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2015-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0206
Jihas Khan
Existing encryption technique used for flashing ECU software, writing or reading the internal ECU variable values is based on a seed-key mechanism. A multitude of existing techniques can be used for finding the algorithm behind key generation from a specific seed. This hacking technique can allow a stranger to flash ECU software of his choice, to change internal variables, to change the VIN number of ECU, to lock/unlock doors and a lot more using diagnostic commands over CAN. Car thieves, car hackers can exploit this hidden feature to alter performance from stock and may prove dangerous to lives of passengers. A novel and fool proof algorithm is established and explained here to protect vehicle and ECU from such malicious activities. An advanced encryption technique is developed and tested in ECU for replacing the current seed-key mechanisms for ECU security unlock guarantying a secure operation of vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1643
Benedikt Von Imhoff, Johannes Zweck, Georg Wachtmeister
Modern methods of engine development use complex mathematical model approaches, which need to be applied using a multitude of accurate and repeatable measurements. Advanced components like variable valve trains or direct injection systems result in an increasing number of degrees of freedom and therefore in additionally required measurements. Both leads to higher efforts regarding time, staff and costs, why it becomes crucial to improve measurement techniques in order to reduce the required time and enhance the quality. Many of the models above consider the simulated system being stationary, i.e. the system variables would no longer change with time. Therefore the calibration measurements also have to be conducted at stationary system states to be valid and moreover to be comparable and repeatable.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1638
Dejan Kihas, Michael R. Uchanski
Due to stringent emissions regulations, engine-out NOx has emerged as a critical signal for control and on-board diagnosis (OBD) of diesel engines and their aftertreatment systems. A physical NOx sensor mounted upstream of NOx aftertreatment devices often provides this essential signal. Recently, numerous researchers and OEMs have used on-ECU computations to estimate the engine-out NOx level. Such work is typically undertaken to either improve OBD monitors or to lower bill of material cost by removing the sensor. These on-ECU NOx estimators are sometimes called inferential sensors or virtual sensors. This paper reviews the literature on-ECU embedded NOx inferential sensors in order to paint a picture of the current state of the art and to identify directions for future work.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0210
S Kevin Chen, Li-Chun Chien, Masaki Nagashima, Joel Van Ess, Sam Hashemi
Misfire Detection in a Dynamic Skip Fire Engine Kevin Chen, Ricky Chien, Masaki Nagashima, Joel Van Ess and Sam Hashemi Abstract Misfire detection is one of the monitors that have the most specific and detailed requirements in the OBD-II regulations. There have been a number of technical papers in the literature discussing various methods and metrics for detecting misfire in conventional all-cylinder firing engines. However, those misfire detection systems are generally not suitable for detecting misfire in a dynamic skip fire engine. For example, a detection approach based on crankshaft angular acceleration may work well in conventional, all-cylinder firing engine operation, since it is expected that crankshaft acceleration will remain generally consistent for a given operating condition. In skip fire engine operation, however, any working cylinder or working cycle may be skipped.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0208
Hongtao Yu, Reza Langari
In order to prevent accidents caused by vehicle problems and drivers’ misapplication of vehicle controls, a detection system to perform real-time identification of abnormal vehicle behaviors is needed, which is an inherently complex task. Research efforts to this end include Sang et al. [1], which implemented an approach to abnormal behavior identification by performing video-based detection and creating information chain of tracked vehicles. Meanwhile, Bouttefroy et al. [2] introduced a paradigm for abnormal behavior detection relying on the integration of contextual information in Markov random fields. This technique models the local density of object feature vector and leads to simple and elegant criterion for behavior classification. Likewise, Chen et al. [3] presented an approach to detect potential ECU application software abnormal behavior based on the Mahalanobis Distance, the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and vehicle driving data playback capability with a simulator.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0209
Lihil Uthpala Subasinghe, Dilan Mendis, Tharindu Chandima, Nirosh Jayaweera, Sasiranga De Silva
