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Viewing 151 to 180 of 9221
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2684
Seongjoo Lee, ShinWook Kim, ShinWan Kim, Seong Rhee
Rear disc brake squeal test results confirm the disc wear - brake squeal correlation reported earlier on front disc brakes. A significant amount of Fe transferred from the disc to the NAO pad surface is detected and the distribution of the transferred Fe is very non-uniform on the pad surface. The pad surface formulation reaches that of Low-Steel Lomets. Disc pads from a noisier brake retain more transferred particles than from a less noisy brake. The pad surface retains more transferred Fe after noise test procedures than after performance test procedures. The transferred Fe particles are either barely visible or invisible. During brake noise test procedures, discs wear in weight as much as disc pads. No correlation is found between average in-stop Mu, maximum in-stop Mu or in-stop delta Mu and brake squeal.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2686
Enrique Wegmann, Achim Dohle
Abstract The NVH behavior of brake systems remains a core problem for the brake industry. Many efforts have been made to achieve a better system understanding, but the prediction of noise occurrence based on measurable parameters remains unsatisfactory. By considering the brake pad as one key component within the brake system, until today different measurement methods describing its material properties have been developed. This work analyses the correlation of all important “state of the art” friction material/pad parameter measurement methods to the NVH behavior of a specific brake system on a statistical basis. The answer to the question “does the NVH parameter for friction materials exist” ? will be derived from these correlation results.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2688
Hayuru Inoue, Kumi Hashimoto, Yoichi Kumemura
Abstract It is well known that improving NV performance and weight saving are reciprocity. Brake squeal free is one of the top priority issues during development of brake system. To date, complex eigenvalue analysis has been utilized for prediction of brake squeal. It solves the structural instability problems by modal coupling which is the phenomenon that natural frequencies of normal modes are quite consistent. The positive real parts of complex eigenvalues are identified as instable vibration which causes brake squeal. On the other hand, the needs for light-weight brake system are higher than before due to recent trends of economizing fuel consumption and high driving performance. In order to obtain coexistence of brake squeal free with weight saving, shape optimization technique has been proposed for complex eigenvalue analysis.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2687
Aditya Kant Choudhary, Yogesh Mense, Saurabh Singh, Mahesh Shridhare
Abstract Brake noise is one of the common complaints and an irritant not just for the vehicle occupants but equally for the passers-by. Brake noise is actually vibration that is occurring at a frequency that is audible to the human ear. This occurrence of brake noise like brake squeal (>1 kHz) and groan (<1 kHz) is often very intense and can lead to vehicle complaints. During a brake noise event, vehicle basic structure and suspension system components are excited due to brake system vibration and result in a resonance that is perceived in the form of a noise. Proposed work discusses an experimental study that is carried out on a vehicle for addressing concern regarding disc brake squeal and groan noise. Based on the preliminary inputs, vehicle level study was carried out in order to simulate the problem and objectively capture its severity.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2689
Katsuhiro Uchiyama, Yuji Shishido
Abstract Brake groan analysis and improvement is progressing based on experimental measurements. An advanced brake assembly FEA model was built which considers torsional stiffness of suspension for analyzing creep groan. Creep groan is a representative groan noise of brake system from stick-slip phenomenon standpoint. This year we will present our study for advantageous direction for reduction of creep groan which will focus on friction material µ vs. Velocity (µ-V) property, friction material physical properties and relative velocity between brake pads and rotor by advanced brake assembly FEA model.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2702
Chihoon Jo, Jaeseung Cheon, Jongsung Kim, Yongsik Kwon
Abstract EMB (Electro-Mechanical Brake) which converts electrical motor power to brake clamping force at each wheel is a system that has been investigated and developed by various automotive part suppliers through the years. In particular, as the number of electrically powered vehicles, such as hybrid electric vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles, has expanded, the EMB has received increased interest due to its fast response that is much suited for effective cooperative control with regenerative braking. However, issues such as cost competitiveness, reliability and regulations need to be solved for commercialization [1-2]. A new concept, the hybrid Electro-Mechanical Brake (hEMB) is characterized by a dual piston structure linked by hydraulics inside of the caliper. It is possible to reduce the required motor power and increase the level of emergency back-up braking through the amplification effect of the dual piston mechanism [3].
