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Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gaurav Gupta, Rituraj Gautam, Chetan Prakash Jain
Abstract Interior sound quality is one of the significant factors contributing to the comfort level of the occupants of a passenger car. One of the major reasons for the deterioration of interior sound quality is the booming noise. Booming noise is a low frequency (20Hz∼300Hz) structure borne noise which occurs mainly due to the powertrain excitations or road excitations. Several methods have been developed over time to identify and troubleshoot the causes of booming noise [1]. In this paper an attempt has been made to understand the booming noise by analyzing structural (panels) and acoustic (cavity) modes. Both the structural modes and the acoustic modes of the vehicle cabin were measured experimentally on a B-segment hatchback vehicle using a novel approach and the coupled modes were identified. Panels contributing to booming noise were identified and countermeasures were taken to modify these panels to achieve decoupling of structural and cavity modes which results in the reduction of cabin noise levels.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gen Shibata, Hirooki Ushijima, Hideyuki Ogawa, Yushi Shibaike
Abstract When fuel is vaporized and mixed well with air in the cylinder of premixed diesel engines, the mixture auto-ignites in one burst resulting in strong combustion noise, and combustion noise reduction is necessary to achieve high load premixed diesel engine operation. In this paper, an engine noise analysis was conducted by engine tests and simulations. The engine employed in the experiments was a supercharged single cylinder DI diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The engine noise was sampled by two microphones and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer. The engine was equipped with a pressure transducer and the combustion noise was calculated from the power spectrum of the FFT analysis of the in-cylinder pressure wave data from the cross power spectrum of the sound pressure of the engine noise. The parameters investigated in the engine tests were the maximum rate of pressure rise, intake pressure by the supercharger, intake oxygen content by EGR, and the fuel injection timing, in all experiments the engine speed was maintained at 1600 rpm.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ornella Chiavola, Giancarlo Chiatti, Erasmo Recco
Abstract Many studies have demonstrated that an efficient control of the combustion process is crucial in order to comply with increasingly emerging Diesel emission standards and demanding for reduced fuel consumption. Methodologies based on real-time techniques are imperative and even if newly sensors will be available in the near future for on-board installation inside the cylinder, non intrusive measurements are still considered very attractive. This paper presents an experimental activity devoted to analyze the noise emission from a small displacement two-cylinder Diesel engine equipped by HPCR (high pressure common rail) fuel injection system. The signals acquired during stationary operation of the engine are analyzed and processed in order to highlight the different sources contributing to the overall emission. Particular attention is devoted to the specific samples of the signal that are mainly caused by the combustion process in order to extract the combustion contribution. The relationship between such a noise contribution and the in-cylinder pressure development during the combustion process is analyzed with the final aim of developing an algorithm in which the engine acoustic emission is used to compute key parameters able to fully characterize the pattern of the pressure development during the combustion process.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gihwan Kim, Chi-Hoon Choi, You Sung Moon, Yong Sun (Steven) Jin
Abstract The main contribution of this paper is to employ a sound and vibration theory in order to develop a light and cost effective plastic intercooler pipe. The intercooler pipe was composed of two rubber hoses and one aluminum pipe mounted between an ACV (Air Control Valve) and an intercooler outlet. The engineering design concept is to incorporate low-vibration type bellows and an impedance-mismatched center pipe, which replaces the rubber hoses and aluminum pipe respectively. The bellows were designed to adapt powertrain movement for high vibration transmission loss to the intercooler outlet. Also, the impedance-mismatched center pipe was implemented to increase reflected wave by using relatively higher modulus than bellows part and applying a SeCo (Sequential Coextrusion) processing method.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xingyu Liang, Kang Sun, Yuesen Wang, Gequn Shu, Lin Tang, Lei Ling, Xu Wang
Abstract Like outside scenery, the car interior noise and road condition will affect the driver's mental state when driving. In order to explore the influence of external visual and auditory factors on the driver's mood in the driving process based on research of traffic soundscape, this paper has selected four backbone roads of Tianjin city (China) to test and drive a gasoline passenger vehicle at different speeds. Near Acoustic Holographic was used to scan interior acoustic field distribution, while the tracking shot of the driver's location was recorded by a Sony camera. People with different characteristics were invited to watch the video and completed a self-designed survey questionnaire. The external factors affecting the driver's mood were explored by analyzing all these data. After the investigation, we found that the sound field distribution inside the car could be affected directly and significantly by the opening and closing the car window when driving; in the case of keeping the window closed, the acoustic characteristics of the car cabin was relatively stable; and the visual impact factor of the driver's mood is mainly related to the traffic congestion degree and the construction quality of road surface, whereas the road appearance and aesthetics, which people usually concern about have very little influence.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Fred G. Mendonca, Terence Connelly, Satish Bonthu, Philip Shorter
