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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0278
Philipp Bergmeir, Christof Nitsche, Jürgen Nonnast, Michael Bargende
In order to achieve high customer satisfaction and to avoid high warranty costs caused by component failures of the power-train of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), car manufacturers have to optimize the dimensioning of these elements. Hence, it is obligatory for them to gain knowledge about the different types of vehicle usage being predominant all over the world. Therefore, in this paper we present a Data Mining system that combines an Autoencoder, i.e., a special kind of Artificial Neural Network used for unsupervised representation learning, with t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding, i.e., a technique for dimensionality reduction, to automatically identify and visualize different types of vehicle usage by applying them to aggregated logged on-board data, i.e., load spectrum data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0072
Jihas Khan
Unified Diagnostic Service and On Board Diagnostics requires a client side device with a necessary software to implement certain specific algorithms. This paper is proposing a highly optimized, reusable and scalable model based software architecture for implementing these particular algorithms which include flow control, timing control, CAN database parsing, logging of messages, ODX/MDX database parsing, security unlock, intuitive HMI layer design, fault insertion hardware control, DTC display with textual information, frame control, multi network - multi ECU support, software flashing, physical-functional message handling, dll support for other software and interface for multiple hardware host devices. Re usability of this model based product ensures that it can be ported to the diagnostic tool used by a work shop engineer or by a diagnostics validation engineer working at OEM or Tier 1 side. This means that this software is hardware independent.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0073
Peter Subke, Muzafar Moshref
Especially in the production of passenger cars, the reprogramming of electronic control units can be considered as state-of-the art. Today, the automotive industry has to solve the problem that reprogramming of the ever-increasing amount of data takes too long. The CAN bus as interface hit the wall, CAN-FD might solve the problem, Ethernet will do. UDSonIP (ISO 14229) on DoIP (ISO 13400) and Ethernet (IEEE 802.11) are employed in the production of high-class passenger cars. On those vehicles, former discretionary pins of the OBD connector (SAE J1962) are used for the wired connection of external test equipment that supports UDSonIP. With a device that that fits the OBD connector and acts as a bridge between the Ethernet signals to WLAN, external test equipment that supports wireless communication, can be connected to the vehicle. Examples for such wireless devices include smart phones and tablets.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0643
Jian Zhang, Changwen Liu, Fengrong Bi, Yiqiang Pei, Xiaobo Bi
Knock threshold detection is the key of closed loop control of ignition in gasoline engine, and it is also the difficult point in knock measurement. In this paper, an investigation of knock detection in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines using bispectrum slice and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based on the engine cylinder head vibration signals. By adding some finite amplitude Gaussian white noises to the signal, EEMD keeps the signal continuous in different time span, and therefore the mode mixing inhering in the classical empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is alleviated. Power spectrum density (PSD) estimation is used to determine the band range of the resonance frequency generated by knock component. EEMD was used to decompose the original signals, the time-frequency characteristics of the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) were analyzed using Continues Wavelet Transform (CWT) due to its excellent time-frequency resolution.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0642
Understanding oil transport mechanisms is critical to developing better tools for oil consumption and piston skirt lubrication. Our existing Two-Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence (2DLIF) with an acquisition rate of 1 frame every one or two cycles was proven to be effective to display oil accumulation patterns and their evolution over many cycles in the piston ring pack system. Yet, the existing system is unable to resolve instantaneous oil flows in the piston system. In this work, a high-speed LIF system was developed. After a number of iterations the finalized high speed LIF system includes a 23 W, 100 kHz, 532 nm laser and a high speed camera capable of 100,000 FPS at 384 x 264 pixel resolution. After each component was selected, optimization of the quality of images taken from the system began. Each component in the optical system was tested for improvement of image quality; such components include: camera lens, beam expander, beam splitter, and optical filter.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0641
Thomas De Cuyper, Sam Bracke, Jolien Lavens, Stijn Broekaert, Kam Chana, Michel De Paepe, Sebastian Verhelst
To optimize internal combustion engines (ICEs), a good understanding of engine operation is essential. The heat transfer from the working gases to the combustion chamber walls plays an important role, not only in the performance, but also in the emissions of the engine. Besides, thermal management of ICEs is becoming more and more important as an additional tool for optimizing efficiency and emission aftertreatment. In contrast little is known about the convective heat transfer inside the combustion chamber due to the complexity of the working processes. Heat transfer measurements inside the combustion chamber pose a challenge in instrumentation due to the harsh environment. Additionally, the heat loss in a spark ignition (SI) engine shows a high temporal and spatial variation. In this paper we examine the heat transfer in a production SI ICE through the use of Thin Film Gauge (TFG) heat flux sensors. An inlet valve has been equipped with 7 TFG sensors in a row.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1574