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2690
Joo Sang Park
Abstract There are three kinds of noise mechanisms which are stick-slip, self-excited vibration and unstable dynamic behavior. This study is of a pad unstable behavior caused by pad spring contact stiffness and weak forces and improving a lower squeal noise due to self-excited vibration in brake system. This paper discusses a theoretical approach, numerical and experimental test to understand the squeal mechanism for unstable pad behavior and the analysis and measurement of mode coupling between brake components to decrease noise propensity. Three different approach are considered to understand noise mechanism. Fundamental approach is more important than experimental modal analysis, CEA (Complex Eigen value Analysis) because the minimal vibration analysis is principle approach which has been proved by many researchers. CEA and modal test is useful to study the relationship between lower squeal noise and self-excited vibration for more details.
2015-09-27
Technical Paper
2015-01-2683
Sarah Chen, Steve Hoxie
Abstract Developing a quiet brake system has been a constant task for OEMs as well as their brake suppliers. As a major component in the brake system, the rotor plays a significant role in brake noise performance. Owning to the cost and damping property advantages, gray iron is still the most widely used material for brake rotor application. When pads/rotor coupling is examined to address noise issues, however, most efforts have been on pads and insulators. Rotor specifications are rather general and the component is typically accepted based on grades defined by mechanical property minimum (mostly in G3000 SAE J431). Nevertheless, we have found that gray iron within a grade can have wide microstructure variations, and the deviation (especially on the rotor friction surface) can critically affect the noise propensity in addition to friction output performance and wear characteristics. In this work, the impact of brake disc material on brake noise and output performance is investigated.
2015-09-27
Journal Article
2015-01-2673
Toshikazu Okamura
Abstract Brake judder is one of the most serious problems in automotive-brake systems, and brake discs play a significant role in judder. There are two types of brake judder: cold and hot. Hot judder is caused by the thermo-mechanical deformation of a disc rotor due to high-speed braking. There are several causes and shapes of the deformation, e.g., coning and circumferential waviness. Circumferential waviness of brake discs is typically found as a butterfly shape in a 2nd rotational-order and corrugation (or hot-spotting) around a 10th order, which are caused by thermo-mechanical buckling. The author focused on the effects of material and dimensional homogeneity on the transient and permanent wave-like deformation of ventilated discs in low rotational-orders during repetitive high-speed braking. The tested discs were in two groups that had the same design and gray-cast-iron class but were cast in two foundries by using horizontal- and vertical-molding machines, respectively.
2015-09-27
Journal Article
2015-01-2691
Ju Young Kim, Jeongkyu Kim, Young Min Kim, Wontae Jeong, Hojoon Cho
Abstract In the brake system, unevenly distributed disc-pad contact pressure not only leads to a falling-off in braking feeling due to uneven wear of brake pads, but also a main cause of system instability which leads to squeal noise. For this reason there have been several attempts to measure contact pressure distribution. However, only static pressure distribution has been measured in order to estimate the actual pressure distribution. In this study a new test method is designed to quantitatively measure dynamic contact pressure distribution between disc and pad in vehicle testing. The characteristics of dynamic contact pressure distribution are analyzed for various driving conditions and pad shape. Based on those results, CAE model was updated and found to be better in detecting propensity of brake squeal.
2015-09-27
Journal Article
2015-01-2682
Masaaki Nishiwaki, Ryutaro Misumi
Abstract It is well known that disc brake squeal is often caused by high friction coefficient pad materials. Disc brake squeal is caused by dynamic unstable system under small disturbance of friction force variation. Today, disc brake squeal comes to be simulated by FEA, but it is very difficult to put so many dynamic unstable solutions into stable solutions. Therefore it is very important to make it clear the influence of friction force variation. This paper describes a study on trigger of disc brake squeal generation. First, the development of experimental set-up for disc brake squeal basic research and experimental results are described. Second, the equation of motion in disc brake squeal is derived and the vibration induced by small disturbance are analyzed. Furthermore, kinetic energy increase per 1 cycle in minute vibration are calculated, which represents the influence of friction and wear between disc and pad with caliper.
