The vehicle dynamics terminology presented herein pertains to passenger cars and light trucks with two axles and to those vehicles pulling single-axle trailers. The terminology presents symbols and definitions covering the following subjects: axis systems, vehicle bodies, suspension and steering systems, brakes, tires and wheels, operating states and modes, control and disturbance inputs, vehicle responses, and vehicle characterizing descriptors. The scope does not include terms relating to the human perception of vehicle response.
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174. This ARP also contains the essential elements of AS8054 which remain relevant and which have not been incorporated into Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) specifications.
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a laboratory test procedure for measuring the acoustical performance of a system consisting of a body cavity filler material formed into a rectangular cross-section channel. Materials for this test may include both heat reactive and chemically reactive products, with or without a nylon or other shelf to simulate a baffle in an application, or a combination of body cavity filler and aluminum foil to enhance the performance. These materials are commonly installed in transportation systems such as ground vehicles, and thus reduce the noise propagation through the rails, rockers, and pillar/posts. This document is intended to rank order the acoustical performance of materials for application on channels using general automotive steel, such that the effects of sealing of pinch welds in addition to the material could be easily evaluated. The acoustical performance is expressed in terms of insertion loss (IL) which is described below.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides test methods for determining the characteristics of acoustical and thermal materials. Where applicable, methods of test developed by SAE and ASTM have been referenced.
This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable for determining the thickness of various resilient materials, such as insulating padding used in the automotive industry. This test method is intended to establish a uniform procedure for determining the thickness of various resilient thermal and acoustical insulating pad materials.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the test procedure, environment and instrumentation for determining the sound levels of snowmobiles in the stationary test mode. This test method is intended to provide an accurate measurement of exhaust and other engine noise and may be used to evaluate new and in- use snowmobiles to determine compliance with noise control regulations. Sound level measurements obtained with this test method are not intended as an engineering determination of overall machine noise. For this purpose, the use of SAE J192 is recommended.
This SAE Information Report provides basic information about the issues surrounding the administration of stationary, infield sound testing of snowmobiles. The information provided herein is meant to enhance safety, improve the environment and promote uniform testing.
This SAE Standard is equivalent to ISO 362-1:2015 and specifies an engineering method for measuring the noise emitted by road vehicles of categories M and N under typical urban traffic conditions. It excludes vehicles of category L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5. The specifications are intended to reproduce the level of noise generated by the principal noise sources during normal driving in urban traffic. The method is designed to meet the requirements of simplicity as far as they are consistent with reproducibility of results under the operating conditions of the vehicle. The test method requires an acoustical environment that is obtained only in an extensive open space.
This SAE Standard is derived from SAE J2805 and specifies an engineering method for measuring the sound emitted by M and N category road vehicles at standstill and low speed operating conditions.. The specifications reproduce the level of sound which is generated by the principal vehicle sound sources consistent with stationary and low speed vehicle operating conditions relevant for pedestrian safety. The method is designed to meet the requirements of simplicity as far as they are consistent with reproducibility of results under the operating conditions of the vehicle. The test method requires an acoustic environment which is only obtained in an extensive open space or in special designed indoor facilities replicating the conditions of an extensive open space. Such conditions usually exist during: • Measurements of vehicles for regulatory certification. • Measurements at the manufacturing stage. • Measurements at official testing stations.
The scope of this recommended practice is to establish definitions and recommended methods for the measurement of lateral run-out and disc thickness variation in the laboratory and vehicle for passenger cars and light duty trucks up to 4546 kg gross vehicle weight. This recommended practice will breakdown the instrumentation (sensors and sizes), test setup, and data processing.
This AIR is arranged in the following two sections: 2E - thermodynamic characteristics of working fluids, which contains thermodynamic diagrams for a number of working fluids currently in use and supplied by various industrial firms; and 2F - properties of heat transfer fluids, which contains data, primarily in graphical form, on fluids that are frequently used in fluid heat transfer loops. Other properties of the environment, gases, liquids, and solids, can be found, as follows, in AIR 1168/9: 2A-Properties of the natural environment; 2B-Properties of gases; 2C-Properties of liquids and 2D- Properties of solids.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides procedures, and information to conduct vibration (impact) tests on lighting devices and their components as well as other safety equipment used on vehicles.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies minimum performance standards for all types of Electronic Displays and Electronic Display Systems that are intended for use in the flight deck by the flightcrew in all 14 CFR Part 23, 25, 27, and 29 aircraft. The requirements and recommendations in this document are intended to apply to all installed electronic displays and electronic display systems within the flight deck, regardless of intended function, criticality, or location within the flight deck, but may also be used for non-installed electronic displays. This document provides baseline requirements and recommendations (see section 2.3 for definitions of “shall” and “should”). This document primarily addresses hardware requirements, such as electrical, mechanical, optical, and environmental. It does not address system specific functions.