Matthew Schwall, Anmol Garg, Jason Shiverick, Matthew Conley
This paper presents findings based on the examination of time-series tire pressure data. Tire pressure is important to vehicle safety due to its effects on vehicle handling and stability, as well as the effects that inappropriate tire pressure has on tread wear and tire and wheel damage. Previous research, such as NHTSA’s Tire Pressure Special Study in 2001, sampled vehicle populations and recorded tire pressures at a single point in time. Such studies yield important insights into tire pressures on individual vehicles and across the vehicle populations, but cannot provide insights into the behavior of tire pressures over time. The data presented in this paper was measured using the Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) included on all Tesla Model S vehicles. Using Tesla’s unique on-board data logging and remote data retrieval capabilities, the time history of each vehicle’s tire pressures was recorded and fleet-wide data was analyzed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0644
Syahar Shawal, Martin Goschutz, Martin Schild, Sebastian Kaiser, Marius Neurohr, Juergen Pfeil, Thomas Koch
Early flame-front propagation has been investigated in research engines with large optical access for quite some time. Usually, chemiluminescence is visualized with sensitive camera systems and the images can then be used to, e.g., determine flame shape and flame-front propagation speed. However, optically accessible internal combustion engines are limited in their operating range (load and speed), have large uncooled glass parts, and operate mostly in steady state. In contrast, large-aperture UV endoscopes enable optical access in nearly unmodified production engines, operated at speeds and loads significantly exceeding the limits of most “optical” engines. Here, we investigate the image quality achievable with an endoscope system in terms of detecting the premixed flame front. This study is an extension of our previous work on endoscopic flame imaging documented in SAE 2014-01-1178.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0640
Alan Kastengren, Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, James Sevik, Katarzyna Matusik, Thomas Wallner, Christopher F. Powell
Understanding the short-lived structure of the plasma that forms between the electrodes of a spark plug is crucial to the development of improved ignition models for SI engines. However, measuring the amount of energy deposited in the gas directly and non-intrusively is difficult, due to the short time scales and small length scales involved. The breakdown of the spark gap occurs at nanosecond time scales, followed by an arc phase lasting a few microseconds. Finally, a glow discharge phase occurs over several milliseconds. It is during the arc and glow discharge phases that most of the heat transfer from the plasma to the electrodes and combustion gases occurs. In this paper, we present the results of a proof of concept experiment that demonstrates the use of time-resolved x-ray radiography to measure the density of the plasma in the spark gap during the glow discharge phase of a conventional transistorized coil ignition system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0639
Brian C. Kaul, Benjamin Lawler, Akram Zahdeh
Engine acoustics measured by microphones near the engine have been used in controlled laboratory settings for combustion feedback and even combustion phasing control, but the use of these techniques in a vehicle where many other noise sources exist is problematic. In this study, surface-mounted acoustic emissions sensors are installed on the block of a 2.0L turbocharged GDI engine, and the signal is analyzed to identify useful feedback features. The use of acoustic emissions sensors, which have a very high frequency response and are commonly used for detecting material failures for health monitoring, including detecting gear pitting and ring scuffing on test stands, enables detection of acoustics both within the range of human hearing and in the ultrasonic spectrum. The high-speed acoustic time-domain data are synchronized with the crank-angle-domain combustion data, and various engine events, including combustion and both the start and end of fuel injection are identified.
2016-02-01
WIP Standard
J2012
This document supersedes SAE J2012 DEC2007, and is technically equivalent to ISO 15031-6:2010 with the exceptions described in Section 1.2. This document is intended to define the standardized Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTC) that On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) systems in vehicles are required to report when malfunctions are detected. SAE J2012 may also be used for decoding of enhanced diagnostic DTCs and specifies the ranges reserved for vehicle manufacturer specific usage. This document includes: a. Diagnostic Trouble Code format. b. A description of the standardized set of Diagnostic Trouble Codes and descriptions contained in SAE J2012-DA. The two most significant bytes of a DTC may be decoded according to two different lists; DTC Format Identifier 0x00 and 0x04. c. A description of the standardized set of Diagnostic Trouble Codes subtypes known as Failure Types contained in SAE J2012-DA (applies only when three byte DTCs are used).
2016-01-22
Standard
J1939/73_201601
SAE J1939-73 Diagnostics Application Layer defines the SAE J1939 messages to accomplish diagnostic services and identifies the diagnostic connector to be used for the vehicle service tool interface. Diagnostic messages (DMs) provide the utility needed when the vehicle is being repaired. Diagnostic messages are also used during vehicle operation by the networked electronic control modules to allow them to report diagnostic information and self-compensate as appropriate, based on information received. Diagnostic messages include services such as periodically broadcasting active diagnostic trouble codes, identifying operator diagnostic lamp status, reading or clearing diagnostic trouble codes, reading or writing control module memory, providing a security function, stopping/starting message broadcasts, reporting diagnostic readiness, monitoring engine parametric data, etc.
