Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 9018
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2387
Emiliano Vitaliani, Daniele Di Rocco, Martin Sopouch
The aim of this paper is the study of the Centrifugal Pendulum Vibration Absorber (CPVA) dynamic behaviour, with the background of improved vibration isolation and damping quality through a wide range of operating speeds. The CPVAs are passive devices, which are used in rotating machinery to reduce the torsional vibration without decreasing performance. After a first use of these damping systems in the field of aeronautics, nowadays CPVAs are employed also in railway and automotive applications. In principle, the CPVA is a mass, mounted on a rotor, which moves along a defined path relative to the rotor itself, driven by centrifugal effects and by the rotor torsional vibrations. The advantage that such absorbers provide is the capability to counteract torsional vibrations arising with frequencies proportional to the mean operating speed. This is in particular the case with Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) where the induced vibrations are caused by the combustions process.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2462
Fabio Auriemma, Heiki Tiikoja
The acoustic impedance exerted by a new type of element for noise control, the Micro-Grooved Elements (MGEs), has been broadly studied in this paper. The MGEs are typically composed of at least two overlying layers presenting macroscopic slots and a number of micro-grooves at least on one of the contact surfaces. Similarly to the Micro-Perforated Elements (MPEs), the MGEs have been proved to provide effective dissipation of acoustic energy by the means of viscous losses taking place in the micro-channels. However, in contrast to the typical MPEs, the MGEs use the grooves, instead of the holes, which the air is forced to pass through. It results in more cost effective elements, which have been found to represent an adequate alternative for fibrous materials, typically present in silencer units. This study represents a refined investigation on the acoustic impedance of the MGEs, aiming to provide a general formulation, valid for different internal configurations.
2015-06-23
WIP Standard
J2889/1
This SAE Standard is derived from SAE J2805 and specifies an engineering method for measuring the sound emitted by M and N category road vehicles at standstill and low speed operating conditions.. The specifications reproduce the level of sound which is generated by the principal vehicle sound sources consistent with stationary and low speed vehicle operating conditions relevant for pedestrian safety. The method is designed to meet the requirements of simplicity as far as they are consistent with reproducibility of results under the operating conditions of the vehicle. The test method requires an acoustic environment which is only obtained in an extensive open space or in special designed indoor facilities replicating the conditions of an extensive open space. Such conditions usually exist during: Measurements of vehicles for regulatory certification. Measurements at the manufacturing stage. Measurements at official testing stations.
2015-06-18
Article
Passenger Experience automates cabin completion processes with essential intelligent “building blocks” capturing rules, regulations, and manufacturing knowledge to automate cabin interior design, development, and delivery.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2319
Uije Kim, Matthew Maunder, Phil Grant, Duncan Mawdsley
Abstract A new pass-by noise test method has been introduced, in which engine speeds and loads are reduced (compared to the old test method) to better reflect real world driving behavior. New noise limits apply from 1 July 2016, and tighten by up to 4dB by 2026. The new test method is recognized internationally, and it is anticipated that the limits will also be adopted in most territories around the world. To achieve these tough new pass-by noise requirements, vehicle manufacturers need to address several important aspects of their products. Vehicle performance is critical to the test method, and is controlled by the full load engine torque curve, speed of response to accelerator pedal input, transmission type, overall gear ratios, tire rolling radius, and resistance due to friction and aerodynamic drag. Noise sources (exhaust, intake, powertrain, driveline, tires) and vehicle noise insulation are critical to the noise level radiated to the far-field.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2333
Brandon Sobecki, Patricia Davies, J Stuart Bolton, Frank Eberhardt
Abstract Component sound quality is an important factor in the design of competitive diesel engines. One component noise that causes complaints is the gear rattle that originates in the front-of-engine gear train which drives the fuel pump and other accessories. The rattle is caused by repeated tooth impacts resulting from fluctuations in differential torsional acceleration of the driving gears. These impacts generate a broadband, impulsive noise that is often perceived as annoying. In most previous work, the overall sound quality of diesel engines has been considered without specifically focusing on predicting the perception of gear rattle. Gear rattle level has been quantified based on angular acceleration measurements, but those measurements can be difficult to perform. Here, the emphasis was on developing a metric based on subjective testing of the perception of gear rattle.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2331
Alexander Schell, Vincent Cotoni