Fault detection and diagnosis for automobile engines are very important to ensure reliable operation of the engine. Most of the faults in an automobile engine cannot be detected in real time. Detecting faults and its’ location, without dismantling the engine is very difficult. On-board diagnostic (OBD) systems in modern vehicles can be used to detect engine faults up to some extent. However, OBD systems are not accurate enough in certain conditions and technicians have difficulties when interpreting information. OBD method cannot be used for old vehicles because those vehicles do not have OBD systems. Hence, these factors necessitate the development of intelligent and accurate diagnosis method for troubleshooting automobile engine faults. Therefore in this research, a mathematical model was developed to identify engine faults through the simulation of Instantaneous Angular Speed Fluctuation (IASF) of crank shaft.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0588
Julian Mauricio Echeverry, Virgilio Vasquez, Jorge Aguirre, Diego Contreras
This document presents a methodology for obtaining the vehicle performance curves and values by means of the OBD2 port for a specific vehicle. In particular the Torque - Power engine curves, acceleration and braking performances following the SAE guidelines. Additionally we obtain the gear ratios and the wheel dynamic rolling radius to get a more realistic performance. The paper also includes a comparison between two methods for the data acquisition for a low cost implementation when there is no access to a chassis dynamometer, being the main difference between the two the data acquisition time interval.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0018
Anshul Agarwal, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, R Arvind
With growing need for air quality improvement the emission norms are becoming stringent than ever, triggering a challenge for OEMs. This is because selection of appropriate technology to meet stringent emission standard and engine performance has to be ensured with improved fuel efficiency, and control cost. To comply with future emission standards, intensive efforts are required to optimize the overall engine out emissions with reduce dependency on exhaust after treatment systems. This paper highlights about strategies employed in developing BS V emissions compliant engine for SUV application. The authors have assumed the limits of EURO 5 emission norms as equivalent to BS5 for this purpose. An existing BS IV compliant engine is selected as a base engine and engine out emission targets were defined considering certain conversion efficiency for the after treatment system.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0101
Arun Sivasubrahmaniyan, Abhishek Kumar Jaishwal, Girish R Warrier, Sriram Tharaneetharan, Kalyan Hatti
Abstract This paper describes a methodology for design and development of On-Board Diagnostic system (OBD) with an objective to improve current reliability process in order to ensure design & quality of the new system as per requirement of commercial vehicle technology. OBD is a system that detects failures which adversely affect emissions and illuminates a MIL (Malfunction Indicator Lamp) to inform the driver of a fault which may lead to increase in emissions. OBD provides standard and unrestricted access for diagnosis and repair. Below given Figure 1 shows the working principle of OBD system. The exhaust emission of a vehicle will be controlled primarily by Engine Control Unit (ECU) and Exhaust Gas After Treatment Control (EGAS CU). These two control units determine the combined operating strategies of the engine and after treatment device. Figure 1 Modern Control Architecture for OBD System in Commercial vehicle [1
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0104
Santhoji Katare, Carolyn Hubbard, Seha Son
Abstract Aftertreatment system design involves multiple tradeoffs between engine performance, fuel economy, regulatory emission levels, packaging, and cost. Selection of the best design solution (or “architecture”) is often based on an assumption that inherent catalyst activity is unaffected by location within the system. However, this study acknowledges that catalyst activity can be significantly impacted by location in the system as a result of varying thermal exposure, and this in turn can impact the selection of an optimum system architecture. Vehicle experiments with catalysts aged over a range of mild to moderate to severe thermal conditions that accurately reflect select locations on a vehicle were conducted on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle test data indicated CO and NOx could be minimized with a catalyst placed in an intermediate location.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0110
Balaji Balasubramanian
Abstract This paper describes the system architecture together with control and diagnostics features of an indigenously developed electric vehicle controller for Light Commercial Vehicle. The key functions of vehicle controller include power management, driveline controls, regeneration and vehicle mode controls. In particular this paper presents vehicle's operational strategy in economy, normal and performance modes based on the vehicle speed and SOC. It also has feature to enable vehicle operation in reduced performance mode at low battery voltages. The battery fault predictor algorithm is also described in detail that is used to control discharge current to prevent sudden dip in SOC and to increase battery life. The vehicle control strategy is modeled & simulated using MATLAB™ environment and results for a specific test case are validated with embedded controllers-in-the-loop in a test-bench environment.