Abstract The interior noise in a vehicle that is due to flow over the exterior of the vehicle is often referred to as ‘windnoise’. In order to predict interior windnoise it is necessary to characterize the fluctuating surface pressures on the exterior of the vehicle along with vibro-acoustic transmission to the vehicle interior. For example, for greenhouse sources, flow over the A-pillar and side-view mirror typically induces both turbulence and local aeroacoustic sources which then excite the glass, and window seals. These components then transmit noise and vibration to the vehicle interior. Previous studies by the authors have demonstrated validated CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) techniques which give insight into the flow-noise source mechanisms. The studies also made use of post-processing based on temporal and spatial Fourier analysis in order to quantify the amount of energy in the flow at convective and acoustic wavenumbers. In the present study, the previously validated transient CFD techniques are used to describe sources that are input to frequency-based vibro-acoustic methods in order to predict interior noise.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hangsheng Hou
Abstract When a window opens to provide the occupant with fresh air flow while driving, wind throb problems may develop along with it. This work focuses on an analytical approach to address the wind throb issue for passenger vehicles when a front window or sunroof is open. The first case of this paper pertains to the front window throb issue for the current Ford Escape. Early in a program stage, CAA (Computational Aeroacoustics) analysis predicted that the wind throb level exceeded the program wind throb target. When a prototype vehicle became available, the wind tunnel test confirmed the much earlier analytical result. In an attempt to resolve this issue, the efforts focused on a design proposal to implement a wind spoiler on the side mirror sail, with the spoiler dimension only 6 millimeters in height. This work showed that the full vehicle CAA analysis could capture the impact of this tiny geometry variation on the wind throb level inside the vehicle cabin. The independent wind tunnel effort came to the same conclusion, and the difference between the analysis and testing is only about 1 dB.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
L.A.Raghu Mutnuri, Sivapalan Senthooran, Robert Powell, Zen Sugiyama, David Freed
Abstract A computational approach to evaluate rear-view mirror performance on wind noise in cars is presented in this paper. As a comfort metric at high speeds, wind noise needs to be addressed, for it dominates interior noise at mid-high frequencies. The impetus on rear-view mirror design arises from its crucial role in the flow field and the resulting pressure fluctuations on the greenhouse panels. The motivation to adopt a computational approach arises from the need to evaluate mirror designs early in vehicle design process and thus in conjunction with different vehicle shapes. The current study uses a Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based computational fluid dynamics(CFD) solver to predict the transient flow field and a statistical energy analysis(SEA) solver to predict interior noise contribution from the greenhouse panels. The accuracy of this computational procedure has been validated and published in the past. Realistic car geometry is chosen and the transient flow field around the vehicle resulting from mounting two different rear-view mirror designs is analyzed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kenji Yoshida, Junichi Semura, Itsuhei Kohri, Yoshihiro Kato
Abstract This study investigates the reduction of the Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) noise radiated from an automotive engine cooling fans, especially in case of the fan with an eccentric shroud. In recent years, with the increase of HV and EV, noise reduction demand been increased. Therefore it is necessary to reduce engine cooling fan noise. In addition, as a vehicle trend, engine rooms have diminished due to expansion of passenger rooms. As a result, since the space for engine cooling fans need to be small. In this situation, shroud shapes have become complicated and non-axial symmetric (eccentric). Generally, the noise of fan with an eccentric shroud becomes worse especially for BPF noise. So it is necessary to reduce the fan BPF noise. The purposes of this paper is to find sound sources of the BPF noise by measuring sound intensity and to analyze the flow structure around the blade by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). From the present results, suggest a design concept of the shroud shape to reduce the fan BPF noise is suggested.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Giovanni Morais Teixeira