Abstract Aero-vibro-acoustic prediction of interior noise associated with exterior flow requires accurate predictions of both fluctuating surface pressures across the exterior of a vehicle and efficient models of the vibro-acoustic transmission of these surface pressures to the interior of a vehicle. The simulation strategy used in this paper combines both CFD and vibro-acoustic methods. An accurate excitation field (which accounts for both hydrodynamic and acoustic pressure fluctuations) is calculated with a hybrid CAA approach based on an incompressible unsteady flow field with an additional acoustic wave equation. To obtain the interior noise level at the driver's ears a vibro-acoustic model is used to calculate the response of the structure and interior cavities. The aero-vibro-acoustic simulation strategy is demonstrated for a Mercedes-Benz S-class and the predictions are compared to experimental wind tunnel measurements.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2329
Paolo Di Francescantonio, Charles Hirsch, Piergiorgio Ferrante, Katsutomo Isono
Abstract A new method called Adaptive Spectral Reconstruction (ASR) for the stochastic reconstruction of broadband aeroacoustic sources starting from steady CFD analyses is presented and applied to the evaluation of the noise radiated by a model automotive side mirror. The new approach exploits some ideas from both SNGR and RPM, and for some aspects can be considered as a sort of mixing between the two methods since it permits to reconstruct both the frequency content of the turbulent field (as done by SNGR) and the spatial cross correlation (as done by RPM). The turbulent field is reconstructed with a sum of convected plane waves, but two substantial differences are introduced in respect of SNGR. The first difference concerns the spatial variation of the parameters that define each wave, that depends on the wavelength of each wave, rather than being kept constant or related to the CFD correlation length.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2330
Christian Y. Glandier, Mark Eiselt, Oskar Prill, Eric Bauer
Abstract With the reduction of engine and road noise, wind has become an important source of interior noise when cruising at highway speed. The challenges of weight reduction, performance improvement and reduced development time call for stronger support of the development process by numerical methods. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and finite element (FE) vibroacoustic computations have reached a level of maturity that makes it possible and meaningful to combine these methods for wind noise prediction. This paper presents a method used for coupling time domain CFD computations with a finite element vibroacoustic model of a vehicle for the prediction of low-frequency wind noise below 500 Hz. The procedure is based on time segmentation of the excitation load and transformation into the frequency domain for the vibroacoustic computations. It requires simple signal processing and preserves the random character as well as the spatial correlation of the excitation signal.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2328
Barbara Neuhierl, Sivapalan Senthooran, Reinier Toppinga, Anke Jäger, Maarten Brink, Timo Lemke, Philippe Moron, Raghu Mutnuri
Abstract The object of the validation study presented in this paper is a generic vehicle, the so-called SAE body, developed by a consortium of German car manufacturers (Audi, Daimler, Porsche, Volkswagen). Many experiments have been performed by the abovementioned consortium on this object in the past to investigate its behavior when exposed to fluid flow. Some of these experiments were used to validate the simulation results discussed in the present paper. It is demonstrated that the simulation of the exterior flow is able to represent the transient hydrodynamic structures and at the same time both the generation of the acoustic sources and the propagation of the acoustic waves. Performing wave number filtering allows to identify the acoustic phenomena and separate them from the hydrodynamic effects. In a next step, the noise transferred to the interior of the cabin through the glass panel was calculated, using a Statistical Energy Analysis approach.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2326
Denis Blanchet, Anton Golota
Abstract Recent developments in the prediction of the contribution of wind noise to the interior SPL have opened a realm of new possibilities. The main physical mechanisms related to noise generation within a turbulent flow and the vibro-acoustic transmission through the vehicle greenhouse is nowadays better understood. Several simulation methods such as CFD, FEM, BEM, FE/SEA Coupled and SEA can be coupled together to represent the physical phenomena involved. The main objective being to properly represent the convective and acoustic component within the turbulent flow to ensure proper computation of the wind noise contribution to the interior SPL of a vehicle.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2308
Yitian Zhang, David W. Herrin
Abstract The two-load method is commonly applied to determine the transmission loss for a muffler especially if an impedance tube rig is used. Although one procedure and algorithm is detailed in ASTM E2611, the quality of the transmission loss curve is dependent on several factors that are not discussed in detail in the standard. In this paper, several practical concerns are investigated including (1) the number of channels used in the measurement, (2) the selection of the reference channel, and (3) the choice of data processing algorithm (transfer or scattering matrix). Results are compared for a simple expansion chamber first, then for mufflers of other types. Recommendations are made for obtaining smoother transmission loss curves for various measurement methods.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2309
David Neihguk, M.L. Munjal, Abhinav Prasad