2016-01-15
WIP Standard
J1962

This document supersedes SAE J1962 200204, and is technically equivalent to ISO/DIS 15031-3: December 14, 2001.

This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of an OBD connector as required by U.S. On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations. The diagnostic connection specified in this document consists of two mating connectors, the vehicle connector and the external test equipment connector.

This document specifies:

a. The functional requirements for the vehicle connector. These functional requirements are separated into four principal areas: connector location/access, connector design, connector contact allocation, and electrical requirements for connector and related electrical circuits,

b. The functional requirements for the external test equipment connector.

2016-01-14
Standard
J1939/84_201601
The purpose of this Recommended Practice is to verify that vehicles and/or components are capable of communicating a required set of information, in accordance with the diagnostic messages specified in SAE J1939-73, to fulfill the off-board diagnostic tool interface requirements contained in the government regulations cited below. This document describes the tests, methods, and results for verifying diagnostic communications from an off board diagnostic tool (i.e., scan tool) to a vehicle and/or component. SAE members have generated this document to serve as a guide for testing vehicles for compliance with ARB and other requirements for emissions-related on-board diagnostic (OBD) functions for heavy duty engines used in medium and heavy duty vehicles. The development of HD OBD regulations by US EPA and California’s Air Resources Board (ARB) require that diagnostic message services are exercised to evaluate diagnostic communication standardization requirements on production vehicles.
2016-01-04
WIP Standard
AIR5552A
This information report provides general guidance for the design considerations, qualification in endurance, strength and fatigue of landing gear using composite components as principle structural elements. The information discussed herein includes the development and evaluation of design data considering: the potential for imbedded manufacturing defects, manufacturing process variations, the component operating environment, potential damage threats in service, rework and overhaul, and inspection processes. This AIR mainly discusses the use of thick composites for landing gear structural components. Considerations and recommendations provided in this AIR may therefore differ greatly from considerations and recommendations found in widely accepted composite design references such as CMH-17 and Advisory Circulars such as AC 20-107(B).
2015-11-05
Standard
J1939/3_201511
SAE J1939-03 provides requirements and guidelines for the implementation of On Board Diagnostics (OBD) on heavy duty vehicles (HDV) using the SAE J1939 family of standards. The guidelines identify where the necessary information to meet OBD regulations may be found among the SAE J1939 document set. Key requirements are identified here to insure the interoperability of OBD scan tools across individual OBD compliant vehicles. Market-defined regulations permit the use of SAE J1939 to meet OBD requirements. Implementers are cautioned to obtain and review the specific regulations for the markets where their products are sold. This document is focused on guidelines and requirements to satisfy the State of California Air Resources Board (ARB), the authors of 13 CCR 1971.1, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Euro IV and V requirements from European Commission directives, and UN/ECE WP 29 GRPE WWH OBD Global Technical Regulation (GTR).
2015-10-19
WIP Standard
AS6350
Recent Salt-Fog environmental qualification testing in accordance with RTCA/DO-160G, Paragraph 14, Category S identified both discrepancies in the performance specification documents and potential in-service corrosion problems with the charging valve. A new SAE AS for Valve; Aircraft, Pneumatic, High-Pressure Charging is necessary to resolve these items.
2015-10-12
WIP Standard
J1699/3
The main purpose of this Recommended Practice is to verify that vehicles are capable of communicating a minimum subset of information, in accordance with the diagnostic test services specified in SAE J1979: E/E Diagnostic Test Modes, or the equivalent document ISO 15031-5: Communication Between Vehicle and External Equipment for Emissions-Related Diagnostics – Part 5: Emissions-related diagnostic services. Any software meeting these specifications will utilize the vehicle interface that is defined in SAE J2534, Recommended Practice for Pass-Thru Vehicle Programming.
2015-09-16
Collection
This collection of technical papers addesses health management - subsystems; IVHM business case; health monitoring - structures; vehicle level health management; and prognostics and diagnostics.
2015-09-11
Standard
J1962_201509
This document supersedes SAE J1962 200204, and is technically equivalent to ISO/DIS 15031-3: December 14, 2001. This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of an OBD connector as required by U.S. On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations. The diagnostic connection specified in this document consists of two mating connectors, the vehicle connector and the external test equipment connector. This document specifies: a. The functional requirements for the vehicle connector. These functional requirements are separated into four principal areas: connector location/access, connector design, connector contact allocation, and electrical requirements for connector and related electrical circuits, b. The functional requirements for the external test equipment connector. These functional requirements are separated into three principal areas: connector design, connector contact allocation, and electrical requirements for connector and related electrical circuits.
