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2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1806
Sumon Sinha, Farokh Kavarana, Dan Williams, Kazuya Asao
Abstract A high performance rigid airfoil profile sunroof wind deflector has been developed for high speed freeway driving with the sunroof open. This deflector is clearly superior to the conventional bar type deflector and less expensive compared to tall flexible fabric mesh deflectors applied on high end vehicles today. It provides superior speech intelligibility under high speed driving with sunroof open. The criterion for designing this deflector was to get the highest airspeed possible to span the sunroof opening under all conditions. The customized shape also utilizes flow unsteadiness, including those at the onset of buffeting, in order to condition the shear layer. The airfoil profiled deflector yielded superior mid and high frequency acoustic performance with acceptable low frequency performance. A shorter airfoil deflector was sufficient to keep the external airflow from entering the forward tilted sunroof opening on a mid-size SUV under test.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1803
Hannes Frank, Claus-Dieter Munz
Avoiding narrowband components in the acoustic spectrum is one of the most critical objectives in the automotive aeroacoustic optimization process. The underlying physical mechanisms are not completely understood. In a preceding numerical and experimental investigation, we performed large eddy simulations of an early-development stage realistic side-view mirror, where tonal noise was captured and the principle mechanisms were identified. In this contribution, we present simulations on a simplified two-dimensional geometry that is based on these findings. It is shown that the basic flow topology relevant for tonal noise generation on the original side-view mirror as well as the tonal noise source is reproduced in the 2D case. Furthermore, we present comparisons with measurements and the necessity and influence of a splitter plate downstream of the 2D body to avoid large scale vortex shedding.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1802
Mehdi Mehrgou, Franz Zieher, Christoph Priestner
Abstract Recently, hybrid and fully electric drives have been developing widely in variety, power and range. The new reliable simulation approaches are needed, in order to meet the defined NVH targets of these systems and implementing CAE methods for front loading, Design Validation Process (DVP). This paper introduces the application of a novel NVH analysis workflow on an electric vehicle driveline including both electromagnetic and mechanical excitations for an absolute evaluation of the NVH performance. At first, the electromagnetic field is simulated using FEM method to extract the excitations on the stator, rotor bearings as well as the drive torque. Then, the multibody dynamic model of the driveline is built-up, driven by this torque. The effect of eccentricity and skew angle of rotor in electromagnetic excitations are shown.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1796
Aurélien Cloix, Jean-Luc Wojtowicki
Abstract The current paper is based on the French research program TESSA (“Transfert des Efforts des Sources Solidiennes Actives”). A specific task within TESSA project consists in the characterization of the measurements variability between several laboratories, of the blocked forces on a water pump of a heat engine. This paper focuses only on the measurements carried out at Vibratec laboratory. Two kinds of measurements have been carried out: direct measurements, using force sensors, which is the target of the inter-laboratory measurements, and an inverse method without force sensor requirements. Reproducibility and repeatability tests have been done in order to quantify the measurement variability within the same laboratory, in preparation for the inter-laboratory disparity analysis.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1798
Quentin Buisson, Jean-Louis Guyader, Serge Puvilland, Xavier Carniel, Maximilien Soenen
Abstract The goal of the present study is to provide a simple method to compare structure borne noise sources in order to choose the most efficient one, considering the transmission of dynamic forces. It is well known that mechanical sources are not only dependent of the source itself but also of the receiving structure, in addition real sources cannot be reduced to a transverse force acting on the structure but more complicated effect like moment excitation must be taken into account. The advantage of the reception plate method is to characterize the source globally by the level of vibration of the reception plate whatever the type of excitation, the idea is basically to characterize mechanical sources as it is done for acoustical sources in reverberant rooms. A reception plate test bench has been developed to determine the power injected by mechanical sources. Two prototype plates have been designed in order to have different receiving mobilities.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1794