SAE developed this document and associated spreadsheets at the request of automobile manufacturers to help compare products from multiple suppliers using standard data presentation formats. This document includes several preferred formats for presenting acoustical data on materials, components, systems, or vehicles. These formats cover the range of acoustical tests commonly conducted in the automotive industry. These tests follow SAE and ASTM test practices as well as vehicle specific test methods. For each test, the details of samples and test conditions can be entered into an applicable electronic spreadsheet together with the acoustical results data. These data are then linked to standard graphical display(s) for each test. All manufacturers and suppliers in this industry are encouraged to present data and results in these formats.
This recommended practice covers the procedures and method for establishing acceptance criteria when performing Barkhausen noise testing of surface-hardened steel components to detect grinding burns (metallurgical damage caused by over-heating) in bare or chromium-plated parts. Primarily for nondestructive testing of heat treated, high strength low-alloy steel parts which have been ground, in accordance with MIL-STD-866 or commercial standard, before or after chromium plating. This test method may be used as an independent test or to confirm grinding damage detected in accordance with AMS 2440 or MIL-STD-867 in bare or chromium plated components.
This SAE Recommended Practice presents a test procedure for determining the airborne sound barrier performance of materials and composite assemblies commonly installed in surface vehicles and marine products. This document is intended to provide a means of rank ordering barrier materials according to their sound transmission loss. At each test frequency the transmission loss (TL) is projected from the measured noise reduction of the test specimen using a correlation factor (CF). The respective CF for the test condition is determined as the differences between the measured noise reduction (MNR) of a homogeneous limp panel, such as lead, and its calculated field-incidence transmission loss. Latitude is permitted in certain test conditions that do not necessarily conform to all of the acoustical requirements of ASTM E 90.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the instrumentation and procedure to be used in measuring the operator ear sound level for engine powered equipment under 30 kW (40 bhp). The sound levels obtained by using this procedure are representative of the sound levels generated by the equipment under typical operating conditions. It is intended to include equipment such as lawn mowers, snow blowers, and tillers. It is not intended to include equipment designed primarily for operation on highways or within factories or buildings, or vehicles such as motorcycles, snowmobiles, and pleasure motorboats that are covered by other SAE Standards or Recommended Practices. This procedure does not cover handheld equipment such as chainsaws, leaf blowers, and trimmers. This SAE Recommended Practice may also be used when measuring the operator ear sound level of similar equipment powered by electricity or other power sources.
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a laboratory test procedure for measuring the random incidence sound absorption performance of a material or a part in a small size reverberation room by measuring decay rates. The absorption performance may include sound absorption coefficient of the test sample and or the amount of energy absorbed by the test sample. Materials for absorption treatments may include homogeneous materials, nonhomogeneous materials, or a combination of homogeneous, nonhomogeneous, and/or inelastic impervious materials. These materials are commonly installed in the mobility products and in the transportation systems such as ground vehicles, marine products, aircraft, and commercial industry (in industrial and consumer products) to reduce reverberant sound build-up and thus reduce the noise level in the environment by minimizing reflections off of hard surfaces.
The product for which data is to be available is for class 6 and larger, i.e., gross vehicle weight ≻ 9.6 kg (19500 lb). The objective is to establish a set of data requirements which powertrain component suppliers would have readily available to facilitate drivetrain system vibration compatibility and control studies.
