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Viewing 1 to 30 of 7121
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0129
Alexandre R. Pinho, Demetrio Vettorazzo Neto, George Ballardie, Rafael Coelho Martinez
Abstract This paper will focus whining noise on rear axles applied in mid-size trucks. Vehicle integration changes during development affect directly the gear noise perception, in which it may be intensified. Also, gear material and heat treatment choices for the rear axle need to be done carefully, taking into consideration the integration changes and also the driver usage. A lessons learned collection over the diverse aspects of a rear axle whining noise will be the basis of this paper.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0238
Gilson Pereira, Anderson Chaves, Lean Santana, Ciro Almeida
Abstract During a B-Car durability validation route, it was observed a squeak noise coming from front suspension structure. In the teardown, it was verified metal to metal contact between coil spring and damper spring plate and squeeze-out of spring pad. To reproduce the vehicle failure, it was developed in laboratory a fixture and test to reflect a B-Car McPherson suspension motion, to reproduce the failure and validate a proposal. After root cause understanding, the challenge was to design a new spring pad to avoid squeeze-out keeping the coil spring lower pigtail unchanged. It was tested some prototype parts also in vehicle to approve the design proposal.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0327
Agostinho Rolim, Filipe Camargo, Marcelo Boczko, Reinaldo Osti
Abstract Did you had opportunity to hear any unpleasant noise when closing some vehicle door? In some cases reminds a metallic touch condition, in other cases reminds several components loose inside the door. The fact is that this kind of noise is definitely unpleasant to the human ears. The good news is that this undesirable condition can be solved easily through of add a soft bumper in the striker; however, needs to pay attention in the material properties and tolerance stack-up conditions to avoid generate side effect, like as high door closing efforts, break parts, lose parts, etc.
2017-11-07
Technical Paper
2017-36-0329
Agostinho Rolim, Alexandre Sgarbiero, Anderson Souza, Eduardo Spada
Abstract The unpleasant noise (creak) originated from latch-striker interaction, perceived mainly when the vehicle is submitted to uneven road conditions is generated by stick-slip phenomenon mainly due materials incompatibility of contact surfaces. Generally, eliminate this incompatibility is unfeasible due technical and/or economics constrains; this scenario makes it necessary to act in other fronts to neutralize the effects of that incompatibility. Reduce the coefficient of friction from one of contact surfaces is an alternative that can be easily applied at striker through a thin thickness coating with that property.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0068
Yoshihiro Aramaki, Shunsuke Ishimitsu, Kenta Murai, Kazuki Yoshida, Toshihisa Takaki, Takanori Chino, Kenta Suzuki
The number of people experiencing psychological discomfort due to the increasing amount of noise emanating from motor vehicles has been on the rise. Legal regulations define the permissible level of vehicle noise in a given area. Active noise control (ANC) is a noise cancellation method that reduces low-frequency sounds, such as engine noise, effectively. Furthermore, this method is suitable for controlling engine noise because the equipment necessary to perform it is small and does not require a large space for installation. Advances in digital processing technology have increased the scope of ANC’s applications, and it is no longer restricted to use in motor vehicles. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in reducing the motor vehicle engine noise produced during acceleration. In this study, we attempt to control the engine sounds from a vehicle with a four-cylinder four-stroke engine.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0066
Jüri Lavrentjev, Hans Rämmal
To control noise emission from internal combustion inlet, designers often choose small chamber type silencers at the inlet. In order to improve the inlet acoustic efficiency, inlet ducts with improved acoustic attenuation can be used. One potentially applicable material is acoustic metamaterial rapidly gaining popularity in different fields of engineering application. Small engine inlet duct, designed by using acoustic metamaterial structure comprising an array of resonators inside the wall of a rigid duct is investigated in this study. Experimental investigation of different designs is performed to characterize the acoustic behavior in terms of transmission loss (TL). By connecting multiple resonators of different size and location it is shown that a broadband TL can be achieved. The resulted attenuation band can be tuned by varying the resonator physical characteristics, showing promising potentials such of the material in the described application.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2484
Yoshiyuki Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi Kondo