Jonathan Caprile, Claire Chaufour, Pierre Emile Chartrain
Abstract In automotive NVH, the noise generated by a powertrain is still one of the major noise sources especially at low and mid vehicle velocity. For this reason automotive OEMs are continuously focusing on methods to efficiently analyze this noise source. For this purpose, a well-established simulation methodology can provide results thoroughly, within a limited amount of time and with a reduced cost contrary to experiments which are involved in late design phases and are more expensive. This paper aims at presenting an approach to simulate efficiently the acoustic radiation from automotive components. With this aim in mind, the acoustic response of a realistic powertrain unit subjected to working conditions ranging from 1000 RPM to 4500 RPM is studied until 3000 Hz. Several radiating boundary conditions will be assessed in order to detect the most efficient set-up for this kind of problem and to extract the optimized modeling guidelines.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1792
Aurélien Lonni, Olivier Tanneau
Abstract Nowadays, downsizing and turbochargers are more frequently used, mostly for petrol engines. It can lead to an increase of NVH issues related to the turbos, such as the hiss noise propagation in the air ducts. Hutchinson, among all its activities, supplies rubber and plastic parts for the car industry, especially in fluid management systems. The turbocharger’s airborne noise issue has now been tackled for ten years by implementing acoustic devices in the line and providing solutions to car manufacturers with our hot-side rubber ducts. In this paper, will be first presented the main HP air loop NVH issues, and then explained an approach to design technical solutions. Generally speaking, the noise propagates inside the hot side air hoses, crosses the weakest parts of the system by acoustic emissivity to reach finally the driver and passengers’ ears.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1793
Sandra Forget, Nicolas Totaro, Jean-Louis Guyader, Michel Schaeffer
Abstract The constant evolution in the automotive sector to achieve more eco-friendly vehicles has induced the development of more efficient systems with new components and innovative materials. To evaluate the impact of these technologies or to improve them in terms of NVH performances, acoustic engineers rely on experimental tests and numerical computations. In this context, the use of experimental noise sources identification and characterization methods can provide interesting approaches. However, classical methods usually used in industry like the Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) or the Beamforming techniques are quickly limited, in particular in terms of precision in localization, for such analysis support. The presented method, named M-iPTF for Mixed inverse Patch Transfer Functions, is more suitable as it is able to localize and quantify all acoustic source fields directly on the real geometry of a complex structure.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1821
Lin Du, Mats Abom, Mikael Karlsson, Magnus Knutsson
Abstract To tune the acoustics of intake systems resonators are often used. A problem with this solution is that the performance of these resonators can be affected a lot by flow. First, for low frequencies (Strouhal-numbers) the acoustic induced vorticity across a resonator inlet opening will create damping, which can reduce the efficiency. Secondly, the vorticity across the opening can also change the end-correction (added mass) for the resonator, which can modify the resonance frequency. However, the largest problem that can occur is whistling. This happens since the vortex-sound interaction across a resonator opening for certain Strouhal-numbers will amplify incoming sound waves. A whistling can then be created if this amplified sound forms a feedback loop, e.g., via reflections from system boundaries or the resonator. To analyse this kind of problem it is necessary to have a model that allows for both sound and vorticity and their interaction.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1822
Drasko Masovic, Franz Zotter, Eugene Nijman, Jan Rejlek, Robert Höldrich
Abstract Radiation of sound from an open pipe with a hot mean flow presents one of the classic problems of acoustics in inhomogeneous media. The problem has been especially brought into focus in the last several decades, in the context of noise control of vehicle exhaust systems and jet engines. However, the reports on the measurements of the radiated sound field are still rare and scattered over different values of subsonic and supersonic flow speeds, cold and hot jets, as well as different sound frequency ranges. This paper focuses on low Mach number values of the mean flow speed and low frequencies of the incident (plane) sound waves inside an unflanged cylindrical pipe with a straight cut. It presents the results of the far-field radiation pattern measurements and compares them with an existing analytical model from the literature. The mean flow inside the pipe reached Mach number values up to 0.25 and temperature up to 300°C.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1820