2015-01-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9102
Mauro Madonia, Antonio Di Furia, Samantha Bonasia, Dean Vucinic
Abstract This paper presents a structural analysis of an engine chassis for a disc-shaped airship demonstrator. The objective was to verify such design solutions for application in the European Union's MAAT (Multibody Advanced Airship for Transport) project. In many airship designs, the engines are attached to the airship frame, located inside the balloon, in order to allow for thrust vector control. These airships have aerodynamic control surfaces to improve maneuverability. For the demonstrator, three engines are considered, with a non-rigid internal structure for their attachment. The engines are located on a horizontal plane (the symmetry plane of the balloon), with two lateral engines and one in front of the balloon. The chassis installation allows the engines to be attached either directly to the exterior envelope by using Kevlar connections, or to the central structural pipe.
2014-12-03
Standard
J3005_201412
The scope of the document is to define communication best practices in order to minimize problems for the vehicle owner when installing equipment which has a permanently or semi-permanently diagnostic communication device connected to the SAE J1962 connector or hardwired directly to the in-vehicle network.
2014-11-18
Magazine
Oil debris monitoring in aero engines In a gas turbine engine, small particles or "chips" are generated at the point of wear, serving as an advanced warning that catastrophic failure will occur if the wear is not addressed. Health monitoring systems, such as oil debris monitoring, are used to find these small particles so that the wear can be resolved before it's too late. Indigenous powertrain development Customer needs and expectations on drivability, fuel economy, and safety has pushed Indian and multinational OEMs to think about the development of powertrains and gearboxes for local needs with global standards. The next wave of crash simulation As computing speed has improved and software itself has made significant speed and performance gains with each release, modeling tools are now quick enough to build high-quality, large, high-detail vehicle models in a very efficient manner.
2014-11-13
WIP Standard
AIR5358A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) was prepared by a panel of the SAE A-5 Committee. This document establishes the specifications for fluids used in landing gear shock struts with extreme pressure and antiwear additives that have been added for improved lubrication.
2014-11-10
Book
Ian K. Jennions
Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned is the fourth title in the IVHM series published by SAE International. This new book introduces a variety of case studies, lessons learned, and insights on what it really means to develop, implement, or manage an integrated system of systems. Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned brings to the reader a wide set of hands-on stories, made possible by the contribution of twenty-three authors, who agreed to share their experience and wisdom on how new technologies are developed and put to work. This effort was again coordinated by Dr. Ian K. Jennions, Director of the IVHM Centre at Cranfield University (UK), and editor of the previous books in the series.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2590
Yuanzhe Zhong, Sahil Sane
Abstract Electronic controls in internal combustion engines require an in-cylinder combustion sensor to produce a feedback signal to the ECU (Engine Control Unit). Recent research indicated that the ion current sensor has many advantages over the pressure transducer, related mainly to lower cost. Modified glow plugs in diesel engines, and fuel injectors in both gasoline and diesel engines can be utilized as ion current sensors without the addition any part or drilling holes in the cylinder head needed for the pressure transducer. Multi sensing fuel injector (MSFI) system is a new technique which instruments the fuel injector with an electric circuit to perform multiple sensing tasks including functioning as an ion sensor in addition to its primary task of delivering the fuel into the cylinder. It is necessary to fundamentally understand MSFI system.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2589
Chunshan Li, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong
Abstract The passive fault-tolerant approach for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles has been investigated in this study. An adaptive control based passive fault-tolerant controller is designed to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability when an actuator fault happens. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures with the inequality constraints; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using Model Predictive Control (MPC); 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that redistributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels with equality constrained optimization.
