Criteria

Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 496
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0065
Riccardo Basso, Hans-Jürgen Schacht, Schmidt Stephan, Roland Kirchberger, Matthias Rath, Markus Neumayer, Christian Reisenberger
Small engines for non-automotive and two wheeler applications have a reduced number of sensors. For fulfilling emission regulations a cost effective way is an enhanced use of standard sensors in order to obtain more information from the existing sensors. The delivered information can then be used for an on-board diagnosis. Moreover, it is important to control the quality of the product during engine production; therefore an end-of-line cold engine test is often made. With this measure it is possible to detect faults, wrong tolerances or assembly in order not to deliver faulty engines to the customers. In this paper, an enhanced use of sensors for fault detection will be discussed. It is possible to obtain more information from the signal or to use the sensor for detecting other parameters. For extracting information signal analysis methods will be used with focus on the computational power need since the ECU performance is limited.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0052
Katsunori Tasaki
Misfire is the condition where the engine does not fire correctly due to an ignition miss or poor combustion of the air fuel mixture, resulting in serious deterioration of tailpipe emissions due to the discharge of unburned gas. In order to prevent further exacerbating environmental problems, misfire detection is obligatory in On Board Diagnosis (OBD) II systems. OBD II technology for passenger cars cannot be easily adopted to motorcycles for several reasons. However, very little research has been reported on misfire detection for an unevenly firing engine in which the degree of contribution to engine output and the variation pattern of angular velocity show a large difference between cylinders, an aspect that is unique to motorcycles. This research focuses on uneven firing V-twin motorcycle engines, to explore misfire detection techniques using variation characters in crank angular velocity.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2372
Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Shun Oooka, Lin Jiang, Jun Goto, Hideyuki Ogawa, Gen Shibata
Abstract To monitor emission-related components/systems and to evaluate the presence of malfunctioning or failures that can affect emissions, current diesel engine regulations require the use of on-board diagnostics (OBD). For diesel particulate filters (DPF), the pressure drop across the DPF is monitored by the OBD as the pressure drop is approximately linear related to the soot mass deposited in a filter. However, sudden acceleration may cause a sudden decrease in DPF pressure drop under cold start conditions. This appears to be caused by water that has condensed in the exhaust pipe, but no detailed mechanism for this decrease has been established. The present study developed an experimental apparatus that reproduces rapid increases of the exhaust gas flow under cold start conditions and enables independent control of the amount of water as well as the gas flow rate supplied to the DPF.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1629
Jing Wang, John Michelini, Yan Wang, Michael H. Shelby
Abstract Time to torque (TTT) is a quantity used to measure the transient torque response of turbocharged engines. It is referred as the time duration from an idle-to-full step torque command to the time when 95% of maximum torque is achieved. In this work, we seek to control multiple engine actuators in a collaborative way such that the TTT is minimized. We pose the TTT minimization problem as an optimization problem by parameterizing each engine actuator’s transient trajectory as Fourier series, followed by minimizing proper cost function with the optimization of those Fourier coefficients. We first investigate the problem in CAE environment by constructing an optimization framework that integrates high-fidelity GT (Gamma Technology) POWER engine model and engine actuators’ Simulink model into ModeFrontier computation platform. We conduct simulation optimization study on two different turbocharged engines under this framework with evolutionary computation algorithms.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1628
Atsushi Ito, Masahiro Kawano, Shohei Fujita
Abstract In gasoline direct injection (GDI) systems, various injection types are needed to reduce emissions and improve fuel consumption. This requires high-precision injection in the region in which the amount of injection is small. Achieving injection of a small amount of fuel using GDI solenoid injectors requires the use of the half-lift region. In this region, however, the variation in the injection amount tends to increase due to the variation in the lift behavior of the injectors, posing the problem of how to achieve high-precision injection. To reduce the variation, we analyzed the lift timing out of the injector current and voltage signal with the ECU in an attempt to adjust the amount of injection.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0975
Pankaj Kumar, Imad Makki
Abstract A three-way catalytic converter (TWC) is an emissions control device, used to treat the exhaust gases in a gasoline engine. The conversion efficiency of the catalyst, however, drops with age or customer usage and needs to be monitored on-line to meet the on board diagnostics (OBD II) regulations. In this work, a non-intrusive catalyst monitor is developed to diagnose the track the remaining useful life of the catalyst based on measured in-vehicle signals. Using air mass and the air-fuel ratio (A/F) at the front (upstream) and rear (downstream) of the catalyst, the catalyst oxygen storage capacity is estimated. The catalyst capacity and operating exhaust temperature are used as an input features for developing a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm based classifier to identify a threshold catalyst. In addition, the distance of the data points in hyperspace from the calibrated threshold plane is used to compute the remaining useful life left.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1631