Mikael Karlsson, Magnus Knutsson, Mats Abom
Abstract This work explores how fluid driven whistles in complex automotive intake and exhaust systems can be predicted using computationally affordable tools. Whistles associated with unsteady shear layers (created over for example side branches or perforates in resonators) are studied using vortex sound theory; vorticity in the shear layer interacts with the acoustic field while being convected across the orifice. If the travel time of a hydrodynamic disturbance over the orifice reasonably matches a multiple of the acoustic period of an acoustic feedback system, energy is transferred from the flow field to the acoustic field resulting in a whistle. The actual amplitude of the whistle is set by non-linear saturation phenomena and cannot be predicted here, but the frequency and relative strength can be found. For this not only the mean flow and acoustic fields needs to be characterized separately, but also the interaction of the two.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1818
Raimo Kabral, Lin Du, Mats Abom, Magnus Knutsson
Abstract The concept of IC engine downsizing is a well-adapted industry standard, enabling better fuel conversion efficiency and the reduction of tailpipe emissions. This is achieved by utilizing different type of superchargers. As a consequence, the additional charger noise emission, at the IC engine inlet, can become a problem. In order to address such problem, the authors of this work have recently proposed a novel dissipative silencer for effective and robust noise control of the compressor. Essentially, it realizes an optimal flow channel impedance, referred to as the Cremer impedance. This is achieved by means of a straight flow channel with a locally reacting wall consisting of air cavities covered by an acoustic resistance, e.g., a micro-perforated panel (MPP). In this paper, an improved optimization method of this silencer is presented. The classical Cremer impedance model is modified to account for mean flow dependence of the optimal wave number.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1816
Heiki Tiikoja, Fabio Auriemma, Jüri Lavrentjev
Abstract In this paper the propagation of acoustic plane waves in turbulent, fully developed flow is studied by means of an experimental investigation carried out in a straight, smooth-walled duct. The presence of a coherent perturbation, such as an acoustic wave in a turbulent confined flow, generates the oscillation of the wall shear stress. In this circumstance a shear wave is excited and superimposed on the sound wave. The turbulent shear stress is modulated by the shear wave and the wall shear stress is strongly affected by the turbulence. From the experimental point of view, it results in a measured damping strictly connected to the ratio between the thickness of the acoustic sublayer, which is frequency dependent, and the thickness of the viscous sublayer of the turbulent mean flow, the last one being dependent on the Mach number. By reducing the turbulence, the viscous sublayer thickness increases and the wave propagation is mainly dominated by convective effects.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1814
Maxime Legros, Jean Michel Ville, Solène Moreau, Xavier Carniel, Christophe Lambourg, Guillaume Stempfel
Abstract The new requirements during the first stages of the conception of a HVAC prompt the designer to integrate the acoustic problematic increasingly upstream. The designer needs to select a coherent components’ choice in order to comply with the specifications in terms of aeraulic and acoustic performances. A tool has been created to guide the designer’s choices based on an acoustic synthesis which is a design and/or diagnosis approach used to analyze and predict the acoustic behavior of a complex system. The synthesis is developed in order to propose an approach which considers the integration effects and some interaction effects. The acoustic synthesis results are the starting point of a psycho-acoustic study providing audio samples of the prediction and indications of the HVAC acceptance by the prospective user. Also, one may compare the results of different acoustic synthesis projects to study the influence of the parameters on the acoustic prediction.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1813
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza
Abstract The characteristics of the intake system affect both engine power output and gas-dynamic noise emissions. The latter is particularly true in downsized VVA engines, where a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves is realized, due to the intake line de-throttling at part-load. For this engine architecture, a refined air-box design is hence requested. In this work, the Transmission Loss (TL) of the intake air-box of a commercial VVA engine is numerically computed through a 3D FEM approach. Results are compared with experimental data, showing a very good correlation. The validated model is then coupled to an external optimizer (ModeFRONTIERTM) to increase the TL parameter in a prefixed frequency range. The improvement of the acoustic attenuation is attained through a shape deformation of the inner structure of the base device, taking into account constraints related to the device installation inside the engine bay.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1812