Abstract Previous studies have shown that the disc vibration mode during braking noise is not always the same and there are some types of mode. Until now, disc brake noise studies are reported regarding out of plane noise primarily, and there are many noise countermeasure methods. On the other hand, there is short research history of “Inplane mode noise” which disc vibrates to circumstance direction with extension and contraction movement. Therefore, there are few studies which are explained the noise mechanism in detail in the view point of pad. In this report, we discuss energy which flows into pad surface at inplane noise braking and focused friction force variation by the surface pressure change especially. The inflow energy was calculated by the pad’s displacement of disc rotating direction(ΔX) and pad thickness variation(Δh) which is acquired by 3D scanning laser Doppler measurement system. This technique was made in reference to the past research.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2482
Meechai Sriwiboon, Nipon Tiempan, Kritsana Kaewlob, Seong K Rhee, Donald Yuhas
Abstract Disc pad physical properties are believed to be important in controlling brake friction, wear and squeal. Thus these properties are carefully measured during and after manufacturing for quality assurance. For a given formulation, disc pad porosity is reported to affect friction, wear and squeal. This investigation was undertaken to find out how porosity changes affect pad natural frequencies, dynamic modulus, hardness and compressibility for a low-copper formulation and a copper-free formulation, both without underlayer, without scorching and without noise shims. Pad natural frequencies, modulus and hardness all continuously decrease with increasing porosity. When pad compressibility is measured by compressing several times as recommended and practiced, the pad surface hardness is found to increase while pad natural frequencies and modulus remain essentially unchanged.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2486
Kyung Jae Lee, Dong Won Kim, Daekyung Ko
Abstract Brake grinding noise is caused by the friction of the disc and pads. The friction generates vibration and it transmits to the body via the chassis system. We called it structure-borne noise. To improve the noise in the vehicle development, the aspects of chassis or body's countermeasure occurs many problems, cost and time. In this reason many brake companies try to make solution with brake system, like brake pad materials or disc surface condition. However the countermeasures of excitation systems also have a lot of risk. It could be occurred side-effects of braking performance, and need to re-verify brake noise like Creep-groan, Groan, Squeal, Judder and so on. For this reason, it is essential to make a robust chassis system in the initial development stage of the vehicle for the most desirable grinding noise-resistant vehicle. This paper is about rear brake grind noise path analysis and countermeasure of chassis system. There are two steps to analysis.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2485
Tarun Teja Mallareddy, Peter Blaschke, Sarah Schneider, Daniel J. Alarcón
Abstract Brake squeal is an NVH issue experienced by brake systems and vehicle manufacturers for decades. This leads to customer dissatisfaction and the questioning of the quality of the brake system. Advanced testing tools, design modification, dynamometer testing, vehicle validation etc., are performed to study, analyze and eliminate this problem. But still it continues to exist nowadays. One of the most important reasons is the complexity of the brake pad having non-linear material properties. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the behavior of the brake pad in terms of its dynamic properties (eigenfrequencies, damping and mode shapes) under varying boundary conditions. Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) is used to study the dynamic properties of any structure and is generally performed under free-free boundary conditions. An approach to study brake pads under pressure condition is a step towards reality, as brake pads squeal only during braking events.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2487
Yasuyuki Kanehira, Yusuke Aoki, Yukio Nishizawa
Abstract Brake squeal is uncomfortable noise that occurs while braking. It is an important issue for automobile quality to prevent brake products from squealing. Brake shims are widely used to reduce squeal occurrence rate. In particular, laminated shims can effectively suppress squeal via the viscoelastic damping of an adhesive layer. However, there are cases where the damping performance at low temperature and the durability performance at high temperature deteriorate. In that regard, we thought of applying frictional damping to shims instead of relying on a temperature-sensitive adhesive layer. To study the application of frictional damping for shims, it is necessary to clarify the characteristics thereof. In order to quantify the damping performance of shims, loss factor has been generally measured with a bending mode tester. However, the influence of friction cannot be evaluated because it is measured under pressure-free condition.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2488
Manuel Pürscher, Peter Fischer
