This collection of technical papers addesses health management - subsystems; IVHM business case; health monitoring - structures; vehicle level health management; and prognostics and diagnostics.
This document supersedes SAE J1962 200204, and is technically equivalent to ISO/DIS 15031-3: December 14, 2001. This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of an OBD connector as required by U.S. On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations. The diagnostic connection specified in this document consists of two mating connectors, the vehicle connector and the external test equipment connector. This document specifies: a. The functional requirements for the vehicle connector. These functional requirements are separated into four principal areas: connector location/access, connector design, connector contact allocation, and electrical requirements for connector and related electrical circuits, b. The functional requirements for the external test equipment connector. These functional requirements are separated into three principal areas: connector design, connector contact allocation, and electrical requirements for connector and related electrical circuits.
Today, we are all strongly dependent on the correct functioning of technical systems. They fail, and we become vulnerable. Disruptions due to degradation or anomalous behavior can negatively impact safety, operations, and brand name, reducing the profitability of all elements of the value chain. This can be tolerated if the link between cause and effect is understood and remedied. Anomalous behavior, which indicates systems or subsystems not acting in accordance with design intent, is a much more serious problem. It includes unwanted system responses and faults whose root cause can’t be properly diagnosed, leading to costly, and sometimes unnecessary, component replacements. The title No Fault Found: The Search for the Root Cause was developed to propose solutions to this technical and business challenge, which has become less and less acceptable to the commercial aviation industry globally.
SAE J1939-73 Diagnostics Application Layer defines the SAE J1939 messages to accomplish diagnostic services and identifies the diagnostic connector to be used for the vehicle service tool interface. Diagnostic messages (DMs) provide the utility needed when the vehicle is being repaired. Diagnostic messages are also used during vehicle operation by the networked electronic control modules to allow them to report diagnostic information and self-compensate as appropriate, based on information received. Diagnostic messages include services such as periodically broadcasting active diagnostic trouble codes, identifying operator diagnostic lamp status, reading or clearing diagnostic trouble codes, reading or writing control module memory, providing a security function, stopping/starting message broadcasts, reporting diagnostic readiness, monitoring engine parametric data, etc.
The main purpose of this Recommended Practice is to verify that vehicles are capable of communicating a minimum subset of information, in accordance with the diagnostic test services specified in SAE J1979: E/E Diagnostic Test Modes, or the equivalent document ISO 15031-5: Communication Between Vehicle and External Equipment for Emissions-Related Diagnostics – Part 5: Emissions-related diagnostic services. Any software meeting these specifications will utilize the vehicle interface that is defined in SAE J2534, Recommended Practice for Pass-Thru Vehicle Programming.
This is the electronic format of the Journal.
This document presents the requirements for a build-in service port to be used in vehicles intended to comply with Enhanced Evaporative Emission Requirements. The primary function of the Service Port (Valve Assembly-Evaporative Emission Canister Purge Harness Service) is to provide non-destructive access to the evaporative emissions system to enable testing of the integrity of the system. The Service Port is used to introduce air pressure or fuel vapors into, or evacuate them out of, the system. This access may be used for the following evaluations: Evaporative System Certifications Canister Loading and Pumping End-of-line Testing System Integrity Service (e.g. OBD MIL on) Leak Location and Repair Verification In-Use Compliance Testing Canister Loading and Purging Inspection/Maintenance Testing System Integrity and Purge Check
Historically SAE has been concerned with nomenclature as an integral part of the standards development process. Guidelines for automotive nomenclature were written in 1916, were last revised in 1941, and were included in the SAE Handbook until 1962. The present diversity of groups working on nomenclature in the various ground vehicle committees led to the organization of the Nomenclature Advisory Committee under SAE Automotive Council.
This Technical Information Report defines the General Motors UART Serial Data Communications Bus, commonly referred to as GM UART. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to fully implement GM UART in an SAE J2534 interface. SAE J2534-1 includes requirements for an interface that can be used to program certain emission-related Electronic Control Units (ECU) as required by U.S. regulations, and SAE J2534-2 defines enhanced functionality required to program additional ECUs not mandated by current U.S. regulations. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement GM UART in an aftermarket SAE J2534 interface intended for use by independent automotive service facilities to program GM UART ECUs in General Motors vehicles.
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing costs, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Sensors are essential to the safety, efficiency, and dependability of modern vehicles. Crash sensors can anticipate a collision faster than humans would, and tire pressure sensors can alert the driver or pilot in case action is needed. In the episode “Sensors: Advanced Safety” (20:36) Continental engineers look at the evolution of passive safety systems, discuss the changes in sensors over the last ten years and what is coming next. Engineers at Meggitt demonstrate how tire pressure monitoring system sensors for aerospace are built and tested.