Saad Bennouna, Solène Moreau, Jean Michel Ville, Olivier Cheriaux
Abstract The noise radiated inside the car cabin depends on many sources such as the embedded equipments like the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) module. An HVAC is a compact and complex system composed of several elements: blower, flaps, thermal exchangers, ducts… Air provided by an HVAC is blown by a blower passing through different components and then distributed to car cabin areas. Interactions between airflow and the HVAC fixed components generate noises that emerge in the car cabin. CEVAS project, managed by the automotive equipment manufacturer Valeo, is aiming to develop a prediction tool which will provide HVAC noise spectrum and sound quality data. The tool is based, in particular, on aeroacoustic characterization of individual elements and associations of elements.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1811
Anders Rynell, Gunilla Efraimsson, Mattias Chevalier, Mats Abom
Abstract To obtain realistic noise characteristics from CAA studies of subsonic fans, it is important to prescribe properly constructed turbulent inflow statistics. This is frequently omitted; instead it is assumed that the stochastic characteristics of turbulence, absent at the initial stage, progressively develops as the rotor inflicts the flow field over time and hence that the sound generating mechanism governed by surface pressure fluctuations are asymptotically accounted for. That assumption violates the actual interplay taking place between an ingested flow field and the surface pressure fluctuations exerted by the blades producing noise. The aim of the present study is to examine the coupling effect between synthetically ingested turbulence to sound produced from a subsonic ducted fan. The steady state inflow parameters are mapped from a precursor RANS simulation onto the inflow boundaries of a reduced domain to limit the computational cost.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1810
Marie Escouflaire, Nicolas Zerbib, David Mas, Nicolas Papaxanthos, Saad Bennouna, Emmanuel Perrey-Debain, Boureima Ouedraogo, Solène Moreau, Jean Michel Ville
Abstract In the framework of noise reduction of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems designed for cars, the present study deals with the numerical prediction of aeroacoustics phenomena encountered inside such devices for industrial purposes, i.e. with a reasonable CPU time. It is then proposed in this paper to assess the validity of the chaining, via Lighthill-Curle analogy, of a DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) resulting from the CFD code OpenFOAM (ESI Group) versus a RANS-LES (Large Eddy Simulation) and a BEM calculation resulting from the Vibro/Aeroacoustics software VA One (ESI Group) on an academic case of air passing through a rectangular diaphragm at a low Mach number. The BEM code being parallelized, the performances of DMP (Distributed Memory Processing) solution will also be assessed.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1765
Kelly Savva, Ahmed Haris, Eliot Motato, Mahdi Mohammadpour, Stephanos Theodossiades, Homer Rahnejat, Patrick Kelly, Alexander Vakakis, Lawrence Bergman, Donald McFarland
Abstract Legislation on vehicle emissions and the requirements for fuel efficiency are currently the key development driving factors in the automotive industry. Research activities to comply with these targets point to engine downsizing and new boosting technologies, which have adverse effects on the NVH performance, durability and component life. As a consequence of engine downsizing, substantial torsional oscillations are generated due to high combustion pressures. Meanwhile, to attenuate torsional vibrations, the manufacturers have implemented absorbers that are tuned to certain frequency ranges, including clutch dampers, Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) and centrifugal pendulum dampers. These devices add mass/inertia to the system, potentially introducing negative effects on other vehicle attributes, such as weight, driving performance and gear shiftability.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1768
He Changming, Xu Sichuan
For an in-line diesel engine with four cylinder operating in four-stroke mode, the second-order reciprocating inertia forces generally cannot be well balanced with direct approach. The unbalanced second-order inertia forces are the main reason to cause vibration and noise in a diesel engine within low frequency range. The more superior tone quality for modern diesel engine has been expected even for bus application all the time, and there are tougher requirements for truck noise in developed countries, i.e. in Europe and USA. In present research a unique crankshaft system configuration was proposed, which including opposed piston, inner and outer connecting rod, and crankshaft but running in two-stroke mode, to eliminate the second-order inertia force considerably rather than by adding an extra balance shaft mechanism.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1770