Abstract Vehicle road tests are meaningful for investigations of creep groan noise. However, problems in reproducing experiments and partly subjective evaluations may lead to imprecise conclusions. This work proposes an experimental test and evaluation procedure which provides a precise and objective assessment of creep groan. It is based on systematic corner test rig experiments and an innovative characterization method. The exemplary setup under investigation consisted of a complete front wheel suspension and brake system including all relevant components. The wheel has been driven by the test rig’s drum against a brake torque. The main parameters within a test matrix were brake pressure and drum velocity. Both have been varied stepwise to scan the relevant operating range of the automobile corner system for potential creep groan noise. Additionally, the experiments were extended to high brake pressures, where creep groan cannot be observed under road test conditions.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2489
Christian Ball, Li Lee, Weicherng Wang
Abstract The standard method for using FEA to predict and eliminate brake squeal has been to use complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA). Energy flow analysis has been adapted for use with FEA for brake squeal as an alternate mechanism for squeal prediction. This paper demonstrates an implementation of energy flow analysis with commercially available FEA software. The approach leverages the ability of commercial FEA solvers to obtain a quasi-static, pre-loaded brake model, as well as their eigenvalue extraction algorithms to create a modal space for energy flow calculations. The modal spaces as well as the pre-loaded stiffness matrix are then utilized to calculate energy flow values between nearby system modes. Three case studies are presented that compare the results of CEA and energy flow to different systems and countermeasures adopted to reduce noise occurrence in physical testing.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2523
Seonho Lee, Yoongil Choi, Kyuntaek Cho, Hyounsoo Park
Abstract Raceway Brinell damage is one major cause of wheel bearing (hub unit) noise during driving. Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) customers have asked continuously for its improvement to the wheel bearing supply base. Generally, raceway Brinelling in a wheel hub unit is a consequence of metallic yielding from high external loading in a severe environment usually involving a side impact to the wheel and tire. Thus, increasing the yielding strength of steel can lead to higher resistance to Brinell damage. Both the outer ring and hub based on Generation 3 (Gen. 3) wheel unit are typically manufactured using by AISI 1055 bearing quality steel (BQS); these components undergo controlled cooling to establish the core properties then case hardening via induction hardening (IH). This paper presents a modified grade of steel and its IH design that targets longer life and improves Brinell resistance developed by ILJIN AMRC (Advanced Materials Research Center).
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2528
Seongjoo Lee, JeSung Jeon, JooSeong Jeong, Byeongkyu Park, ShinWook Kim, ShinWan Kim, Seong Kwan Rhee, Wan Gyu Lee, Young sun Cho
It is widely believed or speculated that higher pad compressibility leads to reduced brake squeal and that caliper design can affect brake squeal. After encountering anecdotal contradictory cases, this investigation was undertaken to systematically generate basic data and clarify the beliefs or speculations. In order to adjust pad compressibility, it is common to modify pad molding temperatures, pressures and times, which in addition to changing the compressibility, changes friction coefficient and physical properties of the pad at the same time. In order to separate these two effects, NAO disc pads were prepared under the same molding conditions while using different thicknesses of the underlayer to achieve different compressibilities, thus changing the compressibility only without changing the friction coefficient and physical properties of the pad.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2529
Jae Seol Cho, JongYun Jeong, Hyoung Woo Kim, Hwa Sun Lee, Yang Woo Park, Junghwan Lim, Yoonjae Kim, Jinwoo Kim, Byung Soo Joo, Ho Jang
Abstract A semi-empirical index to evaluate the noise propensity of brake friction materials is introduced. The noise propensity index (NPI) is based on the ratio of surface and matrix stiffness of the friction material, fraction of high-pressure contact plateaus on the sliding surface, and standard deviation of the surface stiffness of the friction material that affect the amplitude and frequency of the stick-slip oscillation. The correlation between noise occurrence and NPI was examined using various brake linings for commercial vehicles. The results obtained from reduced-scale noise dynamometer and vehicle tests indicated that NPI is well correlated with noise propensity. The analysis of the stick-slip profiles also indicated that the surface property affects the amplitude of friction oscillation, while the mechanical property of the friction material influences the propagation of friction oscillation after the onset of vibration.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1952
Utkarsh Sharma, Simson T. Wilson, Santosh Lalasure, K. Rajakumar
