Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 613
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0107
Moqtik Ashok Bawase, Amita Baikerikar, M R Saraf
Airborne particulate matter (PM) in an urban atmosphere is a result of contribution from diverse range of source including domestic, industry and vehicles. PM emission is a matter a concern due to its multiple impacts on public health, air quality, and global climate. Ever increasing number of vehicles plying on the road is considered to be one of the major sources of PM. Particles in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust carry distinctive combinations of certain chemical compounds. Prominence of their chemical signature in ambient particulate matter can be considered as a direct indication of their relative importance as sources of emissions. In this study, Chemical speciation data of vehicle exhaust PM is analyzed and vehicle category wise distribution of carbon fractions is presented for different engine technologies and fuel types.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0101
Arun Sivasubrahmaniyan, Abhishek Kumar Jaishwal, Girish R Warrier, Sriram Tharaneetharan, Kalyan Hatti
A methodology for design and development of On-Board Diagnostic system II (OBD II) is derived with an objective to improve current reliability process in order to ensure design & quality of the system as per the requirement of commercial vehicle technology. This paper will give an overview of approach to the development of OBD II design concept / strategy as per requirement for variants of vehicles & engines keeping India specific design critique with regulatory requirements, compilation of design & development plan with supplier as a partner using a reliability tool DFMEA, DVVP & On road trials or vehicle level test. Paper will include, format of DFMEA, DVVP and vehicle level test results used during the development of OBD II.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0096
Partha Mishra, Suresh Iyer, David Klinikowski
This paper investigates experimental uncertainties associated with gaseous and particulate emissions measurements in a partial flow sampling system developed and built at the Larson Transportation Institute of the Pennsylvania State University. A small fraction of the tail pipe exhaust is diluted with dilution air and passed through a cyclone to eliminate particles bigger than 2.5 microns. The diluted exhaust is then passed through a 47 mm Teflon filter for gravimetric measurement of PM. Mass flow controllers are used to control the flow rates of dilution air, diluted exhaust, and proportional flow of diluted exhaust into a Tedlar bag in real time, at 5 Hz. An ultrasonic flow meter is used to measure flow rate of tail pipe exhaust. At the end of a test, the concentration of gaseous emissions in the bag, namely CO2, CO, HC, and NOx are measured using a micro bench bag emissions analyser.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0103
Anders Widd, Magnus Lewander
The Euro IV legislation for heavy-duty on-road vehicles enforces emissions limits on the tailpipe NOx levels during both transient and modal testing, typically paired with additional limitations on, for example, ammonia emissions. There are several possible strategies for complying with the legislation, including engine management measures as well as after-treatment in the form of catalytic removal of NOx with ammonia as the reducing agent. A range of important aspects are presented and discussed, with both overall system performance and the installation and operational costs in mind. Factors relevant for future legislations, in the form of EU V and beyond, are also discussed. Operating the engine with high levels of EGR is a possible path to EU IV compliance with no or little catalytic NOx reducing after-treatment. Here, it is contrasted against an SCR-only solution based on a non-EGR engine calibration.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0098
Francois Jayat, Sven Seifert, K.V.R. Babu, Shrivaj Waje
Affordable, efficient and durable catalytic converters for the two and three wheeler industry in developing countries are required to reduce vehicle emissions and to maintain them at a low level; and therefore to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. The LS-DesignTM metallic substrates with Longitudinal structured foils have been proved to be capable of improving conversion behavior, even with smaller catalyst size. Specially this developed foil structure, which transforms a laminar exhaust gas flow into a turbulent one, significantly improves exhaust gas mixing behavior in the catalyst. In this special period of time where BS4 applications will start appearing in the Indian market, this publication will deal with the experimental results achieved with different metallic substrate foil structures on one leading “state of the art” BS3 four stroke motorcycle technology, developed for the Indian market.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0104
Santhoji Katare, Carolyn Hubbard, Seha Son
