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2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2203
Maaz Farooqui, Tamer Elnady, Ragnar Glav, Tony Karlsson
Abstract A novel porous metallic foam has been studied in this work. This composite material is a mixture of resin and hollow spheres. It is lightweight, highly resistive to contamination and heat, and is capable of providing similar or better sound absorption compared to the conventional porous absorbers, but with a robust and less degradable properties. Several configurations of the material have been tested inside an expansion chamber with spatially periodic area changes. Bragg scattering was observed in some configurations with certain lattice constants. The acoustic properties of this material have been characterized from the measurement of the two-port matrix across a cylindrical sample. The complex density and speed of sound can be extracted from the transfer matrix using an optimization technique. Several models were developed to validate the effect of this metallic foam using Finite Elements and the Two-port Theory.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2202
Catheryn Jackson, Justin E. Gimbal, Dhara Metla
Abstract Over the past decade damping materials have contributed major improvements to passenger comfort. Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) engineers have further shaped material specifications to reflect key targeted properties that improve vehicle design. The specified damping material is then applied to the formed surfaces of the vehicle body to provide optimal performance and achieve the required results. This paper describes how liquid dampers have advanced to meet increased performance requirements through improved loss modulus of the final coating. Data generated by dynamic mechanical analysis shows that this viscoelastic behavior is what drives the performance in damping materials. Through the correlation of loss moduli to damping performance of Oberst bars, the mechanism can be further quantified and explained.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2198
Masami Matsubara, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Akihito Ito, Kensuke Bito
Abstract Early studies on the tire vibration characteristics of road noise focused on radial modes of vibration because these modes are dominant in vertical spindle force. However, recent studies of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) prediction have suggested that tire modeling not only of radial modes, but also of lateral vibration, including lateral translational and lateral bending modes, affect interior noise. Thus, it is important to construct tire dynamic models with few degrees of freedom for whole-vehicle analysis of NVH performance. Existing tire dynamics model can't express tire lateral vibrations. This paper presents a new approach for tire vibration analysis below 200Hz, and a formula for tire natural frequencies. First, a tire dynamic model is developed based on the thin cylindrical shell theory. Kinetic and potential energies are derived. Mode shape function is also derived by the assumption of inextensility in the neutral of the tread ring.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2197
Stijn Vercammen, Fabio Bianciardi, Peter Kindt, Wim Desmet, Paul Sas
Abstract In the context of the reduction of traffic-related noise the research reported in this paper provides tools that could be used to develop low noise tyres. Two measurement techniques have been analyzed for exterior noise radiation characterization of a loaded rotating slick tyre on a rough road surface. On one hand sound pressure measurements at low spatial resolution with strategically placed microphones on a half-hemisphere around the tyre/road contact point have been performed. This technique provides a robust solution to compute the (overall) sound power level. On the other hand sound intensity measurements at high spatial resolution by means of a scanning intensity probe have been performed. This technique allows a more detailed spatial visualization of the noise radiation and helps in getting more insight and better understanding of the acoustical phenomena.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2230
Thomas L. Lago
Abstract Chatter vibrations are causing large monetary losses daily in industry. New materials have increased the challenges with harmful vibration levels. Since the vibrations, when observed as a final result, are chaotic and the vibration process nonlinear, it is a challenging task to deal with it. It is also a common “understanding” in the cutting industry that chatter is RPM (the rotational speed) dependent, since the behavior changes with RPM. Many attempts have been done over many years to mitigate and understand the vibrations. In our vast research on these topics, we have found that it is rewarding to classify the vibrations into categories, enabling a better understanding of its underlying physics and “source of vibrations,” and thus also the formulation of a possible remedy. An analysis approach has been developed where vibrations are analyzed and categorized and a GO/NOGO indicator is telling if the machine has the “right type of vibrations.”