2014-10-08
Standard
AIR6226
Most of the Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer Actuators (THSA) feature a dual structural load path, the primary load path being loaded, the secondary load path being normally unloaded, or both load paths sharing in parallel the Horizontal Stabilizer load. This document describes existing methods for detecting rupture or disconnection of loaded load paths as an overview for those specifying or designing Horizontal Stabilizer Trim Actuators in order to compare existing solutions as reference for implementation in new aircraft programs.
2014-08-11
Standard
J1979_201408
SAE J1979 / ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
2014-07-29
Standard
AIR5372A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the design approaches used for current applications of aircraft Brake-by-Wire (BBW) control systems. The document also discusses the experience gained during service, and covers system, ergonomic, hardware, and development aspects. The document includes the lessons that have been learned during application of the technology. Although there are a variety of approaches that have been used in the design of BBW systems, the main focus of this document is on the current state of the art systems.
2014-07-11
Standard
AS1188A
This specification covers minimum design and test requirements for aircraft tire inflation-deflation equipment for use on all types of aircraft. It shall be the responsibility of the airframe manufacturer to determine the compatibility of the requirement with the applicable aircraft and to specify requirements in excess of these minimums as necessary.
2014-06-26
WIP Standard
J1979DA
On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations require passenger cars, and light and medium duty trucks, to support communication of a minimum set of diagnostic information to off-board “generic” test equipment. This document specifies the diagnostic data which may be required to be supported by motor vehicles and external test equipment for diagnostic purposes which pertain to motor vehicle emission-related data. SAE J1979 was originally developed to meet U.S. OBD requirements for 1996 and later model year vehicles. ISO 15031 5 was based on SAE J1979 and was intended to combine the U.S. requirements with European OBD requirements for 2000 and later model year vehicles.
2014-06-10
Standard
J1979DA_201406
On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations require passenger cars, and light and medium duty trucks, to support communication of a minimum set of diagnostic information to off-board “generic” test equipment. This document specifies the diagnostic data which may be required to be supported by motor vehicles and external test equipment for diagnostic purposes which pertain to motor vehicle emission-related data. SAE J1979 was originally developed to meet U.S. OBD requirements for 1996 and later model year vehicles. ISO 15031 5 was based on SAE J1979 and was intended to combine the U.S. requirements with European OBD requirements for 2000 and later model year vehicles.
2014-06-10
Standard
AIR5914
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides guidelines for the development of landing gear fatigue spectra for the purpose of designing and certification testing of Part 25 landing gear. Many of the recommendations herein are generalizations based on data obtained from a wide range of landing gears. The aircraft manufacturer or the landing gear supplier is encouraged to use data more specific to their particular undercarriage whenever possible.
2014-05-09
Journal Article
2014-01-9025
John O. Manyala
The emergence of tougher environmental legislations and ever increasing demand for increased ride comfort, fuel efficiency, and low emissions have triggered exploration and advances towards more efficient vehicle gearbox technologies. The growing complexity and spatial distribution of such a mechatronic gearbox demands precise timing and coordination of the embedded electronics, integrated sensors and actuators as well as excellent overall reliability. The increased gearbox distributed systems have seen an increased dependence on sensors for feedback control, predominantly relying on hardware redundancy for faults diagnosis. However, the conventional hardware redundancy has disadvantages due to increased costs, weight, volume, power requirements and failure rates. This paper presents a virtual position sensor-based Fault Detection, Isolation and Accommodation (FDIA), which generates an analytical redundancy for comparison against the actual sensor output.
2014-04-09
Standard
J1699/4_201404
To define a list of anomalies related to OBD Communications. Misinterpretations of various OBD Communications Standards and Recommended Practices have resulted in OBD “no-communications” situations in the field. This Information Report identifies the most prevalent of these.
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