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2017-04-11
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1631
Weizhe Qian, Henry Zhang
Double Clutch Transmission system becomes more and more popular in vehicles because of the fuel saving performance, cost efficiency and comfortable feeling during gear change. To save fuel consumption, oil pump can be used for oil pressure on demand control. Sensorless control has cost advantage because it removes the motor position sensor. This paper will introduce a technical solution for BLDC (Brushless DC) motor sensorless control for oil pump used in DCT system. To implement sensorless block commutation of BLDC motor, usually Back-emf voltage needs to be compared with a reference voltage. A `zero-crossing point’ of the Back-emf voltage can indicate the rotor position, and hence motor can be controlled without position sensor. Phase feedback pins of Infineon pre-driver device TLE9180 provide these `zero-crossing point’ information based on hardware. The outputs of phase feedback pins are connected to a module CCU6 (capture compare unit6) from 32bit micro-controller Aurix.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1629
Jing Wang, John Michelini, Yan Wang, Michael H. Shelby
Time to torque (TTT) is a quantity used to measure the engine transient torque response. It is referred as the time duration from a full torque command to the time when 95% of maximum torque is achieved. In this work, we seek to control multiple engine actuators in a collaborative way such that the TTT is minimized. We pose the TTT minimization problem as an optimization problem by parameterizing each engine actuator transient trajectory as a Fourier series, followed by minimizing proper cost function with the optimization of those Fourier coefficients. This optimization problem is in general non-convex with unknown structure. To solve the problem in CAE environment, we construct an optimization framework that integrates high-fidelity GT POWER engine model and engine actuators’ Simulink model into modeFrontier computation platform. We conduct simulation study by using this optimization framework on two different turbocharged engines.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1628
Atsushi Ito, Masahiro Kawano, Shohei Fujita
In Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) System, Various Injection types are needed to reduce polluting emission and fuel consumption. Therefore, high precision injection is required for small fuel amounts region. For the injection of small fuel amounts, the GDI solenoid injectors need to be worked in the half lift region. Although, injected fuel amount deviations in this region tend to increase by the injector needle lift deviations and the issue is to inject small fuel amounts with high precision. To reduce deviations, an attempt was made to analyze lift timing from driving waveform and adjust injected fuel amounts by ECU. In the injector opening time detection, it focused on a particular feature found on the current waveform at the time of injector needle open, and in the injector closing time detection, it focused on a particular feature found on the voltage waveform at the time of injector needle closure.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1632
Norihiro Tsukamoto, Tomohiro Chimbe, Tomohiro Asami, Keisuke Ota, Seiji Masunaga
A new shift control system using a model-based control method for stepped automatic transmissions. Using a gear train numerical formula model, the model-based shift control system is constructed using minimum calibration parameters with feedforward and feedback controllers. It also adopts control target values for the input shaft revolution and output shaft torque, thus enabling precise control that provides the most suitable shift feeling in various driving situations and for various vehicle characteristics. Furthermore, the model-based shift control system improves robustness in terms of disturbance elements such as production tolerance, time degradation, and use environment. Toyota has adopted this model-based shift control system in its UA80/UB80 8-speed automatic transmissions for front-wheel-drive vehicles and its AGA0 10-speed automatic transmission for rear-wheel-drive vehicles. This paper describes the details of this model-based shift control system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1630
Yiu Heng Cheung, Zhijia Yang, Richard Stobart
It is well known now that a warmed up engine consumes less fuel using stopping and starting compared to idling for a certain period. Since the first stop-start system introduced in 1983, more and more vehicles have been equipped with this automatic engine control system. Recently, it was found that there is strong correlation between engine resting position and engine start time. The utilisation of the synchronization time with the prerequisite of engine stop position prior the engine start request was shown to reduce start times. Hence the position control of an engine during shutdown becomes more significant. This paper presents an experimental study of the positon control of a turbo-charged four-cylinder gasoline engine on a test bed. Various control authorities such as throttle control, alternator control and wastegate control have been investigated and compared.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0975
Pankaj Kumar, Imad Makki
A three-way catalytic converter (TWC) is used for emissions control in a gasoline engine. The conversion efficiency of the catalyst, however, drops with age or customer usage and needs to be monitored on-line to meet the on board diagnostics (OBD II) regulations. In this work, a non-intrusive catalyst monitor is developed to track the remaining useful life of the catalyst based on measured in-vehicle signals. Using air mass and the air-fuel ratio (A/F) at the front (upstream) and rear (downstream) of the catalyst, the catalyst oxygen storage capacity is estimated. The catalyst capacity and operating exhaust temperature are used as an input features for developing a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm based classifier to identify a threshold catalyst. In addition, the distance of the data points in hyperspace from the calibrated threshold plane is used to compute the remaining useful life left.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1419
Smruti Panigrahi, Jianbo Lu, Sanghyun Hong
