flow control valve or similar device may be used in the brake system to control a load when lowering under power. A clutch to release the drum for Òfree-spoolingÓ may be provided and will be designed not to disengage itself under load. A drag brake may be provided to control Òfree-spooling,Ó but will not be relied on to control or hold a load.
This SAE Standard covers brazed double wall low-carbon steel tubing intended for general automotive, refrigeration, hydraulic, and other similar applications requiring tubing of a suitable quality for bending, flaring, beading, forming, and brazing.
The SAE Standard covers normalized electric-resistance welded flash-controlled single-wall, low-carbon steel pressure tubing intended for use as pressure lines and in other applications requiring tubing of a quality suitable for bending, double flaring, beading, forming, and brazing. Material produced to this specification is not intended to be used for single flare applications due to the potential leak path that would be caused by the ID weld bead or scarfed region. Assumption of risks when using this material for single flare applications to be defined by agreement between the producer and tube purchaser. This specification also covers SAE J356 Type-A tubing. The mechanical properties and performance requirements of standard SAE J356 and SAE J356 Type-A are the same. Therefore, the designated differences of Type-A tubing are not meant to imply that Type-A tubing is in anyway inferior to standard SAE J356.
The heating value or heat of combustion is a measure of the energy available from the fuel. The fraction or percentage of the heat of combustion that is converted to useful work is a measure of the thermal efficiency of an engine. Thus, a knowledge of the heat of combustion of the fuel is basic to the engineering of automotive engines. This SAE Information Report provides information on the standardized procedures for determining the heat of combustion of fuels that may be used for automotive engines.
This SAE Standard applies to lead-acid 12 V heavy-duty storage batteries as described in SAE J537 and SAE J930 for uses in starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) applications on motor vehicles and/or off-road machines. These applications have some of the following characteristics: a. High levels of power are required to start the vehicle’s internal combustion engine. The need to supply this power limits the maximum depth of discharge to a fraction of the total capacity of the battery. The battery must be maintained at a charge level sufficient to perform this primary function by vehicle’s voltage-regulated charging system. b. The vehicle’s engine powers a voltage regulated charging system that limits the charging voltage when spinning at sufficient speed and when total loads do not exceed its output limits. c.
This SAE Standard covers the minimum requirements for design, construction, and testing of devices to prevent the propagation of backfire flame from within the gasoline engine to the surrounding atmosphere.
Generic overview of fuel system design and sizing, and guidelines for installation of various fuel system elements
Measuring Energy Consumption, Fuel Economy and Emissions of Conventional and Hybrid Medium/Heavy-Duty Vehicles using a Powertrain Dynamometer
This SAE Recommended Practice was established to provide an accurate, uniform and reproducible procedure for simulating use of MD/HD conventional vehicles and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), as well as plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on powertrain dynamometers for the purpose of measuring emissions and fuel economy. This document does not specify which emissions constituents to measure (e.g., HC, CO, NOx, PM, CO2), as that decision will depend on the objectives of the tester. While the main focus of this procedure is for calculating fuel and energy consumption, it is anticipated that emissions may also be recorded during execution of this procedure. It should be noted that most MD/HD powertrains addressed in this document would be powered by engines that are certified separately for emissions. The engine certification procedure appears in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40-§86 and §1065.
This SAE Information Report SAE J2836/6™ establishes use cases for communication between plug-in electric vehicles and the EVSE, for wireless energy transfer as specified in SAE J2954. It addresses the requirements for communications between the on-board charging system and the Wireless EV Supply Equipment (WEVSE) in support of detection of the WEVSE, the charging process, and monitoring of the charging process. Since the communication to the charging infrastructure and the power grid for smart charging will also be communicated by the WEVSE to the EV over the wireless interface, these requirements are also covered. However, the processes and procedures are expected to be identical to those specified for V2G communications specified in SAE J2836/1. Where relevant, the specification notes interactions that may be required between the vehicle and vehicle operator, but does not formally specify them.
This SAE Recommended Practice SAE J2847-6 establishes requirements and specifications for communications messages between wirelessly charged electric vehicles and the wireless charger. Where relevant, this document notes, but does not formally specify, interactions between the vehicle and vehicle operator. This is the 1st version of this document and captures the initial objectives of the SAE task force. The intent of step 1 is to record as much information on “what we think works” and publish. The effort continues however, to step 2 that allows public review for additional comments and viewpoints, while the task force also continues additional testing and early implementation. Results of step 2 effort will then be incorporated into updates of this document and lead to a republished version. The next revision will address the harmonization between SAE J2847-6 and ISO/IEC 15118-7 to ensure interoperability.