Abstract Aftertreatment system design involves multiple tradeoffs between engine performance, fuel economy, regulatory emission levels, packaging, and cost. Selection of the best design solution (or “architecture”) is often based on an assumption that inherent catalyst activity is unaffected by location within the system. However, this study acknowledges that catalyst activity can be significantly impacted by location in the system as a result of varying thermal exposure, and this in turn can impact the selection of an optimum system architecture. Vehicle experiments with catalysts aged over a range of mild to moderate to severe thermal conditions that accurately reflect select locations on a vehicle were conducted on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle test data indicated CO and NOx could be minimized with a catalyst placed in an intermediate location.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0018
Anshul Agarwal, Siva Subramanian Ravishankar, R Arvind
Stringent emission norms for better quality of environmental air triggers a challenge for OEMs. This is because selection of appropriate technology to meet stringent emission norms has to be ensured with improve fuel efficiency and control cost. This paper highlights an overview of hardware development and calibration strategies carried out for up gradation of 2.2 L common rail direct injection diesel engine, to meet BS V Emissions norms. Existing BS IV compliance engine is selected as a base engine. Target was to minimize possible engine out emission with reduce dependency on after treatment. Major hardware changes in the baseline engine includes reduction in compression ratio, Injectors, EGR cooler optimization, Turbocharger, Diesel oxidation catalyst.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0102
Dhaval Dhruv, Sribathy Thirumavalavan, Manoj Kumar Thangamaniraj, Vinodhkumar Vellaichamy
To meet OBD norms for oxygen sensor component in exhaust path, there are various methods developed to monitor health of the same in engine management system. Here a new diagnosis strategy for oxygen sensor response is proposed, mainly applicable for start-stop vehicles. This diagnosis strategy is executed during the change in engine running state to engine stop state of vehicle due to start-stop feature. In general, before the engine stop is triggered, the lambda in the engine can be rich or lean; then when engine is stopped, fuel injection is cut-off and lambda in the engine becomes “infinitely lean” or only air passes through. Due to inertia of engine rotation after fuel cut-off, this air is still passed across oxygen sensor in exhaust path. So here are two transitions of lambda changes can be realized by oxygen sensor signal during engine running to engine stop, i.e. rich to infinitely lean and lean to infinitely lean.
2015-01-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9102
Mauro Madonia, Antonio Di Furia, Samantha Bonasia, Dean Vucinic
Abstract This paper presents a structural analysis of an engine chassis for a disc-shaped airship demonstrator. The objective was to verify such design solutions for application in the European Union's MAAT (Multibody Advanced Airship for Transport) project. In many airship designs, the engines are attached to the airship frame, located inside the balloon, in order to allow for thrust vector control. These airships have aerodynamic control surfaces to improve maneuverability. For the demonstrator, three engines are considered, with a non-rigid internal structure for their attachment. The engines are located on a horizontal plane (the symmetry plane of the balloon), with two lateral engines and one in front of the balloon. The chassis installation allows the engines to be attached either directly to the exterior envelope by using Kevlar connections, or to the central structural pipe.
2014-12-03
Standard
J3005_201412
The scope of the document is to define communication best practices in order to minimize problems for the vehicle owner when installing equipment which has a permanently or semi-permanently diagnostic communication device connected to the SAE J1962 connector or hardwired directly to the in-vehicle network.
2014-11-18
Magazine
Oil debris monitoring in aero engines In a gas turbine engine, small particles or "chips" are generated at the point of wear, serving as an advanced warning that catastrophic failure will occur if the wear is not addressed. Health monitoring systems, such as oil debris monitoring, are used to find these small particles so that the wear can be resolved before it's too late. Indigenous powertrain development Customer needs and expectations on drivability, fuel economy, and safety has pushed Indian and multinational OEMs to think about the development of powertrains and gearboxes for local needs with global standards. The next wave of crash simulation As computing speed has improved and software itself has made significant speed and performance gains with each release, modeling tools are now quick enough to build high-quality, large, high-detail vehicle models in a very efficient manner.
2014-11-13
WIP Standard
AIR5358A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) was prepared by a panel of the SAE A-5 Committee. This document establishes the specifications for fluids used in landing gear shock struts with extreme pressure and antiwear additives that have been added for improved lubrication.
