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2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0098
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Naveen Sukumar, Sunil endugu, Umashanker Gupta
Advanced Non-linear topology optimization methods have been addressed as the most promising techniques for low-weight and performance design of Powertrain structures. The theoretical achievements are obtained both mechanically and mathematically. Nowadays, the great challenge lies in solving more complicated engineering design problems with multidisciplinary objectives or complex structural systems. The purpose of this paper is to provide a forum to present new developments in structural Non-linear topology optimization. The advantage of the proposed method is that structural optimization on irregular design domains can be carried out easily. Furthermore, this method integrates the stress analysis and the boundary evolution within the framework of finite element methods. In this paper, we have mainly focused on the Commercial Vehicles Powertrain component i.e. Transmission Housing.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0108
Qingdong Hou, Wenjie Qin, Zhe Yu, Mu Tang, Yang Ran
With the increasing of ride comfort requirements for modern vehicles, the noise generatingbefore and after the windshield wiper reverses direction becomes more noticeable.In this paper,the impacts of some factors---the preload of wiper lever spring, the torsional stiffness of blade neck and the flexible connection between the wiper arm and the wiper lever on the vibration excitation appliedto the front windshield are analyzed based on the multi-body dynamic modelof wiper system (includingthe crank pivot, the four linkage mechanism, the wiper blades, the wiper arms and the windscreen glass) which has been established by taking elastic contact between the wiper blade and the front windshieldinto consideration.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0107
Sunny NARAYAN
Analysis of noise level from engines is important from point of view of customer satisfaction .Accurate prediction of noise is important for planning,design and target setting decisions for meeting customer satisfaction goals.In this work an analytic model has been described to break diesel engine noise data into various components in order to plan a strategy for condition monitoring of engine.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0106
Zhe Yu, Wenjie Qin, Qingdong Hou, Mu Tang, Yang Ran
Wiper noise generated in the process of wiping is one of the main influence factors affecting the driving comfort. Since the dynamic pressure of the contact between a blade and a windshield glass is difficult to be simulated or measured, which make it is extremely particularly difficult to predicte the degree of the wiper noise. To solve this problem, in this paper, as the reversal noise problem of a passenger-vehicle windscreen wiper system is concerned, the system dynamic models of the both wipers on the sides of the driver and copilot were built on the basis of consideration of the blade deformation and the elastic contact between the blades and the windscreen glass, which including the crank pivot, the four linkage mechanism, the wiper blades, the wiper arms and the windscreen glass.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0116
Panuwat Kangkaya
The fuel consumption in transportation field is nowadays an important reason to realize with contribute to performance of engine for powered the motor vehicle. In particular, the total energy consumption in the world depends on the remaining fossil fuels. Using new development technologies and renewable oxygenated fuels are considered the most suitable solution for sustainable future.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0118
POL-AKE BUDSAYAHEM
Today's world focus on the environment is major problem because in today's cars took to the streets for a lot which causes of carbon dioxide emitted. If the engine is running at full capacity, it is another way to reduce it. Features of the lubricant is another factor that will help the engine run more efficiently and can prolong the engine. The research focuses on the analysis of determination the nature of wear. Particle shape of the elements, measure the condition of the oil to see the degradation of the lubricant and the condition of dirt contamination, which is part of the engine, resulting in a faster degradation. Finally analyze the outcome of figure is that the various elements which affect the engine in any field.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0115
Nuwong Chollacoop, Manida Tongroon, Mongkon Kananont, Amornpoth Suebwong, Peerawat Saisirirat, Siamnat Panassorn, Paritud Bhandhubanyong
The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Brand new Thailand popular common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Extend cab, equipped with 4JK1-STD engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4x2, Euro III emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Jatropha-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 10% as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0117
Simon A. Perez