2015-09-27
Journal Article
2015-01-2678
Diego Adolfo Santamaria Razo, Johan Decrock, Ann Opsommer, Maarten Fabré, Fernao Persoon
Abstract Friction performance is the result of the interaction between rotor and friction material surfaces. Kinetic energy has to be transformed into heat, plastic deformations, chemical reactions and wear debris. The later generates the formation of the so-called third body layer and its initiation, growth and degradation will generate the actual friction coefficient and vibrations behavior. Some raw materials seem to promote third body layer formation more than others. The composition of plateaus usually contains iron oxide, copper, carbon, silicon and calcium. Since copper free materials are under development, the importance of understanding the third body layer formation has become bigger. Promaxon® D is widely used in NAO non steel formulations. It is a calcium silicate with a special morphology that influences friction material at two levels: the macro -bulk- scale and the micro -surface- scale. Bulk effect is related to the volume and porosity degree of the friction material.
2015-09-21
Article
Principal Engineer considers acoustic holography as the next step in the further development of its new noise measurement system.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2435
Ramakrishnan Murthy
Abstract One major problem that any product (say Motor, engines etc.) which converts electrical energy into a mechanical energy would have is resonance. It has tendency to damage any material when the products operating frequency matches the resonant frequency. The major consequences of this resonant frequency in Flight at run-time could be catastrophic. Generally it is a practice to avoid running at the resonant frequency. This is done as a fixed method where the systems are designed not to run on resonant frequency, i.e. a subsystem in a system is now being designed for that system alone which will not match the resonant frequency. But the same subsystem may not be suitable for some other system. Hence this requires multiple designs. However this idea is to make a design generic where any subsystem can be used in any system irrespective of its resonant frequency. The technique uses the PID algorithm. This method will be helpful is having a single design for different systems
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2477
Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
Abstract This paper presents the conceptual design of a new low-cost measurement system for the determination of pollutant concentrations associated with aircraft operations. The proposed system employs Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and passive electro-optics equipment installed in two non-collocated components. The source component consists of a tuneable small-size and low-cost/weight LIDAR emitter, which can be installed either on airborne or ground-based autonomous vehicles, or in fixed surface installations. The sensor component includes a target surface calibrated for reflectance and passive electro-optics equipment calibrated for radiance, both installed on an adjustable support. The proposed bistatic system determines the column-averaged molecular and aerosol pollutant concentrations along the LIDAR beam by measuring the cumulative absorption and scattering phenomena along the optical slant range.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2605
Jamnie Yazmín Achem Calahorra, Hilda E. Esparza Ponce, Patricia Zambrano Robledo, Facundo Almeraya Calderón, Citlalli Gaona Tiburcio
Abstract Thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering are review in terms of their potential and present uses in the aircraft industry. The aircraft alloys substrates were Ti-6Al-4V and Incoloy 800HT, using a target of yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) with nominal composition of 8% Y2O3 (wt%) and the remainder of ZrO2. The chemical composition of the films was determined by X-ray energy dispersion (EDS). The electrochemical noise behavior show that the coatings decreased propagation of pitting, leading to a state of passivation or uniform corrosion, and also possess superior corrosion resistance over the individually substrates.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2620
Philip Van Baren
Abstract Random vibration control systems produce a PSD plot by averaging FFTs. Modern controllers can set the degrees of freedom (DOF), which is a measure of the amount of averaging to use to estimate the PSD. The PSD is a way to present a random signal-which by nature “bounces” about the mean, at times making high excursions from the mean-in a format that makes it easy to determine the validity of a test. This process takes time as many frames of data are collected in order to generate the PSD estimate and a test can appear to be out of tolerance until the controller has enough data to estimate the PSD with a sufficient level of confidence. Something is awry with a PSD estimate that achieves total in-tolerance immediately after the test begins or immediately after a change in level, and this can hide dangerous over or under test conditions within specific frequency bands, and should be avoided.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2485
Mark Benjamin Geiger, John Michael Ster
