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CURRENT
2018-01-09
Standard
J1242_201801
The scope of this SAE Information Report is to supply the user with sufficient information so that he may decide whether acoustic emission test methods apply to his particular inspection problem. Detailed technical information can be obtained by referring to Section 2.
2017-12-27
WIP Standard
AIR1168/1A
The fluid flow treated in this section is isothermal, subsonic, and incompressible. The effects of heat addition, work on the fluid, variation in sonic velocity, and changes in elevation are neglected. An incompressible fluid is one in which a change in pressure causes no resulting change in fluid density. The assumption that liquids are incompressible introduces no appreciable error in calculations, but the assumption that a gas is incompressible introduces an error of a magnitude that is dependent on the fluid velocity and on the loss coefficient of the particular duct section or price of equipment. Fit 1A-1 shows the error in pressure drop resulting from assuming that air is incompressible. With reasonably small loss coefficients and the accuracy that is usually required in most calculations, compressible fluids may be treated as incompressible for velocities less than Mach 0.2.
CURRENT
2017-12-20
Standard
J1192_201712
The requirements of this document apply to all classes of motorcycles as defined in SAE J213.
2017-12-20
WIP Standard
J1970
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the procedure for measuring the sound level of recreational motorboats in the vicinity of a shore bordering any recreational boating area during which time a boat is operating under conditions other than stationary mode operation. It is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
CURRENT
2017-12-20
Standard
J2786_201712
This document defines various vehicular noises and vibrations that are attributed to being created by the brake system of the vehicle. These definitions cover both disc and drum brakes. The frequency ranges from near zero hertz (tactile sensations) all the way up to 17 kilohertz, or the upper limit of normal hearing. These noises and vibrations may either directly radiate off the brake system or provide the excitation energy that cause other vehicle components to react.
2017-12-13
WIP Standard
J2005
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the procedure for determining if recreational motorboats have effective exhaust muffling means when operating in the stationary mode. It is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
2017-11-30
WIP Standard
J34
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the procedure for measuring the maximum exterior sound level of recreational motorboats while being operated under a variety of operating conditions. It is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
CURRENT
2017-11-29
Standard
J1161_201711
This recommended practice establishes the instrumentation, test site, and test procedure for determining the exterior operational sound level for snowmobiles.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0129
Alexandre R. Pinho, Demetrio Vettorazzo Neto, George Ballardie, Rafael Coelho Martinez
Abstract This paper will focus whining noise on rear axles applied in mid-size trucks. Vehicle integration changes during development affect directly the gear noise perception, in which it may be intensified. Also, gear material and heat treatment choices for the rear axle need to be done carefully, taking into consideration the integration changes and also the driver usage. A lessons learned collection over the diverse aspects of a rear axle whining noise will be the basis of this paper.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0327
Agostinho Rolim, Filipe Camargo, Marcelo Boczko, Reinaldo Osti
Abstract Did you had opportunity to hear any unpleasant noise when closing some vehicle door? In some cases reminds a metallic touch condition, in other cases reminds several components loose inside the door. The fact is that this kind of noise is definitely unpleasant to the human ears. The good news is that this undesirable condition can be solved easily through of add a soft bumper in the striker; however, needs to pay attention in the material properties and tolerance stack-up conditions to avoid generate side effect, like as high door closing efforts, break parts, lose parts, etc.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0329
Agostinho Rolim, Alexandre Sgarbiero, Anderson Souza, Eduardo Spada
Abstract The unpleasant noise (creak) originated from latch-striker interaction, perceived mainly when the vehicle is submitted to uneven road conditions is generated by stick-slip phenomenon mainly due materials incompatibility of contact surfaces. Generally, eliminate this incompatibility is unfeasible due technical and/or economics constrains; this scenario makes it necessary to act in other fronts to neutralize the effects of that incompatibility. Reduce the coefficient of friction from one of contact surfaces is an alternative that can be easily applied at striker through a thin thickness coating with that property.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0238
Gilson Pereira, Anderson Chaves, Lean Santana, Ciro Almeida
Abstract During a B-Car durability validation route, it was observed a squeak noise coming from front suspension structure. In the teardown, it was verified metal to metal contact between coil spring and damper spring plate and squeeze-out of spring pad. To reproduce the vehicle failure, it was developed in laboratory a fixture and test to reflect a B-Car McPherson suspension motion, to reproduce the failure and validate a proposal. After root cause understanding, the challenge was to design a new spring pad to avoid squeeze-out keeping the coil spring lower pigtail unchanged. It was tested some prototype parts also in vehicle to approve the design proposal.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0068