Abstract Today’s automotive industry in the process of better fuel efficiency and aiming less carbon foot print is trying to incorporate energy saving and hybrid technologies in their products. One of the trends which has been followed by Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) is the usage of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system. This has been an effective option to target fuel saving as compared to hydraulically assisted power steering system. EPS has been already tested successfully, not only on system level but also on vehicle level for endurance and performance by OEMs as per their norms and standards. Over the decade, NVH (noise, vibration & harshness) have become one of the touch points for customer perception about vehicle quality. This leads us to a commonly perceived problem in EPS or manual type steering system i.e. rattle noise.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1926
Jos Frank, Sohin Doshi, Manchi Rao, Prasath Raghavendran
Abstract In today’s automotive scenario, noise vibration and harshness (NVH) has become a synonym for quality perception. This paper evaluates the problem of vibration and noise experienced in M2 category 40 seat bus and suggests the counter measures. Severe vibration is experienced on the bus floor, predominantly towards rear part of the bus. Vibration along with acoustic boom occurs prominently in 4th gear wide open throttle operating condition between 1300-1600 rpm of the engine. This paper focuses on reducing NVH levels by working on the transfer path with little modifications on power-train. Preliminary torsional measurements conducted on powertrain indicated high torsional excitation in the driveline during the problematic rpm zone. Further, Operational Deflection Shape (ODS) analysis revealed that the transfer path to the cabin is rear differential unit and suspension links. The dominant frequencies were identified along the transfer path and suitable modifications were done.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1925
Asif Basha Shaik Mohammad, Ravindran Vijayakumar, Nageshwar Rao Panduranga
Abstract The automotive market has seen a steady increase in customer demands for quiet and more comfortable tractors. High noise at Operator Ear Level (OEL) of tractor is the major cause of fatigue to the operator. With growing competition, and upcoming legislative requirement there is ominous need for the agricultural tractor manufacturers to control noise levels. The objective of this study is noise reduction on agricultural tractor by stiffening sheet metal components. The design and analysis plays a major role for determining the root cause for the problem. Once the problem and its root cause were well defined, the solution for addressing the problem would be made clear. The engine excitation frequency and Sheet metal Components such as fender and platform natural frequency were coming closer and are leading to resonance.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1936
Prasad Padavala, Judsonrajkumar Thaveedu, G Senthilkumar, Jaganmohan Rao Medisetti
Abstract Exterior noise reduction of a vehicle has become important nowadays in order to meet the stringent pass by noise regulations. First step in this process is the identification of dominant noise sources. There are several noise sources which can contribute to the pass by noise like gearbox, turbocharger, oil sump, exhaust muffler, air intake etc. The dominant noise sources can be identified with the near field noise, component vibration measurements combined with experimental modal analysis. This paper discusses about the noise source identification and exterior noise reduction of a shortest wheel base intermediate commercial vehicle, which is having a 4-cylinder inline diesel engine.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1922
S Nataraja Moorthy, Manchi Rao, Prasath Raghavendran, Sakthi Babu
Abstract NVH is becoming one of the major factor for customer selection of vehicle along with parameters like fuel economy and drivability. One of the major NVH challenges is to have a vehicle with aggressive drivability and at the same time with acceptable noise and vibration levels. This paper focuses on the compact utility vehicle where the howling noise is occurring at higher rpm of the engine. The vehicle is powered by three cylinder turbocharged diesel engine. The noise levels were higher above 2500 rpm due to the presence of structural resonance. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and Transfer path analysis (TPA) analysis was done on entire vehicle and powertrain to find out the major reason for howling noise at higher engine rpm. It is observed that the major contribution for noise at higher rpm is due to modal coupling between powertrain, half shaft and vehicle sub frame.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1944
Asif Basha Shaik Mohammad, Ravindran Vijayakumar, Nageshwara Rao Panduranga
Abstract The vibration and acoustic behaviour of the internal combustion engine is a highly complex one, consisting of many components that are subject to loads that vary greatly in magnitude and which operate at a wide range of speeds. The interaction of these components and the excitation of resonant modes of vibration is a major problem for the powertrain engineer when optimising the noise and vibration characteristics of the engine. This paper summarises a study that has been undertaken to assess and optimise the dynamic behaviour of a current production diesel engine with the objective of reducing radiated noise from the engine. The dynamic behaviour of the diesel engine has been assessed using simulation tools. The dynamic analysis will predict the forces and displacements at each of the nodes of the model by forced response analysis. Predicted results and experimentally measured values were found to be in close agreement.