2015-09-03
Book
Samir Khan, Ian K. Jennions, Paul Phillips, Chris Hockley
Today, we are all strongly dependent on the correct functioning of technical systems. They fail, and we become vulnerable. Disruptions due to degradation or anomalous behavior can negatively impact safety, operations, and brand name, reducing the profitability of all elements of the value chain. This can be tolerated if the link between cause and effect is understood and remedied. Anomalous behavior, which indicates systems or subsystems not acting in accordance with design intent, is a much more serious problem. It includes unwanted system responses and faults whose root cause can’t be properly diagnosed, leading to costly, and sometimes unnecessary, component replacements. The title No Fault Found: The Search for the Root Cause was developed to propose solutions to this technical and business challenge, which has become less and less acceptable to the commercial aviation industry globally.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1953
Shuhui Yow, Steve Nattrass, Wayne R. Jones
Enhanced octane is one route to fuels differentiation where associated vehicle performance benefits are generally measured under controlled wide-open throttle tests on a chassis dynamometer. The combined availabilities of relevant ECU data via OBD and telematic loggers present new opportunities to assess such fuel benefits on the road in normal real-world driving environments. A novel methodology is described in this paper which utilised the remote logging of key engine EOBD data from a fleet trial and the results successfully demonstrated significant octane-derived benefits in many vehicles throughout normal mixed-roads driving. The availability and the reliability of telematic loggers mean that the method could be implemented in a scalable way as a complementary approach in addition to conventional laboratory vehicle testing.
2015-08-28
Standard
J1939/73_201508
SAE J1939-73 Diagnostics Application Layer defines the SAE J1939 messages to accomplish diagnostic services and identifies the diagnostic connector to be used for the vehicle service tool interface. Diagnostic messages (DMs) provide the utility needed when the vehicle is being repaired. Diagnostic messages are also used during vehicle operation by the networked electronic control modules to allow them to report diagnostic information and self-compensate as appropriate, based on information received. Diagnostic messages include services such as periodically broadcasting active diagnostic trouble codes, identifying operator diagnostic lamp status, reading or clearing diagnostic trouble codes, reading or writing control module memory, providing a security function, stopping/starting message broadcasts, reporting diagnostic readiness, monitoring engine parametric data, etc.
2015-07-28
Standard
J1699/3_201507
The main purpose of this Recommended Practice is to verify that vehicles are capable of communicating a minimum subset of information, in accordance with the diagnostic test services specified in SAE J1979: E/E Diagnostic Test Modes, or the equivalent document ISO 15031-5: Communication Between Vehicle and External Equipment for Emissions-Related Diagnostics – Part 5: Emissions-related diagnostic services. Any software meeting these specifications will utilize the vehicle interface that is defined in SAE J2534, Recommended Practice for Pass-Thru Vehicle Programming.
2015-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2015-04-24
WIP Standard
J2744
This document presents the requirements for a build-in service port to be used in vehicles intended to comply with Enhanced Evaporative Emission Requirements. The primary function of the Service Port (Valve Assembly-Evaporative Emission Canister Purge Harness Service) is to provide non-destructive access to the evaporative emissions system to enable testing of the integrity of the system. The Service Port is used to introduce air pressure or fuel vapors into, or evacuate them out of, the system. This access may be used for the following evaluations: Evaporative System Certifications Canister Loading and Pumping End-of-line Testing System Integrity Service (e.g. OBD MIL on) Leak Location and Repair Verification In-Use Compliance Testing Canister Loading and Purging Inspection/Maintenance Testing System Integrity and Purge Check
2015-04-19
WIP Standard
J1115
Historically SAE has been concerned with nomenclature as an integral part of the standards development process. Guidelines for automotive nomenclature were written in 1916, were last revised in 1941, and were included in the SAE Handbook until 1962. The present diversity of groups working on nomenclature in the various ground vehicle committees led to the organization of the Nomenclature Advisory Committee under SAE Automotive Council.
2015-04-19
WIP Standard
J2740
This Technical Information Report defines the General Motors UART Serial Data Communications Bus, commonly referred to as GM UART. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement GM UART in an SAE J2534 interface. SAE J2534-1 includes requirements for an interface that can be used to program certain emission-related Electronic Control Units (ECU) as required by U.S. regulations, and SAE J2534-2 defines enhanced functionality required to program additional ECUs not mandated by current U.S. regulations. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement GM UART in an aftermarket SAE J2534 interface intended for use by independent automotive service facilities to program GM UART ECUs in General Motors vehicles.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing costs, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Sensors are essential to the safety, efficiency, and dependability of modern vehicles. Crash sensors can anticipate a collision faster than humans would, and tire pressure sensors can alert the driver or pilot in case action is needed. In the episode “Sensors: Advanced Safety” (20:36) Continental engineers look at the evolution of passive safety systems, discuss the changes in sensors over the last ten years and what is coming next. Engineers at Meggitt demonstrate how tire pressure monitoring system sensors for aerospace are built and tested.
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