We have a new engine development (US 5,927,236, pending 13/109,505 approved will be issued in December, PCT/IB2012/001882) that in addition to being a true Atkinson, 1 L admission/compression, 2 L expansion/exhaust with all the benefirs of reduced pumping loses also provides a positive torque beginning at 15º BEFORE tdc and at tdc we have a positive torque that is equivalent to the conventional engines torque at 16º AFTER tdc. This feature in addition to solving preignition and nock issues is the KEY to making HCCI a commercial success.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0112
Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Chun Hyiin Tan, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood
The development of a more efficient engine is an important agenda in the automotive industry and the shrinking source of fossil fuel drives the search for alternative fuels as a replacement for gasoline in car engines. Some of the problems faced by a direct injection engine used today is heat loss to the walls of the combustion chamber. The objective of the study is to determine the combustion characteristics such as the combustion temperature, enthalpy, total energy and local heat flux in a constant volume vessel which uses direct injection for various alternative fuels like methane, propane, hydrogen and compressed natural gas. Variables such as the mass flow rate of air, air temperature, ambient pressure and type of fuel are studied to determine the heat loss which occurs so that this data can be used in future researches that involve more specific applications. This study is done using computer simulations with the aid of a computational fluid dynamics software; ANSYS Fluent.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0111
Sarapon Thitipatanapong, Sathaporn Chuepeng, Poranat Visuwan PhD
Encouraging the use of alternative fuels available in Thailand is mainly due to fuel crisis within the past few decades. The government has recently drafted a renewable energy long-term plan to increase biofuel production. This has emboldened biodiesel to be used as fuel for agriculture and transportation, in particular. Diesel engines are promising for reducing carbon dioxide emissions related fuel energy consumption. Ordinarily, diesel combustion generates particulate matter (PM) in terms of smoke opacity and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in trade-off relationship. However, advanced techniques for engine technology and after-treatment devices have been abundantly developed to mitigate these hindrances. To break the trade-off emissions, an example technique is to fuel engines with biodiesel incorporated with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Among available options, nonthermal plasma (NTP) is one of the techniques that charges exhaust gas with high power electricity to reduce some emissions.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0114
Rachen Chumueang, Yossapong Laoonual, Nuwong Chollacoop
The purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of injection timings on combustion characteristics and emissions of a direct injection single cylinder CI engine fueled with ethanol ED95 (hydrous ethanol blended with commercial additive). The engine was tested at maximum engine load of 5 N.m between engine speed 1600-2000 rpm. The fuel injection pressure was set up to 90 MPa for all testing conditions. The injection timing was varied between -30 CA ATDC to 0 CA ATDC. The experimental results show the combustion characteristics with the cylinder pressure and heat release rate (HRR). Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and specific emissions are also investigated.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0113
Tosapol Kitkosol
For the past couple of hundred years fossil fuels have been using to support human activities in many ways. However, due to the fact that fossil fuels are limited we have to consume them more efficiently. Base on EIA’s world energy consumption data (2012), 25.6% of fossil fuels were used on transportation. For gasoline internal combustion engine equipped on numbers of the transport vehicle, even with recent improved one, its thermal efficiency is generally maximized at around 35%. The rest 65% of the energy could not be converted to be any useful work and is rejected in a form of heat. Since one of the biggest heat lost in a gasoline internal combustion engine is heat rejected with exhaust gas, this research is to study possibility of recovering rejected exhaust gas thermal energy and convert the recovered energy to electricity using combined turbocharger (only turbine stage) and an alternator.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0121
Kanit Manatura
Syngas is one of the gaseous alternative fuels that can be produced by gasification of solid fuels such as coal and biomass. The quality of syngas production depends on the gasification operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, residence time, gasifying agent, air fuel ratio, equivalence ratio and size of feedstock. Many applications of syngas may be included with hydrogen production in refineries, methanol from the chemical industry, electricity from the combustion process and the fuel for internal combustion engines. In this study, the effects of the syngas addition of 10%, 30% and 50% (by volume) with diesel fuel on the combustion and emission characteristics of a dual syngas-diesel engine are investigated. The engine was conducted on 6-cylinder, 6.014 L, naturally aspirated, water-cooled, no EGR, direct-injection HDDE (Heavy Duty Diesel Engine) of model year 1992 (Hino W06E) and injection timing of 8 degree CA (BTDC).