2014-11-10
Book
Ian K. Jennions
Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned is the fourth title in the IVHM series published by SAE International. This new book introduces a variety of case studies, lessons learned, and insights on what it really means to develop, implement, or manage an integrated system of systems. Integrated Vehicle Health Management: Implementation and Lessons Learned brings to the reader a wide set of hands-on stories, made possible by the contribution of twenty-three authors, who agreed to share their experience and wisdom on how new technologies are developed and put to work. This effort was again coordinated by Dr. Ian K. Jennions, Director of the IVHM Centre at Cranfield University (UK), and editor of the previous books in the series.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2589
Chunshan Li, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong
Abstract The passive fault-tolerant approach for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles has been investigated in this study. An adaptive control based passive fault-tolerant controller is designed to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability when an actuator fault happens. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures with the inequality constraints; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using Model Predictive Control (MPC); 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that redistributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels with equality constrained optimization.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2590
Yuanzhe Zhong, Sahil Sane
Abstract Electronic controls in internal combustion engines require an in-cylinder combustion sensor to produce a feedback signal to the ECU (Engine Control Unit). Recent research indicated that the ion current sensor has many advantages over the pressure transducer, related mainly to lower cost. Modified glow plugs in diesel engines, and fuel injectors in both gasoline and diesel engines can be utilized as ion current sensors without the addition any part or drilling holes in the cylinder head needed for the pressure transducer. Multi sensing fuel injector (MSFI) system is a new technique which instruments the fuel injector with an electric circuit to perform multiple sensing tasks including functioning as an ion sensor in addition to its primary task of delivering the fuel into the cylinder. It is necessary to fundamentally understand MSFI system.
2014-10-08
Standard
AIR6226
Most of the Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer Actuators (THSA) feature a dual structural load path, the primary load path being loaded, the secondary load path being normally unloaded, or both load paths sharing in parallel the Horizontal Stabilizer load. This document describes existing methods for detecting rupture or disconnection of loaded load paths as an overview for those specifying or designing Horizontal Stabilizer Trim Actuators in order to compare existing solutions as reference for implementation in new aircraft programs.
2014-08-11
Standard
J1979_201408
SAE J1979 / ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
2014-07-29
Standard
AIR5372A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the design approaches used for current applications of aircraft Brake-by-Wire (BBW) control systems. The document also discusses the experience gained during service, and covers system, ergonomic, hardware, and development aspects. The document includes the lessons that have been learned during application of the technology. Although there are a variety of approaches that have been used in the design of BBW systems, the main focus of this document is on the current state of the art systems.
2014-07-11
Standard
AS1188A
This specification covers minimum design and test requirements for aircraft tire inflation-deflation equipment for use on all types of aircraft. It shall be the responsibility of the airframe manufacturer to determine the compatibility of the requirement with the applicable aircraft and to specify requirements in excess of these minimums as necessary.
2014-06-26
WIP Standard
J1979DA
On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations require passenger cars, and light and medium duty trucks, to support communication of a minimum set of diagnostic information to off-board “generic” test equipment. This document specifies the diagnostic data which may be required to be supported by motor vehicles and external test equipment for diagnostic purposes which pertain to motor vehicle emission-related data. SAE J1979 was originally developed to meet U.S. OBD requirements for 1996 and later model year vehicles. ISO 15031 5 was based on SAE J1979 and was intended to combine the U.S. requirements with European OBD requirements for 2000 and later model year vehicles.
2014-06-10
Standard
AIR5914
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides guidelines for the development of landing gear fatigue spectra for the purpose of designing and certification testing of Part 25 landing gear. Many of the recommendations herein are generalizations based on data obtained from a wide range of landing gears. The aircraft manufacturer or the landing gear supplier is encouraged to use data more specific to their particular undercarriage whenever possible.