Abstract The bias flow in Concentric Tube Resonator (CTR) is a flow-induced phenomenon in which the pressure gradient along the radial direction is produced by the kinetic energy of the flow. As a result, the flow dynamics in CTR is characterized by bias flow into the annular cavity in the upstream and outflow from the annular cavity in the downstream of the flow. This is due to the change in direction of the radial component of the bias flow at a point called the point of recovery, as a consequence of mass conservation. The pressure drop of CTR is a complex function of the momentum flux and other geometric parameters such as porosity, open area ratio, discharge coefficient of the perforated holes, bias inflow, bias outflow, grazing flow and length. In this study, numerical experiments are conducted to obtain an empirical formula for the friction factor of perforated pipes which are extensively used in automotive mufflers.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2303
Katherine Tao, Alan Parrett, David Nielubowicz
Abstract The headliner system in a vehicle is an important element in vehicle noise control. In order to predict the performance of the headliner, it is necessary to develop an understanding of the substrate performance, the effect of air gaps, and the contribution from any acoustic pads in the system. Current Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) models for predicting absorption performance of acoustic absorbers are based on material Biot properties. However, the resources for material Biot property testing are limited and cost is high. In this paper, modeling parameters for the headliner substrate are identified from a set of standard absorption measurements on substrates, using curve fitting and optimization techniques. The parameters are then used together with thickness/design information in a SEA model to predict the vehicle headliner system absorption performance.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2301
Maxwell Hill, Dan Luo, Mark Moeller
Abstract Wind noise can be a significant event for automotive design engineers. The greenhouse glass plays an important role in the wind noise process. Robust estimates of the greenhouse glass damping are necessary for both understanding and modeling the role of the glass in the wind noise process. One unanswered question is whether the aerodynamic loads affect the window glass damping. To make this determination a method to assess the operational damping is required. The civil engineering community uses the random decrement technique to assess operational damping due to wind loads. The random decrement technique has been shown to be a normalized autocorrelation function. In this paper the damping is estimated directly from the autocorrelation function. In the first section the relationship between the damping and autocorrelation function is examined for white noise excitation. A single oscillator is examined as the first case. Extension to higher modal densities is discussed.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2302
Yuksel Gur, Jian Pan, David Wagner
Lightweighting of vehicle panels enclosing vehicle cabin causes NVH degradation since engine, road, and wind noise acoustic sources propagate to the vehicle interior through these panels. In order to reduce this NVH degradation, there is a need to develop new NVH sound package materials and designs for use in lightweight vehicle design. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model can be an effective CAE design tool to develop NVH sound packages for use in lightweight vehicle design. Using SEA can help engineers recover the NVH deficiency created due to sheet metal lightweighting actions. Full vehicle SEA model was developed to evaluate the high frequency NVH performance of “Vehicle A” in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 10 kHz. This correlated SEA model was used for the vehicle sound package optimization studies. Full vehicle level NVH laboratory tests for engine and tire patch noise reduction were also conducted to demonstrate the performance of sound package designs on “Vehicle A”.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2317
Zhenlin Ji, Yiliang Fan
Abstract A simulative program named as MAP (Muffler Analysis Program) is developed for the rapid calculation and analysis of acoustic characteristics of duct muffling systems. The program is based on the plane wave theory and uses the Visual Basic 6.0 to create a friendly GUI (Graphic User Interface) for input of the geometrical and physical parameters to build and modify the duct muffling systems quickly. The relations among the acoustic elements are established by using the transfer matrix method, the transmission loss (TL) and insertion loss (IL) may be calculated, and then the results are plotted in terms of curves. Map allows designer to change parameters of the duct muffling systems expediently, in order to examine the effects of design changes on the acoustic attenuation characteristics and finally to get an acceptable solution.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2314
Adrien Mann, Min-Suk Kim, Barbara Neuhierl, Franck Perot, Robert Powell, Thomas Rose, Jan Krueger
Abstract Exhaust and muffler noise is a challenging problem in the transport industry. While the main purpose of the system is to reduce the intensity of the acoustic pulses originating from the engine exhaust valves, the back pressure induced by these systems must be kept to a minimum to guarantee maximum performance of the engine. Emitted noise levels have to ensure comfort of the passengers and must respect community noise regulations. In addition, the exhaust noise plays an important role in the brand image of vehicles, especially with sports car where it must be tuned to be “musical”. However, to achieve such performances, muffler and exhaust designs have become quite complex, often leading to the rise of undesired self-induced noise. Traditional purely acoustic solvers, like Boundary Element Methods (BEM), have been applied quite successfully to achieve the required acoustic tuning.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2315