Insoo Jung, Jaemin Jin, Dongchul Lee, Seunghyun Lee, Seungwook Yang, Kyoungdoug Min
Abstract This paper presents two closed-loop control methods for monitoring and improving the combustion behavior and the combustion noise on two 4-cylinder diesel engines, in which an in-cylinder pressure and an accelerometer transducer are used to monitor and control them. Combustion processes are developed to satisfy the stricter and stricter regulations on emissions and fuel consumption. These combustion processes are influenced by the factors such as engine durability, driving conditions, environmental influences and fuel properties. Combustion noise could be increased by these factors and is detrimental to interior sound quality. Therefore, it is necessary to develop robust combustion behaviors and combustion noise. For this situation, we have developed two closed-loop control methods. Firstly, a method using in-cylinder pressure data was developed for monitoring and improving the combustion noise of a 1.7L engine.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1761
Antonio Acri, Guenter Offner, Thomas Resch, Eugene Nijman, Roberto Corradi
Abstract For vibration and acoustics vehicle development, one of the main challenges is the identification and the analysis of the noise sources, which is required in order to increase the driving comfort and to meet the stringent legislative requirements for the vehicle noise emission. Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) is a fairly well established technique for estimating and ranking individual low-frequency noise or vibration contributions via the different transmission paths. This technique is commonly applied on test measurements, based on prototypes, at the end of the design process. In order to apply such methodology already within the design process, a contribution analysis method based on dynamic substructuring of a multibody system is proposed with the aim of improving the quality of the design process for vehicle NVH assessment and to shorten development time and cost.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1763
Thierry Bourdon, Rodrigue Bouete
Abstract Either from a legislative point of view or because of OEM demands, the automotive industry is increasingly facing of reducing vibration & noise in the vehicle. More particularly on the engine area, the development of Gasoline and Diesel fuel components based on high pressure pumps, rails, any pipes and injectors are more and more subject of a particular NVH (Noise Vibration and Harshness) attention. The use of modern digital techniques such as 3D FEM vibroacoustic, leads to use virtual prototyping as complementary to traditional real hardware prototypes development. Among interest, number of iterative loops to reach a best design brings an important value to new product development with an optimized cost. Basically the core part of virtual prototyping is about a 3D FEM model definition for each component.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1787
Thomas Deighan, Graeme Maclean, Nozomu Kato, Kiyofumi Sato
Abstract A robust analytical process for evaluating the effects of engine component design on the powertrain NVH has been developed. The work presented focuses on design modifications for refinement of the NVH levels and sound quality of a 4 cylinder Boxer engine with automatic transmission. Assessment focuses on the powertrain structure, cranktrain, torque converter and valvetrain. Comparison of predicted mount vibrations with measurements on a fired engine are made. Through detailed post-processing of the analysis results, looking at modal contributions, modal excitations and loading contributions, the causes and contributions to the NVH are understood and used to direct potential modifications to the powertrain and component design. The models are used to quantify the relative benefit of these modifications in terms of both overall vibration levels and sound quality through implementation of a rumble metric.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1779
Sergio Carvajal, Daniel Wallner, Reinhard Helfrich, Michael Klein
Abstract Numerical methods for brake squeal analysis are widely accepted in industry. The use of complex eigenvalue analysis is a successful approach to predict the appearance of squeal noise. Using simulation in an early design stage reduces time to market, saves costs, and improves the physical behavior and robustness of the brake system. State of the art of brake simulation comprises sampling for many parameter sets in a wide range of interesting values. Based on high performance, stability maps can be created in short time containing many results, which gives a deep insight into the brake behavior under varying parameters. An additional benefit of sampling is the possibility to detect parts with high potential for improving the NHV comfort. In the sequel, mathematical optimization methods like topology optimization or shape optimization are used for systematic improvements.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1782