Abstract Fatigue caused by forced vibration of a random nature is one of the major concerns in the automotive field. Random loading of components under actual driving conditions causes dynamic stress/strain responses which can be better described and handled in the frequency domain. Power Spectrum Density (PSD) is usually the most concise and straightforward way of representing a random process. Since frequency domain methodologies are gaining more respect and interest it is very important to be aware of their limitations and scope, particularly when compared to time domain algorithms. The present paper aims to discuss both approaches and establish some comparisons in terms of accuracy, range of application, computation time and user friendliness.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Manchi Venkateswara Rao, Jos Frank, Prasath Raghavendran
Abstract Accurate quantification of structure borne noise is a challenging task for NVH engineers. The structural excitation sources of vibration and noise such as powertrain and suspension are connected to the passenger compartment by means of elastomer mounts and spring elements. The indirect force estimation methods such as complex dynamic stiffness method and matrix inversion method are being used to overcome the limitations of direct measurement. In many practical applications, the data pertaining to load dependent dynamic stiffness of the connections especially related to mounts is not available throughout the frequency range of interest which limits the application of complex dynamic stiffness method. The matrix inversion method mainly suffers from the drawback that it needs operational data not contaminated by the effect of other forces which are not considered for calculation. In this paper, a new method is proposed in which the structure borne noise associated with powertrain is quantified easily and reliably.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Marcus Becher, Stefan Becker
Abstract This paper focuses on the applicability of numerical prediction of sound radiation caused by an axial vehicle cooling fan. To investigate the applicability of numerical methods, a hybrid approach is chosen where first a CFD simulation is performed and the sound radiation is calculated in a second step. For the acoustic simulation an integral method described by Ffowcs-Williams-Hawkings is used to predict the sound propagation in the far-field. The simulation results are validated with experiments. The corresponding setup in experiments and simulation represents an overall system which includes the cooler, the cooling fan and a combustion engine dummy. To optimize the economical applicability in terms of simulation setup and run time, different approaches are investigated. This includes the simulation of only one blade using a periodic boundary condition as compared to the whole fan geometry. In the CFD simulation an SAS-turbulence-model is applied. The results show that this is a very useful approach considering the challenges in prediction of numerical sound.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ajo John Thomas, Avnish Gosain, Prashanth Balachandran
Abstract The automobile market is witnessing a different trend altogether - the trend of shifting preference from powerful to fuel efficient machines. Certain factors like growing prices of fuel, struggling global economy, environmental sensitiveness and affordability have pushed the focus on smaller, efficient and cleaner automobiles. To meet such requirements, the automobile manufacturers, are going stringent on vehicle weights. Using electric and hybrid power-plants are other options to meet higher fuel efficiency and emission requirements but significant cost of these technologies have kept their growth restricted to only few makers and to only few regions of the globe. Optimizing the vehicle weight is a more attractive option for makers as it promises lesser time to market, is low on investment and allows use of existing platforms. However, lightweighting and NVH often conflict each other in vehicle development and hence design optimization plays a vital role in assigning a tradeoff between the lightweighting and NVH.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Atul Devidas Pol, Praveen Naganoor
Abstract Achieving targeted global modes (torsion, vertical bending and lateral bending) is one of the main enablers in meeting desired NVH performance characteristics of a new vehicle program. The torsion mode of next generation Land Rover - Freelander was lagging behind its target while the development cycle was quite progressed beyond underbody freeze. There was a challenge to recover more than 8 Hz in BIW torsion mode. A combination of Nastran Sol 200 (design sensitivity and optimization) and iterative process was adopted to demonstrate how the mode could be recovered with optimum mass penalty to the program. The paper states the existing modal status when this work was taken up. Next it elucidates design sensitivity/optimization module outcome which identifies sensitive areas to improve torsion mode. Then it describes how feasible design solutions were developed while iterating using Nastran Sol 103 modal analysis, based on the outcome of above sensitivity/optimization analyses, to converge to the specified target.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xiaozhen Sheng, Shouhui Huang, Sheng Tian, Xia Cao, Youlin Huang