Yoshihiro Aramaki, Shunsuke Ishimitsu, Kenta Murai, Kazuki Yoshida, Toshihisa Takaki, Takanori Chino, Kenta Suzuki
The number of people experiencing psychological discomfort due to the increasing amount of noise emanating from motor vehicles has been on the rise. Legal regulations define the permissible level of vehicle noise in a given area. Active noise control (ANC) is a noise cancellation method that reduces low-frequency sounds, such as engine noise, effectively. Furthermore, this method is suitable for controlling engine noise because the equipment necessary to perform it is small and does not require a large space for installation. Advances in digital processing technology have increased the scope of ANC’s applications, and it is no longer restricted to use in motor vehicles. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in reducing the motor vehicle engine noise produced during acceleration. In this study, we attempt to control the engine sounds from a vehicle with a four-cylinder four-stroke engine.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0066
Jüri Lavrentjev, Hans Rämmal
To control noise emission from internal combustion inlet, designers often choose small chamber type silencers at the inlet. In order to improve the inlet acoustic efficiency, inlet ducts with improved acoustic attenuation can be used. One potentially applicable material is acoustic metamaterial rapidly gaining popularity in different fields of engineering application. Small engine inlet duct, designed by using acoustic metamaterial structure comprising an array of resonators inside the wall of a rigid duct is investigated in this study. Experimental investigation of different designs is performed to characterize the acoustic behavior in terms of transmission loss (TL). By connecting multiple resonators of different size and location it is shown that a broadband TL can be achieved. The resulted attenuation band can be tuned by varying the resonator physical characteristics, showing promising potentials such of the material in the described application.
CURRENT
2017-09-19
Standard
AIR902A
This document describes a practical system for a user to determine observer-to-aircraft distances. These observer-to-aircraft distances can be either closest point of approach (CPA) distances during field measurements or overhead distances during acoustic certification tests. The system uses a digital camera to record an image of the subject aircraft. A method of using commercial software to obtain the distance from such an image is presented. Potential issues which may affect accuracy are discussed.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2484
Yoshiyuki Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi Kondo
Abstract Previous studies have shown that the disc vibration mode during braking noise is not always the same and there are some types of mode. Until now, disc brake noise studies are reported regarding out of plane noise primarily, and there are many noise countermeasure methods. On the other hand, there is short research history of “Inplane mode noise” which disc vibrates to circumstance direction with extension and contraction movement. Therefore, there are few studies which are explained the noise mechanism in detail in the view point of pad. In this report, we discuss energy which flows into pad surface at inplane noise braking and focused friction force variation by the surface pressure change especially. The inflow energy was calculated by the pad’s displacement of disc rotating direction(ΔX) and pad thickness variation(Δh) which is acquired by 3D scanning laser Doppler measurement system. This technique was made in reference to the past research.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2482
Meechai Sriwiboon, Nipon Tiempan, Kritsana Kaewlob, Seong K Rhee, Donald Yuhas
Abstract Disc pad physical properties are believed to be important in controlling brake friction, wear and squeal. Thus these properties are carefully measured during and after manufacturing for quality assurance. For a given formulation, disc pad porosity is reported to affect friction, wear and squeal. This investigation was undertaken to find out how porosity changes affect pad natural frequencies, dynamic modulus, hardness and compressibility for a low-copper formulation and a copper-free formulation, both without underlayer, without scorching and without noise shims. Pad natural frequencies, modulus and hardness all continuously decrease with increasing porosity. When pad compressibility is measured by compressing several times as recommended and practiced, the pad surface hardness is found to increase while pad natural frequencies and modulus remain essentially unchanged.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2486
Kyung Jae Lee, Dong Won Kim, Daekyung Ko
Abstract Brake grinding noise is caused by the friction of the disc and pads. The friction generates vibration and it transmits to the body via the chassis system. We called it structure-borne noise. To improve the noise in the vehicle development, the aspects of chassis or body's countermeasure occurs many problems, cost and time. In this reason many brake companies try to make solution with brake system, like brake pad materials or disc surface condition. However the countermeasures of excitation systems also have a lot of risk. It could be occurred side-effects of braking performance, and need to re-verify brake noise like Creep-groan, Groan, Squeal, Judder and so on. For this reason, it is essential to make a robust chassis system in the initial development stage of the vehicle for the most desirable grinding noise-resistant vehicle. This paper is about rear brake grind noise path analysis and countermeasure of chassis system. There are two steps to analysis.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2485