2014-06-10
Standard
J1979DA_201406
On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations require passenger cars, and light and medium duty trucks, to support communication of a minimum set of diagnostic information to off-board “generic” test equipment. This document specifies the diagnostic data which may be required to be supported by motor vehicles and external test equipment for diagnostic purposes which pertain to motor vehicle emission-related data. SAE J1979 was originally developed to meet U.S. OBD requirements for 1996 and later model year vehicles. ISO 15031 5 was based on SAE J1979 and was intended to combine the U.S. requirements with European OBD requirements for 2000 and later model year vehicles.
2014-05-20
Book
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
2014-05-09
Journal Article
2014-01-9025
John O. Manyala
The emergence of tougher environmental legislations and ever increasing demand for increased ride comfort, fuel efficiency, and low emissions have triggered exploration and advances towards more efficient vehicle gearbox technologies. The growing complexity and spatial distribution of such a mechatronic gearbox demands precise timing and coordination of the embedded electronics, integrated sensors and actuators as well as excellent overall reliability. The increased gearbox distributed systems have seen an increased dependence on sensors for feedback control, predominantly relying on hardware redundancy for faults diagnosis. However, the conventional hardware redundancy has disadvantages due to increased costs, weight, volume, power requirements and failure rates. This paper presents a virtual position sensor-based Fault Detection, Isolation and Accommodation (FDIA), which generates an analytical redundancy for comparison against the actual sensor output.
2014-04-09
Standard
J1699/4_201404
To define a list of anomalies related to OBD Communications. Misinterpretations of various OBD Communications Standards and Recommended Practices have resulted in OBD “no-communications” situations in the field. This Information Report identifies the most prevalent of these.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1171
Aleš Kolar, Ralf Cerna, Werner Hofegger, Christoph Pichler, Markus Riener, Nathan Murphy, Georg Zembacher
The correct information about legal demands of the On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD) system in a vehicle project is required throughout the entire development process. Usually, the main obstacle in succeeding is to provide the company's expertise of some few experts for all employees who work in OBD related projects. The paper describes the AVL solution for knowledge management and tool supported control system design and calibration: OBD System Development Database. The software enables the user to access the regulatory requirements for a specific application and legislation from past, present and future (proposed rule-making) point of view. Information concerning already available and stored monitoring concepts is linked to the requirements in order to re-use potentially suitable concepts and to enable an efficient knowledge exchange within the company.
2014-04-01
Collection
Vehicle diagnostics deals with the development, delivery and execution of diagnostic procedures for vehicle systems. This technical paper collection will explore new technologies, processes and trends in the area of vehicle diagnostics.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1550
Robert Cloudt
A particulate matter On-Board Diagnostics method based on temperature sensing is demonstrated. The concept applies a detection filter downstream of the main particulate filter and a flow diversion pipe. A small fraction of the main exhaust flow is diverted through the detection filter. In case the main soot filter has some leakage, soot will collect on the detection filter where it reduces the filter's permeability. As a result the diverted flow is reduced. This effect is sensed by a temperature sensor placed downstream of the detection filter because the change of diverted mass flow results in a change of heating rate. This principle allows particulate filter diagnostics based on cost-effective and readily available sensing technology. Comprehensive diagnostics software is developed to interpret and assess the temperature signal. The developed diagnostics software detects particulate filter filtration inefficiency and performs plausibility checks.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1623
Timothy H. DeFries, Michael Sabisch, Sandeep Kishan, Francisco Posada, John German, Anup Bandivadekar
Fuel economy (FE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measured via chassis testing under laboratory conditions were never intended to represent the wide range of real-world driving conditions that are experienced during a vehicle's lifetime. Comprehensive real-world information is needed to better assess US FE label adjustments, determine off-cycle credits for FE standards, and forecast real-world driving behavior, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. This paper explores a cost effective method to collect in-use fuel consumption data using the on-board diagnostics (OBD) data stream in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). The accuracy of fuel consumption calculated from the OBD data was analyzed in two ways. First, fuel rates calculated from standard OBD Parameter IDs (PIDs) were compared with fuel rate estimates based on enhanced PID (OEM fuel injector fuel rate) data in two different vehicles.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 613

Filter