This SAE Standard applies to 12 V, flooded and absorptive glass mat lead acid automotive storage batteries of 200 minutes or less reserve capacity and cold crank capacity greater than 200 amperes. This life test is considered to be comprehensive in terms of battery manufacturing technology; applicable to lead-acid batteries containing wrought or cast positive grid manufacturing technology and providing a reasonable correlation for hot climate applications. This document is intended as a guide toward standard practice, but may be subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
Automotive and railroad diesel fuels, in general, are derived from petroleum refinery products which are commonly referred to as middle distillates. Middle distillates represent products which have a higher boiling range than gasoline and are obtained from fractional distillation of the crude oil or from streams from other refining processes. Finished diesel fuels represent blends of middle distillates. The properties of commercial distillate diesel fuels depend on the refinery practices employed and the nature of the crude oils from which they are derived. Thus, they may differ both with and within the region in which they are manufactured. Such fuels generally boil over a range between 163 and 371 °C (325 to 700 °F). Their makeup can represent various combinations of volatility, ignition quality, viscosity, sulfur level, gravity, and other characteristics. Additives may be used to impart special properties to the finished diesel fuel.
SAE J2601 establishes the protocol and process limits for hydrogen fueling of light dutyand medium duty vehicles. These process limits (including the fuel delivery temperature, the maximum fuel flow rate, the rate of pressure increase and the ending pressure) are affected by factors such as ambient temperature, fuel delivery temperature and initial pressure in the vehicle’s compressed hydrogen storage system. SAE J2601 establishes standard fueling protocols based on either a look-up table approach utilizing a fixed pressure ramp rate, or a formula based approach utilizing a dynamic pressure ramp rate continuously calculated throughout the fill. Both protocols allow for fueling with communications or without communications. The table-based protocol provides a fixed end-of-fill pressure target, whereas the formula-based protocol calculates the end-of-fill pressure target continuously.
This document discusses various specification and fit for purpose characteristics of jet fuel, and how these impact fuel system design
The Aerospace Recommended Practices of this document are intended for nitrogen-based Flammability Reduction Means (FRM) implemented on transport category, turbine powered airplanes. The recommended practices herein, therefore, relate only to the transport category aircraft, and focus specifically on contemporary inerting systems equipment. Such systems are referred to a Fuel Tank Inerting Systems (FTIS) in this document. This document does not cover the following: - Military aircraft applications - Air separation technologies other than hollow fiber membrane (HFM) and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) - Inerting of conventional unheated wing tanks or aircraft dry bays - Expected future technology solutions for the generation of inert gas. The advice contained in this document is aimed towards providing aircraft manufacturers with guidance on the key issues associated with contemporary aircraft fuel tank inerting systems to supplement the guidance in FAA Advisory Circular AC 25.981-2.
xEVs involved in incidents present unique hazards associated with the high voltage system (including the battery system). These hazards can be grouped into 3 categories: chemical, electrical, and thermal. The potential consequences can vary depending on the size, configuration and specific battery chemistry. Other incidents may arise from secondary events such as garage fires and floods. These types of incidents are also considered in the recommended practice (RP). This RP aims to describe the potential consequences associated with hazards from xEVs and suggest common procedures to help protect emergency responders, tow and/or recovery, storage, repair, and salvage personnel after an incident has occurred with an electrified vehicle. Industry design standards and tools were studied and where appropriate, suggested for responsible organizations to implement.
SAE J1942, developed through the cooperative efforts of the U.S. Coast Guard and SAE, became effective August 28, 1991, as the official document for nonmetallic flexible hose assemblies for commercial marine use. This SAE Standard covers specific requirements for several styles of hose and/or hose assemblies in systems on board commercial vessels inspected and certificated by the U.S. Coast Guard. It is intended that this document establish hose constructions and performance levels that are essential to safe operations in the marine environment. Refer to SAE J1273 for selection, installation, and maintenance of hose and hose assemblies. Refer to SAE J1527 Marine Fuel Hose for hose to convey gasoline or diesel fuel aboard small craft, including pleasure craft and related small commercial craft regulated directly or by reference under 33 CFR 183 Subpart J, and boats and yachts meeting American Boat and Yacht Council standards.