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2225
Peng Yu, Tong Zhang, Jing Li, Shiyang Chen, Rong Guo
Abstract Faced on transient vibration of EV, considering the characteristics of the electric drive system, active and passive integrated transient vibration control method of power train mounting system was proposed. Models of power train system and mounting system were established, modal characteristics were grasped by simulation and experiment. A feed-forward controller was constructed from the facet of active control, mounting system transient vibration and power train torsion vibration were reduced. Based on this, further optimization of mounting system was conducted from a passive control perspective. Results show that the active and passive integrated control method can effectively reduce the dynamic reaction force of mounting points, improve the vibration conditions of power train and vehicle body as well.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2226
Shishuo Sun, David W. Herrin, John Baker
Abstract Transmissibility is the most common metric used for isolator characterization. However, engineers are becoming increasingly concerned about energy transmission through an isolator at high frequencies and how the compliance of the machine and foundation factor into the performance. In this paper, the transfer matrix approach for isolator characterization is first reviewed. Two methods are detailed for determining the transfer matrix of an isolator using finite element simulation. This is accomplished by determining either the mobility or impedance matrix for the isolator and then converting to a transfer matrix. It is shown that results are similar using either approach. In both cases, the isolator is first pre-loaded before the transfer matrix is determined. The approach to find isolator insertion loss is demonstrated for an isolator between two plates, and the effect of making changes to the structural impedance on the machine side of the isolator by adding ribs is examined.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2219
Al Ganeshkumar, Shinichi Fukuhara
Abstract Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) technology is widely used in automobiles to reduce engine harmonic noise [3]. ANC systems require one or more microphones mounted in the cabin to monitor the harmonic noise level and provide feedback to the DSP algorithm. The ideal locations for the microphones are as close as possible to the passenger seating locations and away from any wind turbulence that can impact the diaphragm of the microphone. Excessive wind turbulence on the diaphragm can cause the ANC adaptive filter weights to be perturbed enough resulting in audible ‘pumping’ type artifacts. For several practical reason it's not always possible to control the location of the microphones and hence a DSP software and/or mechanical solution needs to be incorporated in the system. This paper will primarily address the DSP software solutions to detect wind turbulence noise in ANC microphones so appropriate counter measures can be applied to eliminate the unwanted artifacts.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2214
Shuguang Zuo, Guo Long, Xudong Wu, Jiajie Hu, Longyang Xiang, Jun Zhang
Abstract In order to reduce high-frequency harmonic noise produced by the blower in the auxiliary system of a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), a narrowband active noise control (ANC) method instead of conventional passive mufflers is adopted since the blower demands clean air condition and expects good acoustic performance. However, in ANC practical applications, the frequency difference between reference signal and actual primary signal, i.e., frequency mismatch (FM), can significantly degrade the high-frequency performance of narrowband ANC system. In this paper, a new narrowband ANC system is proposed to compensate for the performance degeneration due to the existence of FM and improve noise reduction at high frequencies. The proposed system consists of two parts: the Filtered Error Least Mean Square (FELMS) algorithm filtering the primary signals at wide frequency range other than those at the targeted frequencies, and the FM removal algorithm proposed by Yegui Xiao.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2081
Hossein Habibi, Graham Edwards, Liang Cheng, Haitao Zheng, Adam Marks, Vassilios Kappatos, Cem Selcuk, Tat-Hean Gan
Abstract Icing conditions in cold regions of the world may cause problems for wind turbine operations, since accreted ice can reduce the efficiency of power generation and create concerns regarding ice-shedding. This paper covers modelling studies and some experimental development for an ongoing ice protection system that provides both deicing and anti-icing actions for wind turbine blades. The modelling process contained two main sections. The first part involved simulation of vibrations with very short wavelength or ultrasonic guided waves (UGW) on the blade to determine optimal excitation frequency and transducer configuration. This excitation creates horizontal shear stress at the interface between ice and blade and focuses energy at the leading edge for de-bonding ice layers.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2171
Winston Spencer, Djamel Bouzit, Joseph Pace, Sudeep Dhillon
Driveline plunge mechanism dynamics has a significant contribution to the driver's perceivable transient NVH error states and to the transmission shift quality. As it accounts for the pitch or roll movements of the front powerplant and rear drive unit, the plunging joints exhibit resisting force in the fore-aft direction under various driveline torque levels. This paper tackles the difficult task of quantifying the coefficient of static friction and the coefficient of dynamic friction in a simple to use metric as it performs in the vehicle. The comparison of the dynamic friction to the static friction allows for the detection of the occurrence of stick-slip in the slip mechanism; which enables for immediate determination of the performance of the design parameters such as spline geometry, mating parts fit and finish, and lubrication. It also provides a simple format to compare a variety of designs available to the automotive design engineer.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2250