Abstract Subject to excitations from pressure pulsations in boost air, the rubber pipe connecting the turbo compressor outlet and the intercooler of an engine vibrates structurally and radiates noise. If the pipe is improperly selected, the resulted vibration may be strong enough to radiate noise which is sufficient to damage the sound quality of the vehicle. This paper presents an initial analysis on this issue. First, formulae are derived for predicting vibration and sound radiation of the pipe for a given pressure pulsation, resulting in sound transmission index for the pipe to quantify its sound insulation behavior. Then effects on the sound transmission index are investigated for pipe parameters such as pipe wall thickness, Young's modulus and density of pipe material.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hyungtae Kim, Sehwun Oh, Ki-Chang Kim, Ju Young Lee, Jungseok Cheong, Junmoo Her
Abstract It is common knowledge that body structure is an important factor of road noise performance. Thus, a high stiffness of body system is required, and determining their optimized stiffness and structure is necessary. Therefore, a method for improving body stiffness and validating the relationship between stiffness and road noise through CAE and experimental trials was tested. Furthermore, a guideline for optimizing body structure for road noise performance was suggested.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ravi Kiran Cheni, Chetan Prakash Jain, Revathy Muthiah, Srikanth Gomatam
Abstract Automotive OEMs quest for vehicle body light weighting, increase in Fuel efficiency along with significant cut in the emissions pose significant challenges. Apart from the effect on vehicle handling, the reduction of vehicle weight also results in additional general requirements for acoustic measures as it is an important aspect that contributes to the comfort and the sound quality image of the vehicle, thus posing a unique challenge to body designers and NVH experts. Due to these conflicting objectives, accurate identification along with knowledge of the transfer paths of vibrations and noise in the vehicle is needed to facilitate measures for booming noise dampening and vehicle structure vibration amplitude. This paper focuses on the application of a unique design and development of vehicle body structure anti-vibration dynamic damper (DD), unique in its aspect in controlling booming noise generated at a specific RPM range. Design methodology follows the concept of Mass-damper system on vehicle body or engine structure where panel with multi-degree of freedom vibrating at medium level frequency is transferred to damper which is vibrating at same resonant frequency in 180° opposite phase.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Changxin Wang, Deguang Fang, Fuxiang Guo
Abstract To find out the main excitation sources of a bus floor's vibration, modal analysis and spectral analysis were respectively performed in the paper. First we tested the vibration modal of the bus's floor under the full-load condition, and the first ten natural frequencies and vibration modes were obtained for the source identification of the bus floor's vibration. Second the vibration characteristic of the bus floor was measured in an on-road experiment. The acceleration sensors were arranged on the bus's floor and the possible excitation sources of the bus, which includes engine mounting system, driveline system, exhaust system, and wheels. Then the on-road experiment was carefully conducted on a highway under the four kinds of test condition: in-situ acceleration, uniform velocity (90km/h, 100km/h, 110km/h, 120km/h), uniform acceleration with top gear, and stall sliding condition with neutral gear. After that, by performing order tracking analysis and spectral analysis, the 1st order rotation frequency of the driveline and the 2nd order frequency of engine were identified to be the main cause of bus floor's vibration.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mohit Kohli, S Nataraja Moorthy, Manchi Venkateswara Rao, Prasath Raghavendran
Abstract The present quiet and comfortable automobiles are the result of years of research carried out by NVH engineers across the world. Extensive studies helped engineers to attenuate the noise generated by major sources such as engine, transmission, driveline and road excitations to a considerable extent, which made other noise sources such as intake, exhaust and tire perceivable inside. Many active and passive methods are available to reduce the effect of said noise sources, but enough care needs to be taken at the design level itself to eliminate the effect of cavity resonances. Experimental investigation of cavity resonances of real systems is necessary besides the FEA model based calculations. Acoustic cavity resonance of vehicle sub systems show their presence in the interior noise through structure borne and air borne excitations. Cavity resonances for some systems e.g. intake can only be suppressed through resonators. The exact location and nature of acoustic cavity resonance needs to be found as accurately as possible to bring out the best from a resonator.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Masashi Terada, Takashi Kondo, Yukihiro Kunitake, Kunitomo Miyahara
Abstract In automobile development, steering vibrations caused by engine excitation force and suspension vibration input from the road surface are a problem. The conventional method of reducing vibrations and thereby securing marketability has been to dispose a dynamic damper inside the steering wheel. The resonance frequency of a steering system varies for each vehicle developed (as a result of the vehicle size, the arrangement of the stiff members of the vehicle body, and the like). As a result, the individual values of dynamic dampers that are used with vehicles must be adjusted for each developed vehicle type. To address this problem, we have developed a new structure in which, rather than using a conventional dynamic damper, we disposed a floating bush on the Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) module attachment section and used the SRS module itself as the weight for the dynamic damper. In this structure, the dynamic damper weight is approximately eight times greater than the conventional weight, the vibration reduction effect is enhanced, and the effective frequency range is widened.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hangsheng Hou