Giulio Lenzi, Giovanni Ferrara, Andrea Fioravanti
Abstract The acoustic performance of mufflers with single-inlet and single-outlet are well described using Insertion Loss (IL) and Transmission Loss (TL). These parameters represent the acoustic damping on the engine emission and on the incident pressure wave respectively. However, for mufflers with multi-inlet these parameters depend also on the sources characteristics, as consequence their use is quite difficult. In the present work the acoustic performance of a double-inlet and single-outlet muffler are experimentally evaluated in terms of reflection and transmission coefficients of each port of the muffler itself. These coefficients are used to evaluate the Insertion Loss of the manifold muffler taking into account specific sources on the inlets. The characteristic coefficients are also used to predict the acoustic emission of the manifold muffler using a known engine source on the two inlets.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2313
Bryce Gardner, Abderrazak Mejdi, Chadwyck Musser, Sébastien Chaigne, Tiago De Campos Macarios
Abstract Flow strongly affects the propagation of acoustics wave transmission within a duct and this must be addressed by the vibro-acoustic modelling of duct systems subject to non-uniform flow. Flow impacts both the effective sound propagation speed in a duct and refracts the sound towards or away from the duct walls depending on whether the acoustic waves are propagating in the direction of the flow or against the flow. Accurate modeling of the acoustic propagation within a duct is crucial for design and “tuning” of muffler systems that need to strongly attenuate narrowband acoustic sources from the engine. Muffler systems that may avoid matching acoustic resonances to engine narrowband sources when no flow is present may experience shifting of resonances to frequencies that match engine sources and cause problems when the flow during a real operating condition is present.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2310
Edward Ray Green
Abstract The Sound Transmission Loss of automotive intake and exhaust components is commonly measured using the four microphone tube method per ASTM E2611 [1]. Often area adapters are used to match the component diameter to that of the tube apparatus. These area adapters affect the Sound Transmission Loss measurement, especially at very low frequencies. The use of the Transfer Matrix Technique to remove the effect of the area adapters is described. The improvements for step and cone area adapters are compared.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2356
Huangxing Chen, David W. Herrin
Abstract The insertion loss of louvered terminations positioned at the end of a rectangular duct is determined using acoustic finite element analysis. Insertion loss was determined by taking the difference between the sound power with and without the louvers at the termination. Analyses were conducted in the plane wave regime and the acoustic source was anechoic eliminating any reflections from the source. The effect of different louver configurations on insertion loss was examined. Parameters investigated included louver length, angle, and spacing between louvers. Based on the analyses, equations were developed for the insertion loss of unlined louvers.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2358
Rod Morris-Kirby, Evan Harry, Dirk Jaeger, Bernd Borgmann
Abstract Acoustic Diagnostic Network Algorithms (DNA) are experimental methods that extract airborne acoustic characteristics from a motor vehicle and decompose this information into a set of networks from which the source, path and receiver noise sources and paths can be determined. Unlike traditional transfer path analysis Acoustic DNA takes the problem into the fine detail. It answers questions such as what, where and how does a vehicle's acoustic systems need to be changed in order to achieve any given objective. This paper describes the fundamental methodology and features together with how it has been implemented into a computer program that has been used successfully in over 50 vehicle projects within the Authors Research and Development group on a wide range of motor vehicles.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2357
Hiromichi Tsuji, Kimihiko Nakano
This paper presents a new technique to estimate the coherent operational forces, with respect to the evaluation location, at the connections of separated passive substructures with reciprocity. Since transfer path analysis is conducted with respect to the evaluation location, the forces applied onto the substructures are, therefore, also required to estimate the coherent operational forces. In order to estimate the forces, the coherent impedance matrix, which is the projection of the impedance matrix onto the subspace with respect to the evaluation location, is estimated without measuring it directly. The acceleration responses at the connections of the passive substructure are measured by the excitation at the evaluation location with reciprocity. The technique decomposes the acceleration responses into the output and input element vectors on the subspace. With those vectors, the coherent impedance matrix is constructed.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2351
Hongyu Shu, Shuang Luo, Li Wang