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0122
Phiranat Khamsrisuk
Nowadays the important problem of using Automobile vehicle is the cost of gasoline fuel that is very higher than its cost in ten year ago. When fossil fuel’s demand is increase so its cost is increase too, but it is opposed to its quantity and it will not enough to human’s demand. To find an alternative fuel, ethanol is the best answer because ethanol is distilled easily, not expensive and can be manufactured in Thailand. Consequently, research on using internal combustion engines fuelled with ethanol is so necessarily. This research has main objective that to study about the engine that ethanol can be used for alternative energy. The experimentally investigated the effect ignition timing in Direct Injection Spark Ignition engine (DISI) using an ethanol blend by altering the timing angle with respect to gasoline use regarding the output performance parameters such as power and efficiency. We also determined the energy distribution of the engine.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0119
Reywat Aramsiriwat, Yossapong Laoonual
The purpose of this study is to investigate the startability characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine fueled with ethanol blended with ignition improvers as fuels. The engine is modified to increase compression ratio from 18:1 to 23:1 and 28:1. Glycerol ethoxylate and biodiesel from palm oil methyl ester (POME) are considered as ignition improver blended with ethanol in various concentrations in this study. Glycerol ethoxylate is more effective on ignition quality improvement than POME. In-cylinder pressure and engine speed are key parameter to explain the startability characteristics and categorize them into four modes. The results show that increasing of ignition improver concentration enhances startability and improve IMEP due to combustion promotion.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0088
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Naveen Sukumar, Sunil endugu, Umashanker Gupta
To compete with the current market trends there is always a need to arrive at a cost effective and light weight designs. For Commercial Vehicles, an attempt is made to replace existing Gear Shift Fork from FC Iron to ADC without compromising its strength & stiffness, considering/bearing all the worst road load cases and severe environmental conditions. ADC has good mechanical and thermal properties compared to FC Iron. Feasible design has been Optimized within the given design space with an extra supporting pad for load distribution. Optimization, Stiffness, Contact pattern has been done using Optistruct, Nastran & Ansys for CAE evaluation. A 6-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the simulation and validation of the optimized design. Advanced linear topology optimization methods have been addressed as the most promising techniques for light weighting and performance design of Powertrain structures.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0136
Deepak Mahajan, Arnab Sandilya, Lokesh Khandelwal, Sameer Srivastava
Automotive floor carpet serves the purpose of insulating air borne noises like road/tire noise, transmission noise and fuel pump noise etc. Most commonly used automotive floor carpet structure is - Molded sound barrier (PE or vinyl etc) decoupled from floor pan with an absorber such as felt. With increasing customer expectations and fuel efficiency requirements, the NVH requirements are increasing as well. The only possible way of increasing acoustic performance (Specifically Sound Transmission Loss, STL) in the mentioned carpet structure is to increase the Barrier material. This solution, however, comes at a great weight penalty. Theoretically, increasing the number of decoupled barriers layers greatly enhances the STL performance of an acoustic packaging for same weight. However, practically this solution presents problems like- ineffectiveness at lower frequencies, sudden dip in performance at modal frequencies.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0132
Ajay Paul John, Vikas Kumar Agarwal, Prashant Bhavsar
Valve Train noise is a very important issue plaguing most of the engines and especially gasoline engines as they do not have Hydraulic Lash Adjuster (HLA). This study was conducted on a small Air cooled motorcycle gasoline engine with over head cam shafts. The rocker arm was a roller follower type. Commercially available Numerical codes were used to simulate the kinematic and the dynamic behaviour of the valve train. In the dynamic model the 3D FE model of the rocker arm was included to take into consideration the dynamic stiffness variation the rocker arm. A 3D spring model was also included for better simulation accuracy. How the effect of the design of the cam profile and the ramp affects the tappet noise was understood. Accelerometers were mounted on the cylinder head of the engine and the tappet noise from the valve train system was measured.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0135
Kalpesh Mistry, Nitin Badhe, Steve Fisher
Vehicle level Acoustic sound pack sensitivity and Test correlation by utilising Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) technique for Premium SUV Kalpesh A. Mistry, Atul D. Pol, Ajay Virmalwar Tata Technologies Ltd., Pune, India Steve Fisher Jaguar Land Rover Ltd., Gaydon, UK SAE SIAT at India,2015 Abstract Due to increased awareness by customer perceived sound characteristics, advance simulation technique emerged in NVH domain for mid-high frequency like BEM, Hybrid and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). Structure-borne noise simulation primarily relies on the finite element (FE) technique and due to wide knowledge base, it is in position to get correlated results and prediction. One of the most widely and accepted practice is SEA to assess and optimize Acoustic sound pack for Air Borne Noise (ABN) in the range of 400 Hz to 10,000 Hz typically for Powertrain and Tyre Patch Noise Reduction. As Prof.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0128