Weizhe Qian, Henry Zhang
Abstract Double Clutch Transmission system becomes more and more popular in vehicles because of the fuel saving performance, cost efficiency and comfortable feeling during gear change. To save fuel consumption and reduce CO2 emissions, pump can be driven by an electric motor for oil pressure on demand. This paper will introduce a technical solution for sensorless control of an electric pump motor used in a DCT system. Oil pressure control is fulfilled by a speed controller of the oil pump motor. Some critical control requirements for the pump motor are short and reliable start-up stage, stable and accurate speed control. This paper will elaborate on the difficulties of oil pump sensorless control, and how to solve these difficulties with minimum electronic hardware. Test results will be presented. In conclusion, the proposed sensorless control strategy can meet application requirements and meanwhile provide a cost-effective and motor parameters-independent control solution.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1632
Norihiro Tsukamoto, Tomohiro Chimbe, Tomohiro Asami, Keisuke Ota, Seiji Masunaga
Abstract A new shift control system using a model-based control method for stepped automatic transmissions. Using a gear train numerical formula model, the model-based shift control system is constructed using minimum calibration parameters with feedforward and feedback controllers. It also adopts control target values for the input shaft revolution and output shaft torque, thus enabling precise control that provides the most suitable shift feeling in various driving situations and for various vehicle characteristics. Furthermore, the model-based shift control system improves robustness in terms of disturbance elements such as production tolerance, time degradation, and use environment. Toyota has adopted this model-based shift control system in its UA80/UB80 8-speed automatic transmissions for front-wheel-drive vehicles and its AGA0 10-speed automatic transmission for rear-wheel-drive vehicles. This paper describes the details of this model-based shift control system.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1662
Tom R. Markham, Alex Chernoguzov
Abstract The On-Board Diagnostics II (OBD-II) port began as a means of extracting diagnostic information and supporting the right to repair. Self-driving vehicles and cellular dongles plugged into the OBD-II port were not anticipated. Researchers have shown that the cellular modem on an OBD-II dongle may be hacked, allowing the attacker to tamper with the vehicle brakes. ADAS, self-driving features and other vehicle functions may be vulnerable as well. The industry must balance the interests of multiple stakeholders including Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) who are required to provide OBD function, repair shops which have a legitimate need to access the OBD functions, dongle providers and drivers. OEMs need the ability to protect drivers and manage liability by limiting how a device or software application may modify the operation of a vehicle.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0901
Alex Pink, Adam Ragatz, Lijuan Wang, Eric Wood, Jeffrey Gonder
Abstract Vehicles continuously report real-time fuel consumption estimates over their data bus, known as the controller area network (CAN). However, the accuracy of these fueling estimates is uncertain to researchers who collect these data from any given vehicle. To assess the accuracy of these estimates, CAN-reported fuel consumption data are compared against fuel measurements from precise instrumentation. The data analyzed consisted of eight medium/heavy-duty vehicles and two medium-duty engines. Varying discrepancies between CAN fueling rates and the more accurate measurements emerged but without a vehicular trend-for some vehicles the CAN under-reported fuel consumption and for others the CAN over-reported fuel consumption. Furthermore, a qualitative real-time analysis revealed that the operating conditions under which these fueling discrepancies arose varied among vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1630
Yiu Heng Cheung, Zhijia Yang, Richard Stobart
Abstract Since the first stop-start system introduced in 1983, more and more vehicles have been equipped with this kind of automatic engine control system. Recently, it was found that there is strong correlation between engine resting position and the subsequent engine start time. The utilization of the synchronization time working from a required engine stop position prior the engine start request was shown to reduce start times. Hence the position control of an engine during shutdown becomes more significant. A naturally aspirated engine was modelled using the GT-Suite modelling environment to facilitate the development of position controllers using Simulink ®. The use of respectively the throttle and a belt mounted motor generator to provide a control input was considered. Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID), sliding mode and deadbeat control strategies were each used in this study.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1419
Smruti Panigrahi, Jianbo Lu, Sanghyun Hong
Abstract Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0950
Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Andrew Herman, Leslie Bromberg, Vitaly Prikhodko, James Parks, John Storey
Abstract The increasing use of diesel and gasoline particulate filters requires advanced on-board diagnostics (OBD) to prevent and detect filter failures and malfunctions. Early detection of upstream (engine-out) malfunctions is paramount to preventing irreversible damage to downstream aftertreatment system components. Such early detection can mitigate the failure of the particulate filter resulting in the escape of emissions exceeding permissible limits and extend the component life. However, despite best efforts at early detection and filter failure prevention, the OBD system must also be able to detect filter failures when they occur. In this study, radio frequency (RF) sensors were used to directly monitor the particulate filter state of health for both gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1008