Abstract A joint US Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) project initially addressing procurement criteria for powered hand tools stimulated involvement of the SAE EG1-B Hand Tools committee and affiliated industry participants, producers of powered hand tools. It became apparent of the need to develop a standard that addresses occupational disease, productivity, life-cycle cost in the selection of Hand Power Tools. Committee efforts focused upon development of an SAE International Standard that considers productivity hand-arm vibration, noise, other safety and health factors and life-cycle costs in procurement criteria for powered hand tools. Aerospace Standard, AS 6228 Safety Requirements for Procurement, Maintenance and Use of Hand-held Powered Tools, was published in September 2014.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2586
Bradley Michael, Rani Warsi Sullivan, Dulip Samaratunga, Ratneshwar Jha
Abstract The vibration response from undamaged and damaged polymer matrix composite beams at elevated temperatures is analyzed using the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) technique. The HHT shows potential in identifying the nonlinear damaged response of the beams. Using empirical mode decomposition to separate superposed modes of signals, several intrinsic mode functions can be determined which can reveal more information about complex nonlinear signals than traditional data analysis techniques such as the Fourier Transform. The composite beams are fabricated from an out-of-autoclave uniaxial carbon/epoxy prepreg (CYCOM™-5320-1/T650). Delamination damage in the composite layups is introduced by insertion of mold release wax films during fabrication. A shaker-table fixture was used for the vibration testing of all beams in a vertical cantilever configuration. High temperature piezoelectric accelerometers were used to obtain the vibration data for a frequency range of 1-61 Hz.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2501
Cosme de Castelbajac, Sylvain Laporte, Julian Lonfier, Emmanuel Puviland
Abstract Over the last few years, many aircraft production lines have seen their production rate increase. In some cases, to avoid bottlenecks in the assembly lines, the productivity of processes needs to be improved while keeping existing machine-tools. In this context, the case of drilling machine-tools tends to require particular attention, especially when multi-material parts are drilled. In such instances, the Vibration Assisted Drilling (VAD) process can be a way to improve productivity and reliability while keeping quality standards. This article presents a case of a drilling/countersinking process for stainless steel and titanium stack parts. Firstly, the article assesses the feasibility and benefits of using Vibration Assisted Drilling and Countersinking with the current cutting-tools.
2015-09-14
WIP Standard
AIR1168/10A
This AIR is arranged in the following two sections: 2E - thermodynamic characteristics of working fluids, which contains thermodynamic diagrams for a number of working fluids currently in use and supplied by various industrial firms; and 2F - properties of heat transfer fluids, which contains data, primarily in graphical form, on fluids that are frequently used in fluid heat transfer loops. Other properties of the environment, gases, liquids, and solids, can be found, as follows, in AIR 1168/9: 2A-Properties of the natural environment; 2B-Properties of gases; 2C-Properties of liquids and 2D- Properties of solids.
2015-09-11
Article
Endurica targets tire and rubber product developers with new software release. CAE software adds features for the analysis of rolling structures, self-heating, wrinkling, and cavitation.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2526
Borislav Klarin, Thomas Resch, Chiara Sessarego, Giorgio Spanu, Gianni Lamonaca
This paper presents a methodology for numerical investigation of a full flexible balancer drive together with engine and crank train under realistic operating conditions where shaft dynamics, gear contact and rattle impacts, gear root stresses and friction losses in bearings and gear interaction are taken into account and can be balanced against each other to achieve the design criteria. Gear rattle is driven by the speed fluctuation of the crank train, the resistance torque (mainly friction), shaft inertia and the backlash in the gears. The actual trend to engine downsizing and up-torqueing increases the severity to rattle as engines are running on higher combustion pressures. This increases torque and speed fluctuation, which makes the detailed investigation in this torque transfer even more demanding. A common method to reduce gear rattle is the usage of so-called scissors gears.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2462
Fabio Auriemma, Heiki Tiikoja
The acoustic impedance exhibited by a new type of element for noise control, the Micro-Grooved Elements (MGEs), has been widely investigated in this paper. The MGEs are typically composed of two overlying layers presenting macroscopic slots and a number of micro-grooves on one of the contact surfaces. The micro-grooves result in micro-channels as the layers are assembled to form the element. Similarly to Micro-Perforated Elements (MPEs), the MGEs have been proved to provide effective dissipation of acoustic energy by the means of viscous losses taking place in the micro-channels. However, in contrast to the MPEs, the MGEs use the grooves, instead of the holes, in which the air is forced to pass through. It results in more cost effective elements, which have been found to represent an adequate alternative for fibrous materials, typically present in silencer units.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2387