This SAE Standard is derived from SAE J2805 and specifies an engineering method for measuring the sound emitted by M and N category road vehicles at standstill and low speed operating conditions.. The specifications reproduce the level of sound which is generated by the principal vehicle sound sources consistent with stationary and low speed vehicle operating conditions relevant for pedestrian safety. The method is designed to meet the requirements of simplicity as far as they are consistent with reproducibility of results under the operating conditions of the vehicle. The test method requires an acoustic environment which is only obtained in an extensive open space or in special designed indoor facilities replicating the conditions of an extensive open space. Such conditions usually exist during: Measurements of vehicles for regulatory certification. Measurements at the manufacturing stage. Measurements at official testing stations.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the procedure for assessing operator sound level exposure for pleasure motorboats under 20 m (65 ft) in length when operated under typical conditions, and describes the instrumentation, test site, and boat operation for making valid measurements.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters used in the following applications: a. Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b. Wing and empennage anti-icing c. Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d. Aircraft de-icing
This SAE Standard sets forth the procedures to be used in measuring sounds levels and determining the time weighted sound level at the operator's station(s) of specified off-road self-propelled work machines. This document applies to the following work machines which have operator stations as specified in SAE J1116: • Crawler Loader • Grader • Log Skidder • Wheel Loader • Crawler Tractor with Dozer • Pipelayer • Dumper • Wheel Tractor with Dozer • Trencher • Tractor Scraper • Backhoe • Sweeper • Roller/Compactor • Hydraulic Excavator • Pad Foot Wheel Compactor with Dozer • Excavator and Wheel Feller-Buncher The instrumentation requirements and specific work cycles for these machines are described. The method used to calculate the time weighted average sound level at the operator station(s) is specified for Leq(5), or optional exchange rates, during continuous operation in a work cycle representing continuous medium to heavy work.
The scope of this SAE Standard is the definition of the functional, environmental, and life cycle test requirements for electrically operated backup alarm devices primarily intended for use on off-road, self propelled work machines as defined by SAE J1116 (limited to categories of 1) construction, and 2) general purpose industrial). This purpose of this document is to define a set of performance requirements for backup alarms, independent of machine usage. The laboratory tests defined in this document are intended to provide a uniform and repeatable means of verifying whether or nor a test alarm meets the stated requirements. For on-machine requirements and test procedures, refer to SAE J 1446.
Various SAE vehicle sound level measurement procedures require use of a sound level meter which meets the Type 1 or Type 2 requirements of ANSI S1.4-1983 (see 184.108.40.206), or an alternative system which can be proved to provide equivalent test data. The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide a procedure for determining if a sound data acquisition system (SDAS) has electro-acoustical performance equivalent to such a meter. By assuring equivalent performance of the test instrumentation, the equivalence of test data is assured. Two general configurations of sound data acquisition systems will be encompassed (see Figure 1). The first configuration consists of instrument sections which perform as a sound level meter. The second configuration is a system which records data for later processing. The intent of this document is to establish guidelines which permit the test engineer to insure equivalence of sound data acquisition systems to a sound level meter.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) protection considerations for environmental control system (ECS) design. It is intended to familiarize the ECS designer with the subject in order to know what information will be required to do an ECS design where NBC protection is a requirement. This is not intended to be a thorough discussion of NBC protection. Such a document would be large and would be classified. Topics of NBC protection that are more pertinent to the ECS designer are discussed in more detail. Those of peripheral interest, but of which the ECS designer should be aware are briefly discussed. Only radiological aspects of nuclear blast are discussed. The term CBR (Chemical, Biological, and Radiological) has been used to contrast with NBC to indicate that only the radiological aspects of a nuclear blast are being discussed.
Description of Material—The materials classified under this specification are: a. Mastic vibration damping materials used to reduce the sound emanating from metal panels. b. Mastic underbody coatings used to give protection and some vibration damping to motor vehicle underbodies, fenders, and other parts.
Measurement Procedure for Determination of Silencer Effectiveness in Reducing Engine Intake Or Exhaust Sound Level
This SAE Recommended Practice sets forth the instrumentation, environment, and test procedures to be used in measuring the silencer system effectiveness in reducing intake or exhaust sound level of internal combustion engines. The system shall include the intake or exhaust silencer, related piping, and components. This procedure is intended for engine-dynamometer testing and is not necessarily applicable to vehicle testing (see Appendix A). The effect of the exhaust or intake system on the sound level of the overall machine must be determined using other procedures. This procedure may be successively applied to various silencer configurations to determine relative effectiveness for that engine. Insertion loss for individual silencers may be calculated through measurement of the silenced and unsilenced system.
This procedure provides for the measurement of the sound generated by a test tire, mounted on a single-axle trailer, operated at multiple speeds. The procedure describes test practices for both United States and International practices. Specifications for the instrumentation, the test site, and the operation of the test apparatus are set forth to minimize the effects of extraneous sound sources and to define the basis of reported sound levels.
This SAE Recommended Practice sets forth the equipment, environment, and test procedures to be used in measuring sound levels of engines. The purpose is to provide a uniform method of measuring the maximum acoustical radiation from the exterior surfaces of an engine under representative engine operating conditions. The measured sound levels will be useful in development of engines, comparison of engines, and installation of engines in various applications. The correlation of the measured engine sound levels to the various application sound levels will have to be developed.