Masahiro Akei, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Akihito Ito, Takayuki Yamauchi, Daisuke Kubota
Abstract This paper describes the identification of a sound source model for diesel engines installed on agricultural machines by using Inverse-Numerical Acoustic (INA) analysis, and noise predictions using the sound source model identified by INA. INA is a method of identifying surface vibrations from surrounding sound pressures. This method can be applied to sound sources with complicated shapes like those in engines. Although many studies on INA have been conducted, these past studies have focused on improvements to the identified accuracy and prediction of noise in free sound field or hemi-free sound field. The authors accurately predicted the sound pressure levels of engine enclosures using a sound source model identified by INA and a boundary element method (BEM). However, we had not yet verified the effectiveness of this sound source model against enclosures that had sound absorbing materials and openings.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2251
Alex Varghese, Satish Palled
Abstract NVH in automobile has been very demanding over the years and is considered to be one of the key focus areas for customer satisfaction identified by the automobile companies. A lot of work has been done towards optimizing noise treatment materials and its effective placement to suit performance, weight and cost. This paper outlines a unique method to optimize the coverage of the NCT around the FOD area by conducting an effective sound intensity mapping around the FOD area at the cabin side with the help of a two microphone based sound intensity probe.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2249
Saad Bennouna, Said Naji, Olivier Cheriaux, Solene Moreau, Boureima Ouedraogo, Jean Michel Ville
Abstract Passengers' thermal comfort inside a car cabin is mainly provided by the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) module. Air provided by HVAC is blown via a blower, passing through different components: flaps, thermal exchangers, ducts… and then distributed to car cabin areas. Interaction between airflow and HVAC components generates noises that emerge in car cabin. Due to this fact, noise is naturally created and its level is linked to flow rate. Valeo is aiming, though CEVAS project, to develop a prediction tool which will provide HVAC spectrum and sound quality data. This tool will be based, in particular, on aeroacoustic measurements using 2N-ports model and Particle Image Velocimetry methods to provide characteristics of HVAC components.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2248
Florian Pignol, Emiel Tijs, Daniel Fernandez Comesana, Daewoon Kim
Abstract In order to apply an effective noise reduction treatment determining the contribution of different engine components to the total sound perceived inside the cabin is important. Although accelerometer or laser based vibration tests are usually performed, the sound contributions are not always captured accurately with such approaches. Microphone based methods are strongly influenced by the many reflections and other sound sources inside the engine bay. Recently, it has been shown that engine radiation can be effectively measured using microphones combined with particle velocity sensors while the engine remains mounted in the car [6]. Similar results were obtained as with a dismounted engine in an anechoic room. This paper focusses on the measurement of the transfer path from the engine to the vehicle interior in order to calculate the sound pressure contribution of individual engine sections at the listener's position.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2253
Kimitoshi Tsuji, Katsuhiko Yamamoto
Abstract It is important for vehicle concept planning to estimate fuel economy and the influence of vehicle vibration in advance. This can be accomplished using virtual engine specifications and a virtual vehicle frame. In this paper, I will show the power plant model with electric starter and battery that can predict fuel economy, combustion heat results and transient torque. The power plant is a 1.3L 4cyl designed for NA Spark Ignition. The power plant model was realized using an energy based model using VHDL-AMS. Here, VHDL-AMS is modeling language stored in IEC international standard (IEC61691-6) and can realize multi physics in 1D simulation. The modeling language supports electrical, magnetic, thermal, mechanical, fluidic and compressive fluidic domains. The model was created in house using VHDL-AMS and validated on ANSYS SIMPLORER. The simulated results of fuel energy consumption agreed with driving energy and amount of energy losses, e.g. cooling loss, exhaust loss.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2259
Jan Zuleeg
Abstract Tribological contacts between plastic or polymer materials can exhibit stick-slip behaviour that generates noise. Tribological properties can be influenced by lubricants such as bonded coatings, greases, and fluids. In this paper, well known theories about polymer friction from the literature will be shown to be useful in the development of new lubricants. Theoretical results have been validated with a Ziegler Stick-Slip Test Rig. The test methods presented in this paper are used in the development of lubricants for automotive applications (in the interior of the car including invisible lubricants developed for Class “A” surfaces).