MR Vikram, Ramesh Patil, Shashidhar Chattanahalli, Vijay H Meti
TORSIONAL VIBRATION DAMPER DEVELOPMENT FOR EMERGING MARKET RWD VEHICLE Vikram MR, Ramesh Patil, Vijay Meti, Shashidhar Chattanahalli General Motors Technical Centre India Automotive manufacturers are facing unprecedented cost challenge across globe. Market requirement has become very competitive with demand for higher performance and low cost solutions. This is encouraging automotive manufacturers to develop dampers with local suppliers, as there is huge component cost advantage and also logistic cost savings. However, in emerging markets, supplier capability to develop the component for solving particular NVH problem of OEM is not matured as compared to developed market suppliers. Challenge lies with auto makers to develop supplier, who can give right performance, durability and lower cost components.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0129
Kapil Gupta, MR Vikram, Eugenio Manta
ABSTRACT A turbocharger unit mainly consists of a centrifugal compressor and a turbine coupled together by a solid shaft. This is employed to boost the charge air pressure of engine. Turbocharging in modern diesel and gasoline engines have become a common and essential operation to result higher power outputs, lower emissions, improved efficiency and refinements from a similar capacity of naturally aspirated engine. The automotive turbocharger system is a source of synchronous and asynchronous noises which are particularly very disturbing for the passengers. This need to be eliminated or reduced for passenger comfort. Subjectively, a high whistle noise was audible at passenger cabin during in mid-rpm range drive in all gears in a 4 cylinder diesel vehicle. Objective noise and vibration data confirm the issue as unbalance whistle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0126
Prince Shital, Chiranjit Ghosh, Harveen Talwar, Avnish Gosain, Praneet Shanker Dayal
Three-cylinder Engine without balancer shaft is a recent trend towards development of lightweight and fuel-efficient power train for passenger car. In addition of that, customer's expectation of superior NVH inside driver cabin is increasing day by day. Engine mounts address majority of the NVH issues related to transfer of vibration from engine to passenger cabin. Idle vibration isolation for a three-cylinder engine is a challenging task due to possibility of overlapping of Power train’s rigid body modes with engine's firing frequency. This Overlapping of rigid body modes of power train can be avoided either by modifying mount characteristic or by changing the position of mounts based on multi body dynamics (MBD) simulation. This paper explains about two types of engine mounting system for a front-wheel drive transversely mounted three-cylinder engine. The base vehicle was having three-point mounting system i.e. all three engine mounts were pre-loaded.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0146
Dhanashri Ravikiran Desai, Suhas Suryawanshi, Bhalchandra Deshmukh
Paper Number Study of Eddy Current Principle and Clutch Mechanism for Fan Drive on Canopied Diesel Power Generator Performance Dhanashri R Desai, S.P.Suryawanshi, B.S.Deshmukh Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. Pune, India V. N. Kapatkar Sinhgad College of engineering, Pune, India Copyright © 2014 SAE International ABSTRACT Developing countries always rely on the alternate source of power generation to have the uninterrupted power supply. Diesel Power generator is one of the solutions in meeting the uninterrupted power requirement. In India, Power generating sets are having stringent emission norms and also the present government policies of removing subsides from Diesel fuel adding the additional burden on operating cost. As such researcher has a tough task to design the product considering the stringent requirement of legislation and performance. The main focus of this research work is to address performance necessities and the noise legislation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0220
Sachin W. Thor, Shriniwas Chippa, Abhijit Majage
Dynamic Analysis of Outside rear view mirror of a car S. W. Thor1, S. P. Chippa1*, A. S. Majage2 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune 2Finite Four Technologies, Pune *Correspondence author : chippashriniwas@gmail.com Abstract:- An Automobile rear view mirror is attached at the side of the vehicle which is used to provide clear vision outside the vehicle. In the running condition of vehicle, various vibrations occur and are transferred to the mirror which may disturb driver's rear view. Since this issue is related to safety consideration, it becomes essential to minimize the vibration of mirror. Vibration analysis is very much important for the successful design and development of new parts in automobile. In present work, Vibration analysis of existing design of outside rear view mirror is investigated through numerical model using FEM. Furthermore, these results are verified through experimental work.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0130
Pradeep Kumar Singh