Abstract Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0901
Alex Pink, Adam Ragatz, Lijuan Wang, Eric Wood, Jeffrey Gonder
Vehicles continuously report real-time fuel consumption estimates over their data bus, known as the controller area network (CAN). However, the accuracy of these fueling estimates is uncertain to researchers who collect these data from any given vehicle. To assess the accuracy of these estimates, CAN ­reported fuel consumption data are compared against fuel measurements from precise instrumentation. The data analyzed consisted of eight medium/heavy-­duty vehicles and two medium-­duty engines. Varying discrepancies between CAN fueling rates and the more accurate measurements emerged but without a vehicular trend—for some vehicles the CAN under-­reported fuel consumption and for others the CAN over­-reported fuel consumption. Furthermore, a qualitative real-time analysis revealed that the operating conditions under which these fueling discrepancies arose varied among vehicles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1662
Tom R. Markham, Alex Chernoguzov
Problem: The OBD-II port began as a means of extracting diagnostic information from vehicles and supporting the right to repair. However, we did not anticipated self-driving vehicles or insurance dongles plugged into the OBD-II port. ADAS, self-driving features and overall vehicle network complexity opens the door for cyber security breaches which can impact vehicle safety. Researchers have already demonstrated how the cellular modem on an OBD-II insurance dongle may be hacked to tamper with the vehicle brakes. Challenge: The industry must balance the interests of multiple stakeholders. • OEMs – are required to provide an OBD-II port. However, the OEM is also responsible for the cyber security and in turn safety of the vehicle. • Repair shops and vehicle owners - have a right to repair which includes access to many vehicle functions via the OBD-II. • Dongle providers - want to offer vehicle-related services via the OBD port.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0950
Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Andrew Herman, Leslie Bromberg, Vitaly Prikhodko, James Parks, John Storey
The increasing use of diesel and gasoline particulate filters requires advanced on-board diagnostics (OBD) to prevent and detect filter failures and malfunctions. Early detection of upstream (engine-out) malfunctions is paramount to preventing irreversible damage to downstream aftertreatment system components. Such early detection can mitigate the failure of the particulate filter resulting in the escape of emissions exceeding permissible limits and extend the component life. However, despite best efforts at early detection and filter failure prevention, the OBD system must also be able to detect filter failures when they occur. In this study, radio frequency (RF) sensors were used to directly monitor the particulate filter state of health for both gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1008
Antti Rostedt, Leonidas D. Ntziachristos, Pauli Simonen, Topi Rönkkö, Zissis C. Samaras, Risto Hillamo, Kauko Janka, Jorma Keskinen
In this article we present a design of a new miniaturized sensor for measuring exhaust particle concentrations on board the vehicles. The operation of the sensor is based on the diffusion charging and subsequent electrical detection of the particles. The sensor is characterized by ultra-fast response time, high sensitivity, and a wide dynamic range in measuring particle concentrations. The concentration response of the built prototype sensor was measured in laboratory conditions and based on the measurement results, a model for the sensor operation was developed. According to the laboratory step response measurements, the sensor signal time constant was 18 ms corresponding to a value of 40 ms for a 10 - 90% rise time. The sensor performance was also tested with actual engine exhaust in both chassis and engine dynamometer measurements.
CURRENT
2017-02-16
Standard
J1979_201702
SAE J1979/ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
CURRENT
2017-02-16
Standard
J1979DA_201702
On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations require passenger cars, and light and medium duty trucks, to support communication of a minimum set of diagnostic information to off-board “generic” test equipment. This document specifies the diagnostic data which may be required to be supported by motor vehicles and external test equipment for diagnostic purposes which pertain to motor vehicle emission-related data. SAE J1979 was originally developed to meet U.S. OBD requirements for 1996 and later model year vehicles. ISO 15031 5 was based on SAE J1979 and was intended to combine the U.S. requirements with European OBD requirements for 2000 and later model year vehicles.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0110
Lasse Moklegaard, Amitabh Saran
Abstract Truck and car manufacturers are required to satisfy certain emission standards while driving regulatory prescribed driving cycles on a vehicle chassis dynamometer. In India, the requirement is to use the regulatory Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC), derived from the European Driving Cycle. The MIDC is a modal driving cycle with protracted periods at constant speed and uniform acceleration and deceleration patterns. It does not emulate typical road driving. In this study we instrument vehicles with off-the-shelf On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD) loggers to record actual drive data. The recorded vehicle speed profiles are then used as inputs for the vehicle simulation model we develop. The simulation model uses vehicle speed as an input and then calculates power required at the wheel, gear box, and Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) for the vehicle to achieve the measured speed profile. We use Willans Approximation to model the ICE fuel flow based on torque and speed.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0147
Stefan Lueckenbach, Uwe Moser, Bernd Haake, Johannes Frank