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2258
Gil-Jun Lee, Kichang Kim, Jay Kim
Abstract Squeak and rattle (S&R) noises are undesirable noises caused by friction-induced vibration or impact between surfaces. While several computer programs have been developed to automatically detect and rate S&R events over the years, no reported work has been found that can detect squeak and rattle noises and distinguish them. Because the causes of squeak noises and rattle noises are different, knowing if it is a squeak noise or rattle noise will be very helpful for automotive engineers to choose an appropriate measure to solve the problem. The authors have developed a new algorithm to differentiate squeak noises and rattle noises, and added it to the S&R detection algorithm they had developed previously. The new algorithm utilizes a combination of sound quality metrics, specifically sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2257
Ki-Chang Kim, Sang-Woo Lee, Seok-Gil Hong, Jay Kim, Gil-Jun Lee, Jae Min Choi, Yong-Jin Kim
Abstract Squeak and rattle (S&R) problems in body structure and trim parts have become serious issues for automakers because of their influence on the initial quality perception of consumers. In this study, various CAE and experimental methods developed by Hyundai Motors for squeak and rattle analysis of door systems are reported. Friction-induced vibration and noise generation mechanisms of a door system are studied by an intelligent combination of experimental and numerical methods. It is shown that the effect of degradation of plastics used in door trims can be estimated by a numerical model using the properties obtained experimentally. Effects of changes in material properties such as Young's modulus and loss factor due to the material degradation as well as statistical variations are predicted for several door system configurations. As a new concept, the rattle and squeak index is proposed, which can be used to guide the design.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2256
Colin Troth
Abstract This paper considers important aspects of rigid body dynamics of power trains with respect to noise and vibration (by definition a power train (PT) term here is an engine plus transmission). Flexibility of PT's and their ancillaries leads to unwanted levels of noise and vibration. By employing rigid body concepts we can assess the levels of unwanted flexibility of whole PT's and their ancillaries e.g. mounting brackets. Using dedicated software based on rigid body theory it is possible to define vibration and noise ‘entitlement’ i.e. minimum vibration and noise that can theoretically be achieved. Targets can then be to set based upon these entitlements. This can then lead to better more robust designs to achieve higher levels of refinement. The use of generic 3 and 4 cylinder one liter in-line PT's modes are used within the software to aid this study.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2234
Giancarlo Chiatti, Ornella Chiavola, Silvia Conforto, Manfredi Amalfi
Abstract Besides pollutant emissions, fuel consumption and performance, vehicle NVH constitutes a further object during engine development and optimization. In recent years, research activity for diesel engine noise reduction has been devoted to investigate aerodynamic noise due to intake and exhaust systems and surface radiated noise. Most of the attention has been concerned with the identification and analysis of noise sources in order to evaluate the individual contribution (injection, combustion, piston slap, turbocharger, oil pump, valves) to the overall noise with the aim of selecting appropriate control strategies. Several studies have been devoted to analyze combustion process that has a direct influence on engine noise emission; the impact of injection strategies on the combustion noise has been evaluated and approaches able to separate engine combustion and mechanical noise components have been presented.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2235
Arnaud Caillet, Denis Blanchet
Abstract The need in the automotive industry to understand the physical behavior of trims used in a vehicle is high. The PEM (poro-elastic method) was developed to permit an explicit representation of the trims in the FEM full vehicle models and to give tools to diagnose the effect of the trims and test design changes (porous material property, geometry, etc.,). During the last decade, the evolution of software and hardware has allowed the creation of models with highly detailed trim description (porous material using Biot parameters, plastic trims, etc.,). These models can provide good correlation up to 400Hz compared to measurements in contrast to classical NSM (Non Structural Mass) methodology which shows limitations.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2231
Masashi Arakawa, Miho Nakatsuka, Hiroo Yamaoka
Abstract To analyze vibration generated from the gears caused by meshing error, a new prediction methodology has been developed for vibration transmitted through the engine mounts from the transmission housing. This paper focuses on the left engine mount and brackets attached to the transmission housing of a compact front-wheel drive (FWD) vehicle that connect the transmission housing to the body structure. In this methodology, a modeling technique that incorporates the dynamic characteristics of rubber mounts and brackets is indispensable. A new simulation technique deals with a detailed rubber mount FE model that considers the contact area at the attachment point of the mount and brackets. The methodology is able to estimate vibration with high accuracy by taking into account dynamic characteristics such as surging for the rubber mount, and using the actual contact area confirmed by pressure sensitive paper for the vehicle FE model.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2238
Marina Roche, Marco Mammetti, Claudi Crifaci
Abstract Emissions and fuel consumption reduction for the year 2020 have led to the development of new powertrain solutions. The development of new electric concepts presents vehicle integration challenges, involving among others, NVH. Energy flow is controlled by inverters that transform the energy from DC to AC by working at frequencies of the order of kilohertz with a control strategy that can abruptly switch, and motors introduce high orders and electro-magnetic forces due to their topology, inducing phenomena that are not present in internal- combustion engine vehicles. In Particular, a common characteristic of permanent magnet motors is cogging torque, which is due to the attraction of the rotor poles and stator slots that induces a torque ripple causing comfort challenges at low speed and low torque conditions.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2236