Tarun Teja Mallareddy, Peter Blaschke, Sarah Schneider, Daniel J. Alarcón
Abstract Brake squeal is an NVH issue experienced by brake systems and vehicle manufacturers for decades. This leads to customer dissatisfaction and the questioning of the quality of the brake system. Advanced testing tools, design modification, dynamometer testing, vehicle validation etc., are performed to study, analyze and eliminate this problem. But still it continues to exist nowadays. One of the most important reasons is the complexity of the brake pad having non-linear material properties. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the behavior of the brake pad in terms of its dynamic properties (eigenfrequencies, damping and mode shapes) under varying boundary conditions. Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) is used to study the dynamic properties of any structure and is generally performed under free-free boundary conditions. An approach to study brake pads under pressure condition is a step towards reality, as brake pads squeal only during braking events.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2487
Yasuyuki Kanehira, Yusuke Aoki, Yukio Nishizawa
Abstract Brake squeal is uncomfortable noise that occurs while braking. It is an important issue for automobile quality to prevent brake products from squealing. Brake shims are widely used to reduce squeal occurrence rate. In particular, laminated shims can effectively suppress squeal via the viscoelastic damping of an adhesive layer. However, there are cases where the damping performance at low temperature and the durability performance at high temperature deteriorate. In that regard, we thought of applying frictional damping to shims instead of relying on a temperature-sensitive adhesive layer. To study the application of frictional damping for shims, it is necessary to clarify the characteristics thereof. In order to quantify the damping performance of shims, loss factor has been generally measured with a bending mode tester. However, the influence of friction cannot be evaluated because it is measured under pressure-free condition.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2488
Manuel Pürscher, Peter Fischer
Abstract Vehicle road tests are meaningful for investigations of creep groan noise. However, problems in reproducing experiments and partly subjective evaluations may lead to imprecise conclusions. This work proposes an experimental test and evaluation procedure which provides a precise and objective assessment of creep groan. It is based on systematic corner test rig experiments and an innovative characterization method. The exemplary setup under investigation consisted of a complete front wheel suspension and brake system including all relevant components. The wheel has been driven by the test rig’s drum against a brake torque. The main parameters within a test matrix were brake pressure and drum velocity. Both have been varied stepwise to scan the relevant operating range of the automobile corner system for potential creep groan noise. Additionally, the experiments were extended to high brake pressures, where creep groan cannot be observed under road test conditions.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2489
Christian Ball, Li Lee, Weicherng Wang
Abstract The standard method for using FEA to predict and eliminate brake squeal has been to use complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA). Energy flow analysis has been adapted for use with FEA for brake squeal as an alternate mechanism for squeal prediction. This paper demonstrates an implementation of energy flow analysis with commercially available FEA software. The approach leverages the ability of commercial FEA solvers to obtain a quasi-static, pre-loaded brake model, as well as their eigenvalue extraction algorithms to create a modal space for energy flow calculations. The modal spaces as well as the pre-loaded stiffness matrix are then utilized to calculate energy flow values between nearby system modes. Three case studies are presented that compare the results of CEA and energy flow to different systems and countermeasures adopted to reduce noise occurrence in physical testing.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2523
Seonho Lee, Yoongil Choi, Kyuntaek Cho, Hyounsoo Park
Abstract Raceway Brinell damage is one major cause of wheel bearing (hub unit) noise during driving. Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) customers have asked continuously for its improvement to the wheel bearing supply base. Generally, raceway Brinelling in a wheel hub unit is a consequence of metallic yielding from high external loading in a severe environment usually involving a side impact to the wheel and tire. Thus, increasing the yielding strength of steel can lead to higher resistance to Brinell damage. Both the outer ring and hub based on Generation 3 (Gen. 3) wheel unit are typically manufactured using by AISI 1055 bearing quality steel (BQS); these components undergo controlled cooling to establish the core properties then case hardening via induction hardening (IH). This paper presents a modified grade of steel and its IH design that targets longer life and improves Brinell resistance developed by ILJIN AMRC (Advanced Materials Research Center).