Gear noise and vibration in automobile transmissions is a phenomenon of great concern. Noise generated at the gearbox, due to gear meshing, also known as gear whine, gets transferred from the engine cabin to the passenger cabin via various transfer paths and is perceived as air borne noise to the passengers in the vehicle. This noise due to its tonal nature can be very uncomfortable to the passengers. Optimizing micro-geometry of a gear pair can help in improving the stress distribution on tooth flank and reducing the sound level of the tonal noise generated during the running of the gearbox when that gear pair is engaged. This technical paper contains the study of variation in noise level in passenger cabin and contact on tooth flank with change in micro-geometry parameters (involute slope and lead slope) of a particular gear pair. Further scope of study has been discussed at the end of the paper.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0139
Pradeep Kumar Singh
Noise generated in the driveline is mainly transferred inside the passenger cabin through air (air borne noise) and through the vehicle body structure, engine mounts, cables etc. Source of the noise generation in the vehicle is mainly through the engine fluctuation (engine combustion excitations). Any change in the engine characteristics results in the change in passenger cabin noise. Also, influence of the vehicle body structure due to change in material properties also affects the NVH performance. This technical paper explains the effect of change in engine characteristics as well as change in the transfer path due to design change on the NVH performance of the gear box and subsequently the NVH performance of vehicle.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0137
Himanshu Agrawal, Abhishek Arun Kakade, Arun Kumar Singh, Sandeep N Shetty
Abstract Fan is generally used for cooling of alternator and an undesirable side effect of these fans is generation of flow induced noise. With stricter regulations and growing importance on acoustic comfort in present day market, it's very important to address flow induced noise problems early in product development stage. With physical testing, it would not be possible to get information on source strengths thus, limiting its usage. Whereas simulation on the other hand would be able to provide source strengths, directivity pattern and source ranking. This paper focuses on numerical simulation of alternator's fan for prediction of air- borne noise. For this purpose, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based transient analysis is performed with high fidelity turbulence model using commercial software package, ANSYS Fluent. Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) model is used for modeling sound propagation.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0140
Milind Ambardekar, Adatiya Yogesh, Sudhakara Naidu
Abstract Production variations of a heavy duty truck for its vibrations were measured and then analyzed through an Ishikawa diagram. Noise and Control factors of the truck idle shake were indentified. The major cause was found to be piece to piece variations of its power-train (PT) rubber mounts. To overcome the same, a new nominal level of the mount stiffness was sought based on minimization of a cost function related to vibration transmissibility and fatigue damage of the mounts under dynamic loadings. Physical prototypes of such mounts were proved to minimize the variations of the driver's seat shake at idling among various trucks of the same design. These learning's are useful for design of various subsystems or components to refine the full vehicle-Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) at the robust design level.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0214
Sivanandi Rajadurai, Guru Prasad Mani, Kavin Raja, Sundaravadivelu Mohan, Balaji Manivannan
In an automotive, exhaust system components are stripped to many types of vibrations from simple sinusoidal to maximum random excitations. Hot Vibration shakers plays a crucial role in durability testing of these components. This is due to minimum development time, number of available prototypes, also value of the money. In design and validation of vibration assembly, CAE simulation plays a inevitable role due to its virtual verification also it provides the optimized solution rather than "over engineering" . Hot vibration test is an accelerated key life test required to establish durability life in field. Key life test conditions are chosen in such a way that "those parts which passes key life test will always pass in the field" and "those parts which fail key life test need not necessarily fail in the field". During test, it is more critical to understand the effects of the test component as well as the total assembly and environment.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0122
Herman Van der Auweraer, Karl Janssens, Fabio Bianciardi, Filip Deblauwe, Kumaraswamy Shivashankaraiah
Certification of vehicle noise emissions for passenger vehicles, motorcycles and light trucks is achieved by measuring external sound levels according to procedures defined by international standards such as ISO362. The current procedure based on a pass-by test during wide-open throttle acceleration is believed to be far from actual urban traffic conditions. Hence a new standard pass-by noise certification is the new ISO 362:2007 is being evaluated for implementation that puts testing departments through their paces with requirements for additional testing under multiple ‘real world’ conditions. The new ISO standard, together with the fact that most governments are imposing lower noise emission levels, makes that most of the current models don’t meet the new levels which will be imposed in the future. Therefore automotive manufacturers are looking for new tools which are giving them a better insight in the Pass-by Noise contributors.
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