Parimal Tathavadekar, Ricardo O. de Alba Alvarez, Michael Sanderson, Rabah Hadjit
Abstract Finite element analysis (FEA) is commonly used in the automotive industry to predict low frequency NVH behavior (<150 Hz) of structures. Also, statistical energy analysis (SEA) framework is used to predict high frequency (>400 Hz) noise transmission from the source space to the receiver space. A comprehensive approach addressing the entire spectrum (>20 Hz) by taking into account structure-borne and air-borne paths is not commonplace. In the works leading up to this paper a hybrid methodology was employed to predict structure-borne and air-borne transfer functions up to 1000 Hz by combining FEA and SEA. The dash panel was represented by FE structural subsystems and the noise control treatments (NCTs) and the pass-throughs were characterized via testing to limit uncertainty in modeling. The rest of the structure and the fluid spaces were characterized as SEA subsystems.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2237
Nickolas Vlahopoulos, Sergey Medyanik
In the Energy Finite element Analysis (EFEA) method, the governing differential equations are formulated for an energy variable that has been spatially averaged over a wavelength and time averaged over a period. A finite element approach is used for solving the differential equations numerically. Therefore, a library of elements is necessary for modeling the various wave bearing domains that are present in a structural-acoustic system. Discontinuities between wave bearing domains always exist due to the geometry, from a change in material properties, from multiple components being connected together, or from different media interfacing with each other. Therefore, a library of joints is also necessary for modeling the various types of physical connections which can be encountered in a structural-acoustic system.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2243
Yang Liu, Pingjian Ming, Wenping Zhang, Xinyu Zhang
Abstract Turbocharger is an important part of the turbocharged diesel engine. Due to the increase of mass flow rate and pressure ratio, aerodynamic noise of turbocharger has become more apparent. And turbocharger noise becomes one of the major noise sources of the main engine system of the ship. In the paper, the aerodynamic noise is predicted by using Computational fluid mechanics (CFD) and indirect boundary element method (IBEM) based on Lighthill acoustic analogy theory. Unsteady viscous flow in the centrifugal Compressor is simulated with finite volume method using the single stator and rotor blade passages and the characteristic of compressor is agreed well with the experimental value. The flow field characteristics and frequency spectrum of the fluctuating pressure are analyzed which agree well with the theoretical value. Dipole is the main noise source in compressor and the datum of pressure fluctuation at rotor blade are extracted.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2240
Gong Cheng, David W. Herrin
Abstract The theory of patch (or panel) contribution analysis is first reviewed and then applied to a motorcycle engine on a test stand. The approach is used to predict the sound pressure in the far field and the contribution from different engine components to the sound pressure at a point. First, the engine is divided into a number of patches. The transfer functions between the sound pressure in the field and the volume velocity of each patch were determined by taking advantage of vibro-acoustic reciprocity. An inexpensive monopole source is placed at the receiver point and the sound pressure is measured at the center of each patch. With the engine idling, a p-u probe was used to measure particle velocity and sound intensity simultaneously on each patch. The contribution from each patch to the target point is the multiplication of the transfer function and the volume velocity, which can be calculated from particle velocity or sound intensity. There were two target points considered.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2247
Masao Nagamatsu
Abstract The sound localization methods are used for detection of noise source locations of prototypes of mechanical products including automobile engines. There are several types of sound localization methods. In middle frequency around 1kHz, which is most sensitive frequency for human auditory, these sound localization methods have enough resolution in their reconstructed images, and they are effective to localize the sound sources. For high frequency sound localization, the holographic type methods take long time in its measurement. To overcome this problem, I have developed a converted method of Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) method, which is one of conventional holographic sound localization method. However, in low frequency, all holographic localization methods do not have enough resolution in reconstructed images. I am now developing new sound localization method, Double Nearfield Acoustic Holography (DNAH) method.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2246
Kurt Veggeberg, Mike Denton
Abstract This is an overview of the development of a portable, real-time acoustic beamformer based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) and digital microphones for noise source identification. Microphone arrays can be a useful tool in identifying noise sources and give designers an image of noise distribution. The beamforming algorithm is a classic and efficient algorithm for signal processing of microphone arrays and is the core of many microphone array systems. High-speed real-time beamforming has not been implemented much in a portable instrument because it requires large computational resources. Utilizing a beamforming algorithm running on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), this camera is able to detect and locate both stationary and moving noise sources. A high-resolution optical camera located in the middle of the device records images at a rate of 25 frames per second.
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