Antti Rostedt, Leonidas D. Ntziachristos, Pauli Simonen, Topi Rönkkö, Zissis C. Samaras, Risto Hillamo, Kauko Janka, Jorma Keskinen
Abstract In this article we present a design of a new miniaturized sensor with the capacity to measure exhaust particle concentrations on board vehicles and engines. The sensor is characterized by ultra-fast response time, high sensitivity, and a wide dynamic range. In addition, the physical dimensions of the sensor enable its placement along the exhaust line. The concentration response and temporal performance of a prototype sensor are discussed and characterized with aerosol laboratory test measurements. The sensor performance was also tested with actual engine exhaust in both chassis and engine dynamometer measurements. These measurements demonstrate that the sensor has the potential to meet and even exceed any requirements around the world in terms of on-board diagnostic (OBD) sensitivity and frequency of monitoring.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0284
Anand Subramaniam, Ravindra Shah, Swapnil Ghugal, Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Anand Deshpande
Abstract On-board diagnostics (OBD) is a term referring to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability. It is a system originally designed to reduce emissions by monitoring the performance of major emission related components. There are two kinds of on-board diagnostic systems: OBD-I and OBD-II. In India OBD I was implemented from April 2010 for BS IV vehicles. OBD II was implemented from April 2013 for BS IV vehicles. Apart from the comprehensive component monitors, OBD II system also has noncontinuous monitors like Catalyst monitoring, Lambda monitoring, and other after treatment system monitors. For OBD II verification and Validation, it is required to test all the sensors and actuators that are present in the engine, for all possible failures. From an emissions point of view there are lists of critical failures that are caused due to malfunction of sensors and actuators.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0348
Renny Mathew
In automotive electronics on-board diagnostics does the fault diagnosis and reporting. It provides the level of robustness required for the control electronics against various faults. The amount of diagnostic information available via on board diagnostics are depends on the type of vehicle. Pre-supply fuel pump is the component in the common rail hydraulic system. It pumps the fuel from the fuel tank to the inlet valve of the high pressure fuel pump. Electronic control unit synchronizes its operation with high pressure fuel pump. A dedicated driver module in the ECU controls the operation of pre-supply fuel pump. The driver module consist of an ASIC with internal voltage, current monitoring modules for the fault diagnosis and the pre-drivers to control external HS and LS power stages. The software part of the OBD programmed in the internal memory of the ASIC. The “Rds_on” of the power MOSFETs are used for the fault detection purpose.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0110
Lasse Moklegaard, Amitabh Saran
Abstract Truck and car manufacturers are required to satisfy certain emission standards while driving regulatory prescribed driving cycles on a vehicle chassis dynamometer. In India, the requirement is to use the regulatory Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC), derived from the European Driving Cycle. The MIDC is a modal driving cycle with protracted periods at constant speed and uniform acceleration and deceleration patterns. It does not emulate typical road driving. In this study we instrument vehicles with off-the-shelf On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD) loggers to record actual drive data. The recorded vehicle speed profiles are then used as inputs for the vehicle simulation model we develop. The simulation model uses vehicle speed as an input and then calculates power required at the wheel, gear box, and Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) for the vehicle to achieve the measured speed profile. We use Willans Approximation to model the ICE fuel flow based on torque and speed.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0147
Stefan Lueckenbach, Uwe Moser, Bernd Haake, Johannes Frank
Abstract The decision to leapfrog from the Bharat Stage (BS) IV emission standards directly to the BS VI standards not only effects passenger and commercial vehicles but also India’s by far largest vehicle class, with regards to sales and production, the two-wheelers. The BS VI norm will not only tighten the emission standards, but it will also increase the required emission mileage level and upgrade the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) requirements, also by introducing In-Use Monitor Performance Ratio (IUMPR) standards. While OBD was already introduced for passenger and commercial vehicles with BS IV in 2010, OBD will be then newly introduced for two-wheelers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0072
Jihas Khan
Abstract Unified Diagnostic Service and On Board Diagnostics require a client side device with necessary software to implement certain specific algorithms. This paper proposes a highly optimized and generic model based architecture to implement client side algorithms used in Unified Diagnostic Service systems and with On Board Diagnostics which can be reused for any hardware target. The proposed method can implement particular algorithms which include flow control, timing control, database parsing, logging of messages, diagnostic database parsing, security unlock, intuitive HMI layer, DTC display with textual information, frame control, multi network - multi ECU support, software flashing, physical-functional message handling, and interfacing for multiple hardware host devices. Re-usability of this model based product ensures that it can be ported to the diagnostic tool used by a work shop engineer or by a diagnostics validation engineer working at OEM or Tier 1suppliers.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0044