Kyoung-Jin Chang, Dong Chul Park
Abstract This paper discusses approaches to emotionally improve the driving sound based on Active Sound Design (ASD). In the first step, target sound design methods are suggested in order to represent the vehicle’s concept and brand image via a driving sound. In this method, formant filter and musical chords are applied to the target sound synthesis. In the second step, a technique to make a target sound realistic in ASD system is discussed, which enables to stimulate the customers' emotion. In this technique, the process to simulate a musical instrument sound for a vivid driving sound and synthesize the sound with FIR filter is studied. Finally, the improved driving sound is demonstrated in ASD system.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1776
Alexander Rabofsky, Alexander Koeck, Martin Mittermaier
Abstract Lightweight vehicle design causes special demands for functional NVH design. The reduction of weight by reducing material thickness, enabled by new alloys, the combination of materials and new materials increases the sensitivity of a vehicle body to the vibrational and acoustical response of external forces like powertrain or road and wind excitation. To be able to fully raise lightweight potentials design has to be driven closer to functional boundaries, putting higher demands on the accuracy of the prediction by simulation. For a robust design a very broad view on several loadcases is needed to make sure that by optimization on one target no other target is violated. In this paper, optimization strategies for complex NVH load-cases should be investigated in detail. In reality, load-cases, excitations as well as boundary conditions are very often complex and complicated.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1781
Matthew Maunder, Phil Grant, Duncan Mawdsley
Abstract Engine sound quality is a key attribute for sporty cars - it powerfully conveys the brand image to the driver/passengers and onlookers, and provides driver involvement by giving instant feedback about how a car is operating. Providing this has become more difficult with tighter pass-by noise regulations and the near-universal adoption of turbocharging. In the last two decades, sporty sound inside the cabin has been regained using intake sound generator systems that transfer sound more directly to the vehicle interior. The high cost of these systems is more recently driving a move towards electronic Active Sound Design with systems delivering synthetic sound through loudspeakers. However, the purist sports car market perceives this approach to be fake or artificial. An alternative approach is provided by a system for Realistic Augmented Sound by Ricardo (RAS-R) that offers a choice of two realistic engine sound sources.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1775
Thomas Resch, Oliver Knaus, Siegmund Thomann, Stephan Brandl
Abstract Modern powertrain noise investigation in the development process and during trouble shooting is a combination of experiment and simulation. In simulation in recent years main focus was set on model completeness, consideration of all excitation mechanisms and efficient and stabile numerical algorithms. By that the total response of the virtual powertrain is already comparable to the overall noise level of the real powertrain. Actual challenge is to trace back the overall response to its main excitation and noise generating mechanism as well as to their main driving parameters to support the engineer not only in reaching absolute values, but also to derive the root cause of a response or potential problem and to get hints on how to improve the specific behavior. Approaches by parameter sensitivity studies are time consuming and not unambiguous.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1772
Romualdo Ruotolo, Davide Donna, Giuseppe Credo, Michele Belluscio
Abstract Current Diesel engines development is facing challenging vibro-acoustic requirements and at the same time is struggling with the need to reduce as much as possible the cost and the weight of the engine. The latter obviously has become a key player for fuel consumption reduction. Large covers are commonly used in the base engine design and their noise contribution to total radiated noise is not negligible. Typical covers architecture shows thick cast and ribbed plates, meaning heavy and expensive covers. An interesting option is represented by using thin stamped covers either in aluminum or in steel, that have to show a low vibrational response. The current paper focuses on the structural optimization of such a peculiar design, trying to mitigate as much as possible its noise radiation with the intent to avoid any additional acoustic enabler (e.g. wrapping by means of acoustic foams) that will increase the final cost of the component.
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