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2528
Seongjoo Lee, JeSung Jeon, JooSeong Jeong, Byeongkyu Park, ShinWook Kim, ShinWan Kim, Seong Kwan Rhee, Wan Gyu Lee, Young sun Cho
It is widely believed or speculated that higher pad compressibility leads to reduced brake squeal and that caliper design can affect brake squeal. After encountering anecdotal contradictory cases, this investigation was undertaken to systematically generate basic data and clarify the beliefs or speculations. In order to adjust pad compressibility, it is common to modify pad molding temperatures, pressures and times, which in addition to changing the compressibility, changes friction coefficient and physical properties of the pad at the same time. In order to separate these two effects, NAO disc pads were prepared under the same molding conditions while using different thicknesses of the underlayer to achieve different compressibilities, thus changing the compressibility only without changing the friction coefficient and physical properties of the pad.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2529
Jae Seol Cho, JongYun Jeong, Hyoung Woo Kim, Hwa Sun Lee, Yang Woo Park, Junghwan Lim, Yoonjae Kim, Jinwoo Kim, Byung Soo Joo, Ho Jang
Abstract A semi-empirical index to evaluate the noise propensity of brake friction materials is introduced. The noise propensity index (NPI) is based on the ratio of surface and matrix stiffness of the friction material, fraction of high-pressure contact plateaus on the sliding surface, and standard deviation of the surface stiffness of the friction material that affect the amplitude and frequency of the stick-slip oscillation. The correlation between noise occurrence and NPI was examined using various brake linings for commercial vehicles. The results obtained from reduced-scale noise dynamometer and vehicle tests indicated that NPI is well correlated with noise propensity. The analysis of the stick-slip profiles also indicated that the surface property affects the amplitude of friction oscillation, while the mechanical property of the friction material influences the propagation of friction oscillation after the onset of vibration.
2017-08-04
Magazine
Opposed-piston engines: the powerplant of the future India's dream of an all-EV fleet by 2030: Myth, miracle, or reality? An approach for prediction of motorcycle engine noise under combustion load Innovations for lightweighting Tough U.S. fuel-economy bogies for 2021 and beyond are driving new approaches for materials, as seen in these examples. More intelligence equals more efficiency, enhanced functionality Advanced electronic systems require renewed focus on architectures, processors, sensors and networks. Connected commercial vehicles bring cybersecurity to the fore Connectivity, automation and electrification will drive vehicle development in the near future, say industry experts attending the revamped SAE COMVEC 17 event.
2017-07-27
Magazine
The Rapid Rise of Beryllium-Aluminum Alloys in Aerospace Aeroacoustic Simulation Delivers Breakthroughs in Aircraft Noise Reduction Using System Simulation to Manage Increasing Thermal Loads on Aircraft Fuel Systems Ensuring the Compliance of Avionics Software with DO-178C Microwave Photonic Notch Filter Helps Ensure Critical Mission Success Measuring Propellant Stress Relaxation Modulus Using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer New testing technique requires less material, gives more accurate results. Combustion Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Droplets Induced by Photoignition of Aluminum Nanoparticles Test methodology allows analysis of combustion dynamics for subscale rocket injectors under super critical conditions. Vapor Pressure Data and Analysis for Selected Organophosphorous Compounds: DIBMP, DCMP, IMMP, IMPA, EMPA, and MPFA Determining the thermophysical properties of chemical warfare agent simulants can help evaluate the performance of defensive equipment.
CURRENT
2017-07-24
Standard
J2625_201707
This procedure is applicable to squeal type noise occurrences for passenger car and light truck type vehicles that are used under conventional operating conditions. For the purposes of this test procedure, squeal is defined as occurring between 900 and 18 000 Hz.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1952
Utkarsh Sharma, Simson T. Wilson, Santosh Lalasure, K. Rajakumar
Abstract Today’s automotive industry in the process of better fuel efficiency and aiming less carbon foot print is trying to incorporate energy saving and hybrid technologies in their products. One of the trends which has been followed by Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) is the usage of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system. This has been an effective option to target fuel saving as compared to hydraulically assisted power steering system. EPS has been already tested successfully, not only on system level but also on vehicle level for endurance and performance by OEMs as per their norms and standards. Over the decade, NVH (noise, vibration & harshness) have become one of the touch points for customer perception about vehicle quality. This leads us to a commonly perceived problem in EPS or manual type steering system i.e. rattle noise.
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