Abstract The purpose of this work is to analytically investigate automotive exhaust system noise generation and propagation phenomena. The turbulent exhaust gas flow interacts with the exhaust system structure, and as a result of this interaction, the structure vibrates and radiates noise. In the meantime, pressure wave becomes acoustic wave at its outlet. This study focuses on an exhaust system and carrying out transient fluid-structure analysis by using an explicit finite element solver that is capable of solving the Navier Stokes equations for turbulent, compressible viscous fluids as well as the field equations for solid structures in a fully coupled fashion. The time domain signals obtained from the transient analysis are post-processed to yield frequency domain data, sound pressure levels, noise source pattern as well as the selected acoustic field contour snapshots. The work involves evaluating different design proposals and comparing their corresponding sound pressure levels and acoustic fields.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Vijay Antony John Britto, Kalyankumar Sidram Hatti, Sai Sankaranarayana, Sivasankaran Sadasivam, Ekambaram Loganathan
Abstract Commercial vehicle NVH attributes primarily focus on interior noise for driver's comfort and exterior noise for environmental legislation. Major sources for both the interior and exterior noise are power train unit, exhaust and air intake system. This paper focuses on development of Air Intake System (AIS) for better interior and exterior NVH performance for medium and heavy commercial vehicles. For air intake system, structural radiations from its panels and nozzle noise are significant contributors on overall vehicle NVH. Noise generation mechanism in air intake system occurs due to opening and closing of the valves and inlet air column oscillation by sharp pressure pulse from cylinder. Based on benchmarking, vehicle level targets have been arrived, and then cascaded to system and sub-system level targets. For air intake system, targets for nozzle noise at wide open throttle condition have been set for exterior NVH performance. These targets are further cascaded down to transmission loss (TL), snorkel breathing mode, isolation & dynamic stiffness attributed for improvement in interior/exterior noise and sound quality.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kambiz Jahani, Sajjad Beigmoradi, Mohsen Bayani Khaknejad
Abstract The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of spot-weld modeling approaches on NVH virtual simulation problems. For this purpose, finite element method is considered for further simulations. The goal is to evaluate and compare results within the domain of 0 to 200 Hz by modeling spot-welds with three different element types: a rigid body constraint element (RBE), two rigid body elements with hexahedral solid element (RBE3-HEXA-RBE3) and CWELD constraint. In order to evaluate the effects, three main NVH analyses are chosen for this study. In the first place, a free-free modal analysis is performed for the BIW and trimmed body models of a D-segment saloon car in order to estimate natural frequencies and mode shapes. Afterwards, a frequency response analysis is performed to evaluate the dynamic stiffness of engine mount. Finally, a noise transfer function (NTF) simulation is carried out to calculate the sound pressure level at driver ear's location. The out coming results from each type of simulations are extracted and compared to investigate the effect of spot-weld modeling on the accuracy of FEM analyses results concerning NVH problems.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy
Abstract Increased customer expectation for NVH refinement creates a significant challenge for the integration of Diesel powertrains into passenger vehicles that might have been initially developed for gasoline engine applications. A significant factor in the refinement of Diesel powertrain sound quality is calibration optimization for NVH, which is often constrained by performance, emissions and fuel economy requirements. Vehicle level enablers add cost and weight to the vehicle and are generally bounded by vehicle architecture, particularly when dealing with a carry-over vehicle platform, as is often the case for many vehicle programs. These constraints are compounded by the need to make program critical sound package content decisions well before the availability of prototype vehicles with the right powertrain. In this paper, a case study on NVH development for integration of a light duty Diesel powertrain is presented. A process, based on a time-domain transfer path methodology was applied to provide focused engineering development of powertrain and vehicle level NVH enablers.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Kun Diao, Lijun Zhang, Dejian Meng