Sung Yul Chu, Sung Eun Jo, Kyoungbok Lee, Kwang Chul Oh, Jong Rim Lee
Abstract On-board diagnostics (OBD) of diesel vehicles require various sensors to detect system malfunctions. The Particulate Matter (PM) sensor is one of OBD devices which gather information which could be critical in determining a crack in the diesel particulate filters (DPFs). The PM sensor detects PM which penetrates cracked DPFs and converts the amount of PM into electrical values. The PM sensor control unit (SCU) receives those analog signals and converts them to digital values through hardware and software solutions. A capacitive sensing method would be a stable solution because it detects not raw analog signals but electrical charges or a time constant going through the capacitive load. Therefore, amount of PM would be converted reasonable value of capacitance even though there is a little amount of PM.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0611
Dejan Kihas, Daniel Pachner, Lubomir Baramov, Michael Uchanski, Priya Naik, Nassim Khaled
Abstract The interest for NOx estimators (also known as virtual sensors or inferential sensors) has increased over the recent years due to benefits attributed to cost and performance. NOx estimators are typically installed to improve On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) monitors or to lower bill of material costs by replacing physical NOx sensors. This paper presents initial development results of a virtual engine-out NOx estimator planned for the implementation on an ECM. The presented estimator consists of an airpath observer and a NOx combustion model. The role of the airpath observer is to provide input values for the NOx combustion model such as the states of the gas at the intake and exhaust manifolds. It contains a nonlinear mean-value model of the airpath suitably transformed for an efficient and robust implementation on an ECM. The airpath model uses available sensory information in the vehicle to correct predictions of the gas states.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0960
Arifumi Matsumoto, Kenji Furui, Makoto Ogiso, Toru Kidokoro
Abstract Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems are a promising technology for helping to lower NOx emissions from diesel engines. These systems also require on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems to detect malfunctioning catalysts. Conventional OBD methodology for a SCR catalyst involves the measurement of NOx concentration downstream of the catalyst. However, considering future OBD regulations, erroneous diagnostics may occur due to variations in the actual environment. Therefore, to enhance OBD accuracy, a new methodology was examined that utilizes NH3 slip as a new diagnostic parameter in addition to NOx. NH3 slip increases as the NOx reduction performance degrades, because both phenomena are based on deterioration in the capability of the SCR catalyst to adsorb NH3. Furthermore, NH3 can be measured by existing NOx sensors because NH3 is oxidized to NO internally. To make use of NH3 slip, an estimation model was developed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0633
Yichao Guo
Abstract Per California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulations, On-board diagnostic (OBD) of vehicle powertrain systems are required to continuously monitor key powertrain components, such as the circuit discontinuity of actuators, various circuit faults of sensors, and out-of-range faults of sensors. The maturing and clearing of these continuous monitoring faults are critical to simplification of algorithm design, save of engineering cost (i.e., calibration), and reduction of warranty issues. Due to the nature of sensors (to sense different physical quantities) and actuators (to output energy in desired ways), most of OEM and supplies tend to choose different fault maturing and clearing strategy for sensors and actuators with different physics nature, such as timer-based, counter-based, and other physical-quantity-based strategies.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1574
Matthew Schwall, Anmol Garg, Jason Shiverick, Matthew Conley
Abstract This paper presents findings based on the examination of time-series tire pressure data. Tire pressure is important to vehicle safety due to its effects on vehicle handling and stability, as well as the impact that inappropriate tire pressure has on tire wear and tire failures. Previous research such as NHTSA’s 2001 Tire Pressure Special Study sampled vehicle populations and recorded tire pressures at a single point in time. Such studies yield important insights into tire pressures on individual vehicles and across the vehicle populations, but cannot provide insights into the behavior of tire pressures over time. The data presented in this paper was measured using the tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) data from Tesla Model S vehicles. Using Tesla’s on-board diagnostic data logging and remote data retrieval capabilities, the time history of each vehicle’s tire pressures was recorded and fleet-wide data was analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0073
Peter Subke, Muzafar Moshref
Abstract Passenger cars are equipped with an OBD connector according to SAE J1962 / ISO 15031-3. Passenger cars that support ISO UDS on DoIP use the same connector with Ethernet pins according to ISO/DIS 13400-4 (Ethernet diagnostic connector). If external test equipment is connected to the Ethernet diagnostic connector via a 100BASE-TX cable with the RJ45 connector at the tester, a VCI is not necessary anymore. With a device that fits the Ethernet diagnostic connector physically and acts as a converter between the Ethernet signals and WLAN, external test equipment that supports wireless communication, can be connected to the vehicle. Examples for such wireless external test equipment include Android/iOS- based smart phones and tablets with purpose-made applications (APPs). The software components of external test equipment are standardized in ISO 22900 (MVCI). The MVCI D-Server processes data in ODX (ISO 22901) and sequences in OTX (ISO 13209).