Abstract The decision to leapfrog from the Bharat Stage (BS) IV emission standards directly to the BS VI standards not only effects passenger and commercial vehicles but also India’s by far largest vehicle class, with regards to sales and production, the two-wheelers. The BS VI norm will not only tighten the emission standards, but it will also increase the required emission mileage level and upgrade the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) requirements, also by introducing In-Use Monitor Performance Ratio (IUMPR) standards. While OBD was already introduced for passenger and commercial vehicles with BS IV in 2010, OBD will be then newly introduced for two-wheelers.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0284
Anand Subramaniam, Ravindra Shah, Swapnil Ghugal, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Anand Deshpande
Abstract On-board diagnostics (OBD) is a term referring to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability. It is a system originally designed to reduce emissions by monitoring the performance of major emission related components. There are two kinds of on-board diagnostic systems: OBD-I and OBD-II. In India OBD I was implemented from April 2010 for BS IV vehicles. OBD II was implemented from April 2013 for BS IV vehicles. Apart from the comprehensive component monitors, OBD II system also has noncontinuous monitors like Catalyst monitoring, Lambda monitoring, and other after treatment system monitors. For OBD II verification and Validation, it is required to test all the sensors and actuators that are present in the engine, for all possible failures. From an emissions point of view there are lists of critical failures that are caused due to malfunction of sensors and actuators.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0348
Renny Mathew
In automotive electronics on-board diagnostics does the fault diagnosis and reporting. It provides the level of robustness required for the control electronics against various faults. The amount of diagnostic information available via on board diagnostics are depends on the type of vehicle. Pre-supply fuel pump is the component in the common rail hydraulic system. It pumps the fuel from the fuel tank to the inlet valve of the high pressure fuel pump. Electronic control unit synchronizes its operation with high pressure fuel pump. A dedicated driver module in the ECU controls the operation of pre-supply fuel pump. The driver module consist of an ASIC with internal voltage, current monitoring modules for the fault diagnosis and the pre-drivers to control external HS and LS power stages. The software part of the OBD programmed in the internal memory of the ASIC. The “Rds_on” of the power MOSFETs are used for the fault detection purpose.
CURRENT
2016-12-13
Standard
J2012DA_201612
The J2012 Digital Annex of Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions Spreadsheet provides DTC information in an excel format for use in your organization's work processes. The column headings include the same information as contained in the J2012 standard.

There is also a column heading denoting which DTC have been updated in the current version.

CURRENT
2016-12-13
Standard
J2012_201612
This document supersedes SAE J2012 DEC2007, and is technically equivalent to ISO 15031-6:2010 with the exceptions described in 1.2. This document is intended to define the standardized Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) that On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems in vehicles are required to report when malfunctions are detected. SAE J2012 may also be used for decoding of enhanced diagnostic DTCs and specifies the ranges reserved for vehicle manufacturer specific usage.
2016-11-03
WIP Standard
AIR6805
This document will outline existing best practices in the instrumentation of landing gears for in-service operation (including flight test, operational loads monitoring, etc.).
CURRENT
2016-10-25
Standard
J1939/13_201610
SAE J1939-13 specifies the diagnostic connectors used for off-board connection to a vehicle’s SAE J1939 communication links. The defined diagnostic connectors support connection to the twisted shielded pair media (SAE J1939-11), the unshielded twisted pair (SAE J1939-15), the twisted pair of (SAE J1939-14), as well as the twisted unshielded quad media (ISO 11783-2).
2016-10-18
WIP Standard
J1930DA
This Digital Annex contains all of the information previously found within the SAE J1930 tables, including diagnostic terms applicable to electrical/electronic systems and related mechanical terms, definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms.
2016-10-13
WIP Standard
J3005-2
SAE J3005-2 describes OBD interface security guidelines for J1979 communications and best practices for telematic devices connected with the SAE J1962 OBD vehicle connector.
CURRENT
2016-09-14
Standard
AS1145C
This specification covers minimum requirements for brake temperature monitoring equipment whenever used on any type and model of civil aircraft. It shall be the responsibility of the purchaser to determine the compatibility of these requirements with the application aircraft and to specify requirements in excess of these minimums as necessary.
2016-09-07
WIP Standard
J3005-1
SAE J3005-1 is being published as a new document which replaces J3005:20140602 ( Guidance for Remote I/M programs, Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS), GPS, Wireless-LAN or Bluetooth interfaces and insurance devices.) The SAE J3005-1 devices are not intended to be used for SAE J1699-3 vehicle validation testing. The document focuses on OBD mandated communication protocols defined in SAE J1979.
2016-09-06
WIP Standard
J2819
This Technical Information Report defines the diagnostic communication protocol TP2.0. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface. Some Volkswagen of America and Audi of America vehicles are equipped with ECU(s), in which a TP2.0 proprietary diagnostic communication protocol is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface.
2016-09-06
WIP Standard
J2818
This Technical Information Report defines the diagnostic communication protocol Keyword Protocol 1281 (KWP1281). This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface. Some Volkswagen of America and Audi of America vehicles are equipped with ECUs, in which a KWP1281 proprietary diagnostic communication protocol is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the KWP1281 protocol in enough detail to support the requirements necessary to implement the communication protocol in an SAE J2534 interface device.
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