Abstract Brake squeal shows a significant uncertainty characteristic. In this paper, a series of bench tests were carried out to study the uncertainty of brake squeal on a multi-function brake inertia dynamometer test bench. Then based on time-frequency analysis results, a creative squeal confirmation and determination method was presented, which can show the squeal variations in the domains of time, frequency and amplitude together. An uncertainty analysis method was also established, in which the statistical parameters of squeal frequency and sound pressure level (SPL), and probability density evaluation of frequency based on Quantile-Quantile Plot (QQ plot) were given. And a judgment method of the frequency doubling was devised based on numerical multiple and occurrence concurrence, as well as the uncertainty statistical analysis method considering frequency doubling. All the methods established were applied to the uncertainty analysis of brake squeal. It was found that, both the squeal frequency and SPL are dispersed, and each squeal has its own statistical results.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Takahito Watanabe, Takuya Yoshimura
Abstract In performing noise control design for vehicles, there is a benefit to identifying important vibro-acoustic coupled mode. The purpose of this study is “identifying the coupled mode of a vehicle through FRF (frequency response function) measurement”. A speaker which measure the internal acoustic pressure was used as a new experimental method. An acoustic input is estimated by the fluctuation of the acoustic pressure inside the speaker box. Acoustic pressures are measured by using some microphones, the vibrations of the structure are measured by using some accelerometers. Main experiment was carried out for measure the vibro-acoustic mode. First acoustic mode was identified in about 66 Hz. And structure associated mode with this mode was identified. Hence, the vibro-acoustic mode identification was carried out.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jin-Seok Hong, Hyung-Seok Kook, Kang-Duck Ih, Hyoung-Gun Kim
Abstract Fluctuation in the sound pressure level of the interior noise of an on-road vehicle is always caused by unpredictable factors such as wind gusts, traffic, roadside obstacles, and changing drive-by-drive conditions, and is hence, not reproducible in nature. Since the human brain is known to be more sensitive to noise that is amplitude-modulated than noise at a steady level [1], it is important to evaluate and improve the NVH performance of a vehicle in terms of the fluctuating interior noise likely to be experienced by drivers or users. To this end, an evaluation system was developed as part of this study, the details of which are presented in this paper. The system is composed of hardware for database storage and replay of sounds, and software for synthesizing the noise signals. For given wind tunnel test results, the evaluation system yields a wind noise model that can synthesize wind noise signals for any wind scenario. Additionally, the road and engine noise components can be extracted from proving ground or real road tests.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tomoya Ishii, Tomohiro Sudo, Masanori Morikawa, Daisuke Nagahata
Abstract General analysis methods which are known as Transfer Path Analysis and Air borne Source Quantification have been extended to estimate forces of an air conditioner's parts and also clarify the path from air conditioner system. These results show noise transfer path to be improved. Originally, the existing methods are known to require considerable amount of time for the cause of complicated measurement to get analysis results. In the work of this paper, required measurement is simplified, and time reduction of 50% is achieved without critical decrease in analysis accuracy.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Swapnil S. Kulkarni, Muragendra Magdum, Ravi B.
Abstract Automotive shock absorber shims are subjected to deformation while generating the pressure differential across the rebound and compression chambers. Considering the contact, large deflection, and material this shim stack deformation will be nonlinear throughout the working velocity of shock absorbers. The deformation of shim stack mainly depends on number and geometry of deflection disk, number and geometry of ports, and clamping disk geometry on which shims are rested. During the rebound and compression stroke of the shock absorber, the oil flows through the piston and base valve ports. High pressure oil developed during mid and high velocity of shock absorber results in deflection of shim stack in piston and base valve assembly. This deflection leads to oil leakage through the shim stack which results in change in damping force by the shock absorber. The fluid pressure from the flow passage (well) acting over surface area of shim differs while causing an elastic bending of the shims.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
John Morello
Abstract As automotive and commercial vehicle OEM's continue their quest to reduce cost, product selection, quality, and reliability must be maintained. On-engine and wheel located connection systems create the greatest challenges due to the extreme levels of vibration. In the past, devices were fewer, and there where less direct connects in high vibration locations (Engine/ wheel sensors, electronic controllers, fuel injectors). Instead, small wire harnesses (“pigtails”) were commonly used. These pigtails can dampen the effect of the environment which includes mild to severe vibration by keeping the environmental effect away from the electrical connection contact point. Electrically connecting directly to the device creates new challenges in the connection system with the increased threat of fretting corrosion. Suppliers supporting OEM's are attempting to meet these direct connect requirements with lubrication, precious metal plating, and high contact force contacts. Some are more effective than others, and all have their drawbacks.
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