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Extreme environment sensors require extreme environment cables that can reliably perform in temperatures up to 2300° F, withstand intense vibration, and have extraordinary strength.
“Spotlight on Design: Insight” features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Telematics, the convergence of telecommunications and informatics, uses electronic and computer technology built in to the vehicle to provide vehicle tracking, satellite navigation, wireless technology, and diagnostic information. In the episode “Diagnostics and Prognostics: Telematics Deep Dive” (8:09), an engineer from Delphi’s Telematics program discusses the advantages and challenges of telematics devices for the automotive industry, demonstrates the installation of an aftermarket telematics device, and shows how telematics can enhance diagnostics and preventative maintenance.
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. In the episode “Diagnostics and Prognostics: Proactive Maintenance and Failure Prevention” (21:04), Delphi engineers explain how they leverage the growing number of sensors and computing power in vehicles to diagnose and proactively solve emerging mechanical or electronic problems, before a breakdown occurs. This video also looks at the next generation of automotive telematics, with HEM Data demonstrating how in-vehicle data acquisition is used to monitor the inner workings of vehicles.
Low Cost Obtainment of Vehicle Performance Curves and Values Experimentally by Means of the OBD2 Port
Abstract This document presents a methodology for obtaining the vehicle performance curves and values by means of the OBD2 port for a specific vehicle. In particular the Torque - Power engine curves and acceleration performance following SAE guidelines. Additionally we obtain the wheel dynamic rolling radius to get a more realistic performance. The results obtained are compared to a chassis dynamometer test performed on the same vehicle to prove feasibility for a low cost implementation when there is no access to said testing tools.
Abstract Modern methods of engine development use complex mathematical models. Adding advanced components such as variable valve trains or direct injection systems to the model increases the degrees of freedom resulting in a high number of measurements for validation. Steadily rising costs for development, time and staff make it crucial for industry to improve the quality of measurements with advanced analysis techniques. Often, such models consider the simulated system as stationary, implying that system variables no longer change with time. This paper presents an internal combustion engine measurement system utilizing algorithms for the real-time evaluation of the state of the engine or its components. Several approaches have been reviewed and tested regarding their applicability. The most straightforward algorithms compare the gradient of a sensor signal to a pre-defined threshold.
Abstract Powertrain diagnosis has been demanded with growth & complexity of powertrain electronic control system and enforcement of law & regulation in the last decades. In regulation OBD II, requirement of misfire monitoring has been demanded much more strictly. A variety of diagnosis methods for misfire have been proposed and developed, however most of them either depend greatly on special or expensive sensors or suffer from the disturbance of vibration due to non-misfire reasons. One combination of Frequency Domain Analysis and Fuzzy Logic to perform the misfire diagnosis is proposed. It takes full advantage of property of frequency domain analysis and fuzzy logic, providing accurate and robust detection results, without adding additional hardware diagnosis instruments.
Abstract As the percentage of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is increasing, On-Board Diagnosis (OBD) faces new challenges such as limited combustion engine runtime. Moreover, predictive driving strategies for HEV assure that more vehicles are equipped with navigation systems. These systems can provide information about the road conditions such as limit speed, curvature and slope. In this study, navigation road information is used to predict monitoring conditions of OBD functions so that the available OBD time can be used effectively. As an example, catalyst monitoring is considered and a simple vehicle model is proposed which takes velocity and slope prediction from the navigation system to predict torque and exhaust mass flow. The model is composed of a combination of longitudinal motion and a power train torque transition model. Results of this effort are presented for different velocity profiles.
Recently, numerous researchers and Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have developed diesel engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) estimation algorithms that are capable of running in real-time on production Electronic Control Units (ECUs). These are generally referred to as virtual sensors or inferential sensors. NOx estimators are typically installed to improve On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) monitors or to lower bill of material costs by replacing physical NOx sensors. This paper reviews the literature of on-ECU NOx models in order to document the state of the art and identify directions for future work. The discussion includes applications of NOx estimators, accuracy of NOx estimators, required sensor inputs, sources of error, calibration effort, and ECU resource consumption.
Abstract Upcoming motor vehicle emission regulations, such as California's LEVIII, continue to tighten emission limitations in diesel vehicles. These increasingly challenging emission requirements will be met by improving the combustion process (reducing engine-out emissions), as well as improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment efficiency. Furthermore, intricate On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) systems are required to properly diagnose and meet OBD regulation requirements for complex aftertreatment systems. Under these conditions, current monitoring strategies are unable to guarantee reliable detection of partially failed systems. Additionally, new OBD regulations require aftertreatment systems to be diagnosed as a whole. This paper covers potential OBD strategies for LEVIII aftertreatment concepts with regard to regulation compliance and robustness, while striving to use existing sensor concepts.