Abstract In order to measure the noise of auto shock absorbers, a test bench used to detect piston-rod vibration responses of shock absorbers and measuring analyzer named SANTS-I were developed. The vibration response data was detected by bench tests, which shows that there are high-frequency violent peaks on the sine curve of piston-rod oscillating with relative low frequency. In order to explain the interior work dynamic mechanism of shock absorbers, a schematic Micro-process Dynamic Model with 10 steps particularly divided extension and compression stroke in more detail, and dynamic differential equations for each step were presented and discussed. Furthermore, numerical simulation for the inner impacts interaction between piston and damping fluid of hydraulic shock absorber was realized by ADINA software, by the establishment of a gas-liquid two-phase finite element model.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2354
Xiao-Ang Liu, Zhaoping Lv, Wenbin Shangguan
Abstract The inline 3-cylinder engine is taken as an object, the imbalance resultant rotating inertia moment and resultant reciprocating inertia moment generated by piston-crank mechanisms are analyzed. The balance theories of two different balance methods are presented and the additional moment generated through each method is derived. Three different balance conditions are proposed. The imbalance moments and mount reaction forces in each condition are calculated and compared. The powertrain mounting system design method is developed. The optimal mount stiffness not only satisfy the powertrain's natural frequencies and energy distributions but also meet the requirement for mount reaction forces in “50% balance condition”.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2353
Jan Bunthoff, Frank Gauterin, Christoph Boehm
Abstract In an automotive suspension, the shock absorber plays a significant role to enable the vehicle performances, especially in ride, handling and Noise-Vibration-Harshness (NVH). Understanding its physical characteristics is of great importance, as it has a main influence on the overall vehicle performance. Within this research project simulation models for different passive monotube shock absorber systems have been created in a 1-D system simulation software. The simulation models are designed and parameterized physically. To validate the simulation models measurements on different hydropulse-shaker with specially designed control signals to investigate the response during high frequency excitation, have been done. A detailed discussion of the several models and results of a simulation to measurement comparison is given. After detailed investigation the shock absorber simulation models are now adaptable to the multi body simulation.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2364
Xianpai Zeng, Jared Liette, Scott Noll, Rajendra Singh
Abstract The vibration isolation effectiveness of powertrain mount configurations is examined for electric vehicle application by considering the effect introduced by internal mount resonances. Unlike internal combustion engines where mounts are typically designed only for static support and low frequency dynamics, electric motors have higher excitation frequencies in a range where mount resonances often occur. The problem is first analytically formulated by considering a simple 3-dimensional powertrain system, and the vibration isolation effectiveness significantly deteriorates at the mount resonance(s). It is shown that by modifying the mount shape, the mount resonance(s) can be shifted while maintaining the same static rate, tuning the frequency away from any engine excitation or natural frequencies. Further, internal mount resonances are utilized to improve vibration isolation over a narrow frequency range, using non-identical mounts to split mount resonance peaks.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2363
Albert Albers, Jan Fischer, Matthias Behrendt, Dirk Lieske
Abstract The driving comfort is an important factor for buying decisions. For the interior noise of battery electric vehicles (BEV) high frequency tonal orders are characteristic. They can for example be caused by the gearbox or the electric drive and strongly influence the perception and rating of the interior noise by the customer. In this contribution methods for measuring, analyzing and predicting the excitation by the dynamic torque of the electric drive are presented. The dynamic torque of the electric drive up to 3.5 kHz is measured on a component test bench with the help of high frequency, high precision torque transducer. The analysis of the results for the order of interest shows a good correlation with the acoustic measurements inside the corresponding vehicle. In addition an experimental and numerical modal analysis of the rotor of the electric drive are performed.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2367
David Lennström, Arne Nykänen
Abstract When it comes to the acoustic properties of electric cars, the powertrain noise differs dramatically compared to traditional vehicles with internal combustion engines. The low frequency firing orders, mechanical and combustion noise are exchanged with a more high frequency whining signature due to electromagnetic forces and gear meshing, lower in level but subject to annoyance. Previous studies have highlighted these differences and also investigated relevant perception criteria in terms of psycho-acoustic metrics. However, investigations of differences between different kinds of electric and hybrid electric cars are still rare. The purpose of this paper was to present the distribution of tonal components in today's hybrid/electric vehicles. More specifically, the number of prominent orders, their maximum levels and frequency separation were analyzed for the most critical driving conditions. The study is based upon measurements made on 13 electrified cars on the market.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 9018

Filter

Subtopics