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0184
Leonardo de Oliveira Costa, Bruno Tadeu Pavão, Rodrigo Silva Santos, Gustavo Rodrigues Caldeira
Abstract Due to the constant environmental preoccupation, application of increasingly sophisticated technologies for control of motor vehicle pollutants and necessity of monitoring of such systems, the Embedded Emissions Monitoring System (OBD) was implemented with the primary function of ensuring that the pollutant emissions levels stay within the homologation limits during the whole vehicle useful life. For this reason electronic systems (such as sensors, actuators and model-based functions) are increasingly being used for powertrain control, thereby increasing the complexity of such systems. As a consequence the software fine tuning is also becoming more complex leading to increase of costs during the development phase. In this paper is presented theoretical and practical analysis of the OBD system for Otto (L6) and Diesel (L6 / P7) systems in order to evaluate the differences and identify possible synergies between both applications.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1953
Shuhui Yow, Steve Nattrass, Wayne R. Jones
Enhanced octane is one route to fuels differentiation where associated vehicle performance benefits are generally measured under controlled wide-open throttle tests on a chassis dynamometer. The combined availabilities of relevant ECU data via OBD and telematic loggers present new opportunities to assess such fuel benefits on the road in normal real-world driving environments. A novel methodology is described in this paper which utilised the remote logging of key engine EOBD data from a fleet trial and the results successfully demonstrated significant octane-derived benefits in many vehicles throughout normal mixed-roads driving. The availability and the reliability of telematic loggers mean that the method could be implemented in a scalable way as a complementary approach in addition to conventional laboratory vehicle testing.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1040
Harsha K. Nanjundaswamy, Joel Deussen, Roger Van Sickle, Dean Tomazic, Tamas Szailer, Michael Franke, Matthias Kotter, Thomas Koerfer
Abstract Upcoming motor vehicle emission regulations, such as California's LEVIII, continue to tighten emission limitations in diesel vehicles. These increasingly challenging emission requirements will be met by improving the combustion process (reducing engine-out emissions), as well as improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment efficiency. Furthermore, intricate On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) systems are required to properly diagnose and meet OBD regulation requirements for complex aftertreatment systems. Under these conditions, current monitoring strategies are unable to guarantee reliable detection of partially failed systems. Additionally, new OBD regulations require aftertreatment systems to be diagnosed as a whole. This paper covers potential OBD strategies for LEVIII aftertreatment concepts with regard to regulation compliance and robustness, while striving to use existing sensor concepts.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0210
S Kevin Chen, Li-Chun Chien, Masaki Nagashima, Joel Van Ess, Sam Hashemi
Abstract Misfire detection and monitoring on US passenger vehicles are required to comply with detailed and specific requirements contained in the OBD-II regulations. Numerous technical papers and patents discuss various methods and metrics for detecting misfire in conventional all-cylinder firing engines. However, the current methods are generally not suitable for detecting misfires in a dynamic skip fire engine. For example, a detection approach based on peak crankshaft angular acceleration may work well in conventional, all-cylinder firing engine operation, since it is expected that crankshaft acceleration will remain generally consistent for a given operating condition. In a skip fire engine, any cylinder or cycle may be skipped. As a result, the crankshaft acceleration peaks and profiles may change abruptly as the firing sequence changes. This paper presents two approaches for detecting misfires in a dynamic skip fire engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0207
Xiping Ma, Zhenchun Xia, Haotian Wu, Xianan Huang
Abstract Powertrain diagnosis has been demanded with growth & complexity of powertrain electronic control system and enforcement of law & regulation in the last decades. In regulation OBD II, requirement of misfire monitoring has been demanded much more strictly. A variety of diagnosis methods for misfire have been proposed and developed, however most of them either depend greatly on special or expensive sensors or suffer from the disturbance of vibration due to non-misfire reasons. One combination of Frequency Domain Analysis and Fuzzy Logic to perform the misfire diagnosis is proposed. It takes full advantage of property of frequency domain analysis and fuzzy logic, providing accurate and robust detection results, without adding additional hardware diagnosis instruments.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 496

Filter