Emiliano Vitaliani, Daniele Di Rocco, Martin Sopouch
Abstract The aim of this paper is the study of the Centrifugal Pendulum Vibration Absorber (CPVA) dynamic behavior, with the background of improved vibration isolation and damping quality through a wide range of operating speeds. The CPVAs are passive devices, which are used in rotating machinery to reduce the torsional vibration without decreasing performance. After a first use of these damping systems in the field of aeronautics, nowadays CPVAs are employed also in railway and automotive applications. In principle, the CPVA is a mass, mounted on a rotor, which moves along a defined path relative to the rotor itself, driven by centrifugal effects and by the rotor's torsional vibrations. The advantage that such absorbers provide is the capability to counteract torsional vibrations arising with frequencies proportional to the mean operating speed. This is in particular the case with Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) where the induced vibrations are caused by the combustions process.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2531
Marco Leonetti, Michael Bargende, Martin Kreschel, Christoph Meier, Horst Schulze
Abstract Due to the demands for today's passenger cars regarding fuel consumption and emissions, exhaust turbo charging has become a fundamental step in achieving these goals. Especially in upper and middle class vehicles it is also necessary to consider the noise comfort. Today, floating bushings are mainly used as radial bearings in turbochargers. In the conventional operating range of the turbocharger dynamic instability occurs in the lubrication films of the bearings. This instability is transferred by structure-borne noise into audible airborne sound and known as constant tone phenomenon. This phenomenon is not the major contributor of the engine noise but its tonal character is very unpleasant. In order to gain a more detailed understanding about the origin of this phenomenon, displacement sensors have been applied to the compressor- and the turbine-side of the rotor, to be able to determine the displacement path.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2527
Daniela Siano, Giovanni Ferrara, Giulio Lenzi, Danilo D'Agostino, Andrea Fioravanti
In an Internal Combustion Engine, the design of the intake system is a very critical aspect since it affects both the engine power output and noise emissions at the intake side. In particular, downsized VVA engines typically produce higher gas-dynamic noise levels since, due to the intake line de-throttling at part-load, a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves is realized. In this work, the acoustic performance of the intake air filter of a commercial VVA engine is numerically and experimentally analyzed. In particular, a FEM model of the system is realized in order to compute the Transmission Loss (TL) parameter of the base device. The numerical analysis accounts of fluid-structure interaction, which gives the possibility to determine the effect of structure participation on the TL profile. Contemporarily, the experimental tests are performed on an acoustic test bench based on the multi-microphone technique for the evaluation of the acoustic parameters.
2015-09-02
Standard
J577_201509
This SAE Recommended Practice provides procedures, and information to conduct vibration (impact) tests on lighting devices and their components as well as other safety equipment used on vehicles.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1851
Mina Nishi, Hiroki Ikeda, Norimasa Iida, Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Umehara, Takayuki Fuyuto
In PCCI combustion with multiple injections, the mechanism having two heat release peaks which has a favorable characteristic of reducing noise is studied using numerical tool of single- and also multi-zone model of CHEMKIN PRO. In the present investigation, the physical issues, such as variations in the equivalent ratio and temperature caused by the fuel injection are simplified first so that the key issues of chemical reaction occurred in the combustion chamber can be extracted and are discussed in detail. The results show that the interval of two heat-release peaks can be controlled and as the number of zones of the calculation increases, the change in the timing of a heat release peak is increased but over three-zones, it is not affected any more. This indicates that to study about complex diesel combustion phenomena, three-to four-zone model shall give sufficiently accurate results.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1922
Ryota Sakane, Toshiki Fujimura, Takehiko Seo, Masato Mikami
We experimentally investigated effects of pilot diesel-fuel injection on ignition timing variation and noise reduction in a diesel engine with hydrogen addition to the intake pipe. The pilot diesel-fuel injection suppressed ignition timing variation which was significant under hydrogen addition conditions. The heat release by the pilot diesel-fuel injection stably acted as an ignition source of the hydrogen-air mixture. The maximum in-cylinder pressure rise rate increased with the hydrogen fraction. However, the sound pressure level attained minimum around a specific hydrogen fraction.
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