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a practical automotive fuel, with advantages and disadvantages when compared to gasoline. Large quantities of natural gas are available in North America. It has a higher octane number rating, produces low exhaust emissions, no evaporative emissions and can cost less on an equivalent energy basis than other fuels. Natural gas is normally compressed from 20 684 to 24 821 kPa (3000 to 3600 psig) to increase its energy density thereby reducing its on-board vehicle storage volume for a given range and payload. CNG can also be made from liquefied natural gas by elevating its pressure and vaporizing it to a gas. Once converted it is referred to LCNG.
This is a joint SAE/EUROCAE development. This document will be released as both an SAE Aerospace Specification (AS) and a EUROCAE Minimum Aviation System Performance Standard (MASPS). This document defines the technical requirements for the safe integration of gaseous hydrogen fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Systems (FCS) within the aircraft. Most of the technical concepts and approaches covered by this document represent current industry "best practice". Others require specific approval from the procuring activity before use. This requirement for approval is not intended to prohibit their use; but rather to ensure that the prime contractor has fully investigated their capability to perform reliably and to be sufficiently durable under the required conditions and that the prime contractor can present substantiating evidence for approval before the design is committed to.
SAE J2601 establishes the protocol and process limits for hydrogen fueling of light duty vehicles. These process limits (including the fuel delivery temperature, the maximum fuel flow rate, the rate of pressure increase and the ending pressure) are affected by factors such as ambient temperature, fuel delivery temperature and initial pressure in the vehicle’s compressed hydrogen storage system. SAE J2601 establishes standard fueling protocols based on either a look-up table approach utilizing a fixed pressure ramp rate, or a formula based approach utilizing a dynamic pressure ramp rate continuously calculated throughout the fill. Both protocols allow for fueling with communications or without communications. The table-based protocol provides a fixed end-of-fill pressure target, whereas the formula-based protocol calculates the end-of-fill pressure target continuously.
To specify minimum requirements for Fuel Flowmeters for use primarily in reciprocating engine powered civil transport aircraft, the operation of which may subject the instruments to the environmental conditions specified in Section 3.3. This Aeronautical Standard covers two basic types of instruments, or combinations thereof, intended for use in indicating fuel consumption of aircraft engines as follows: TYPE I - Measure rate of flow of fuel used. TYPE II - Totalize amount of fuel consumed or remaining.
SAE J#### establishes the protocol and process limits for hydrogen fueling of light duty vehicles when the fuel delivery temperature is not pre-cooled, so called “ambient fueling” designated by Table 1 of SAE J2601-2014. These process limits (including the fuel delivery temperature, the maximum fuel flow rate, the rate of pressure increase and the ending pressure) are affected by factors such as ambient temperature, fuel delivery temperature and initial pressure in the vehicle’s compressed hydrogen storage system. SAE J#### establishes standard fueling protocols based on a series of design cases representing fueling system engineering categories. These categories are intended to provide performance targets which allow decreasing fueling times relative to the most simple design case. Similar to the table and formula based approaches of SAE J2601-2014, this approach establishes a minimum performance criteria leaving open options for innovation to decrease fueling times.
While there are various types of Fuel Cell architectures being developed, the focus of this document is on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks and ancillary components for automotive propulsion applications. Within the boundaries of this document are the: Fuel Supply and Storage, Fuel Processor, Fuel Cell Stack, and Balance of Plant, as shown in Figure 1.
Migration of Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP) material used in filter Monitors in to aircraft fuel systemsand potential impact on fuel system operation
This AIR provides information about polymeric materials (Super Absorbent Polymers - SAP) used in Filter Monitors for free water removal, the possibility of migration of such material in to aircraft fuel systems and the potential impact on fuel system operation along with light incidents traceable to the migration of SAP in to the aircraft fuel system are enumerated. The measures taken to minimize SAP migration are also discussed.
This specification covers one type of fuel pressure transmitter designated MS28005-7.
In-Service Reliability Data of Continuously Active Ballscrew and Geared Flight Control Actuation Systems
An industry survey has been completed to determine the incidence of jam and excessive backlash in rotary and linear mechanical actuators subject to "primary flight control like" duty cycles. The data is valuable for understanding how existing mechanical actuators behave in service, identifying areas for potential improvement and possibly being used as a reference to support future primary flight control system trade-off studies.