Abstract Misfire detection and monitoring on US passenger vehicles are required to comply with detailed and specific requirements contained in the OBD-II regulations. Numerous technical papers and patents discuss various methods and metrics for detecting misfire in conventional all-cylinder firing engines. However, the current methods are generally not suitable for detecting misfires in a dynamic skip fire engine. For example, a detection approach based on peak crankshaft angular acceleration may work well in conventional, all-cylinder firing engine operation, since it is expected that crankshaft acceleration will remain generally consistent for a given operating condition. In a skip fire engine, any cylinder or cycle may be skipped. As a result, the crankshaft acceleration peaks and profiles may change abruptly as the firing sequence changes. This paper presents two approaches for detecting misfires in a dynamic skip fire engine.
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the functional, design, construction, and test requirements for Automatic Braking Systems. Installation information and lessons learned are also included.
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide information that would be useful to potential users/operators and decision makers for evaluating and quantifying the benefits of an Engine Monitoring Systems (EMS) versus its cost of implementation. This document presents excerpts from reports developed to analyze "actual aircraft cost/benefits results". These are presented as follows: a. First, to outline the benefits and cost elements pertaining to EMS that may be used in performing a cost versus benefits analysis. b. Second, to present considerations for use in conducting the analysis. c. Third, to provide examples of analyses and results as they relate to the user/operator and decision-maker community. The document encompasses helicopters and fixed wing aircraft and distinguishes between civilian and military considerations.
Minimum Performance Requirements for Non-Refrigerant Tracer Gasses and Electronic Tracer Gas Leak Detectors
This standard provides the testing and functional requirements guidance necessary for a leak detection device that uses any non-A/C refrigerant tracer gas, such as helium or a nitrogen-hydrogen blend, to provide functional performance equivalent to a refrigerant electronic leak detector. It explains how a non- refrigerant leak detector’s calibration can be established to provide levels of detection equal to electronic leak detectors that meet SAE J2791 for R-134a and SAE J2913 for R-1234yf.
The purpose of this Recommended Practice is to verify that vehicles and/or components are capable of communicating a required set of information, in accordance with the diagnostic messages specified in SAE J1939-73, to fulfill the off-board diagnostic tool interface requirements contained in the government regulations cited below. This document describes the tests, methods, and results for verifying diagnostic communications from an off board diagnostic tool (i.e., scan tool) to a vehicle and/or component. SAE members have generated this document to serve as a guide for testing vehicles for compliance with ARB and other requirements for emissions-related on-board diagnostic (OBD) functions for heavy duty engines used in medium and heavy duty vehicles. The development of HD OBD regulations by US EPA and California’s Air Resources Board (ARB) require that diagnostic message services are exercised to evaluate diagnostic communication standardization requirements on production vehicles.
The purpose of this Recommended Practice is to verify that vehicles and/or components are capable of communicating a required set of information, in accordance with the diagnostic messages specified in SAE J1939-73, to fulfill the off-board diagnostic tool interface requirements contained in the government regulations cited below. This document describes the tests, methods, and results for verifying diagnostic communications from an off board diagnostic tool (i.e., scan tool) to a vehicle and/or component. SAE members have generated this document to serve as a guide for testing vehicles for compliance with ARB and other requirements for emissions-related on-board diagnostic (OBD) functions for heavy duty engines used in medium and heavy duty vehicles. The development of HD OBD regulations by US EPA and California's Air Resources Board (ARB) require that diagnostic message services are exercised to evaluate diagnostic communication standardization requirements on production vehicles.
SAE J1979 / ISO 15031-5 set includes the communication between the vehicle's OBD systems and test equipment implemented across vehicles within the scope of the legislated emissions-related OBD.
Rotary SI/CI combustion engines: A thing of the future? The internal combustion engine enjoys widespread use as an inexpensive and reliable power conversion system. While piston engines date back 150 years, various alternative engine architectures and cycles have been considered. Aftertreatment comes with challenging diagnosis Diagnosing engine and aftertreatment systems is forcing design teams to look at new ways to diagnose problems over long vehicle lifetimes. Taking on NVH reduction techniques A look at the enhanced durability benefits obtained by changing the polymer composition, manufacturing methods, and design optimization of a powertrain mount for an off-highway vehicle.