2017-06-17
Journal Article
2017-01-9550
David Neihguk, M. L. Munjal, Arvind Ram, Abhinav Prasad
Abstract A production muffler of a 2.2 liter compression ignition engine is analyzed using plane wave (Transfer Matrix) method. The objective is to show the usefulness of plane wave models to analyze the acoustic performance (Transmission Loss, TL) of a compact hybrid muffler (made up of reactive and dissipative elements). The muffler consists of three chambers, two of which are acoustically short in the axial direction. The chambers are separated by an impervious baffle on the upstream side and a perforated plate on the downstream side. The first chamber is a Concentric Tube Resonator (CTR). The second chamber consists of an extended inlet and a flow reversal 180-degree curved outlet duct. The acoustic cavity in the third chamber is coupled with the second chamber through the acoustic impedances of the end plate and the perforated plate.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1869
Glenn Pietila, Gang Yin, Branton Dennis IV
Abstract During the development of an automotive acoustic package, valuable information can be gained by visualizing the acoustic energy flow through the Front-of-Dash (FOD) when a sound source is placed in the engine compartment. Two of the commonly used methods for generating the visual map of the acoustic field include Sound Intensity measurements and array technologies. An alternative method is to use a tracked 3-dimensional acoustic probe to scan and visualize the FOD in real-time when the sound source is injecting noise into the engine compartment. The scan is used to focus the development of the FOD acoustic package on the weakest areas by identifying acoustic leaks and locations with low Transmission Loss. This paper provides a brief discussion of the capabilities of the tracked 3-D acoustic probe, and presents examples of the implementation of the probe during the development of the FOD acoustic package for two mid-sized sedans.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1870
Saeed Siavoshani, Prasad Balkrishna Vesikar, Daniel Pentis, Rajani Ippili
Abstract The objective of this paper is to develop a robust methodology to study internal combustion (IC) engine block vibrations and to quantify the contribution of combustion pressure loads and inertial loads (mechanical loads) in overall vibration levels. An established technique for noise separation that, until recently, has not been applied to engine noise is Wiener filtering. In this paper, the harmonic part of the overall vibration response of the IC engine block is removed, resulting in a residual broadband response which is uncorrelated to the source signal. This residue of the response signal and the similarly calculated residue of the combustion pressure represent the dynamic portion of their respective raw signals for that specific operating condition (engine speed and load). The dynamic portion of the combustion pressure is assumed to be correlated only to the combustion event.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1872
Masao Nagamatsu
Abstract The almost current sound localization methods do not have enough resolution in low frequency sound localization. To overcome this disadvantage, I am now developing the new sound localization method, Double Nearfield Acoustic Holography (DNAH) method. This method is a converted method of conventional Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) method. In this proposing method, the resolution of low frequency sound localization is improved by using sound propagation information on doubled measurement planes. To prove the performance of proposing method, the basic experiments with variable conditions are conducted. In these experiments, the small speakers are used as sound sources. In this paper, to discuss the ability to apply to actual industry, the effect of measurement distance from the sound source is explained. Some experimental results with changing measurement distance are shown in this paper.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1875
Martino Pigozzi, Flavio Faccioli, Carlo Ubertino, Davide Allegro, Daniel Zeni
Abstract Within recent years, passenger comfort has become a main focus of the automotive industry. The topic is directly connected with acoustics, since sounds and noises have a major impact on the well-being of vehicle occupants. So-called “noise control” focuses on directly optimizing acoustic comfort by implementing innovative materials or geometries for automotive components and systems. One possibility to optimize the acoustics within a vehicle is connected to the phenomenon of sloshing in Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) tanks. Sloshing is a noise which is generated during normal driving situations by the motion of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) in the tank. Until now, no procedure for measuring sloshing noise in SCR tanks has been defined, and neither a specific acoustic target which the SCR tanks need to fulfil.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1874
Tongyang Shi, Yangfan Liu, J Stuart Bolton, Frank Eberhardt, Warner Frazer
Abstract Wideband Acoustical Holography (WBH), which is a monopole-based, equivalent source procedure (J. Hald, “Wideband Acoustical Holography,” INTER-NOISE 2014), has proven to offer accurate noise source visualization results in experiments with a simple noise source: e.g., a loudspeaker (T. Shi, Y. Liu, J.S. Bolton, “The Use of Wideband Holography for Noise Source Visualization”, NOISE-CON 2016). From a previous study, it was found that the advantage of this procedure is the ability to optimize the solution in the case of an under-determined system: i.e., when the number of measurements is much smaller than the number of parameters that must be estimated in the model. In the present work, a diesel engine noise source was measured by using one set of measurements from a thirty-five channel combo-array placed in front of the engine.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1876
Weiyun Liu, David W. Herrin, Emanuele Bianchini
Abstract Microperforated panel absorbers are best considered as the combination of the perforate and the backing cavity. They are sometimes likened to Helmholtz resonators. This analogy is true in the sense that they are most effective at the resonant frequencies of the panel-cavity combination when the particle velocity is high in the perforations. However, unlike traditional Helmholtz resonators, microperforated absorbers are broader band and the attenuation mechanism is dissipative rather than reactive. It is well known that the cavity depth governs the frequency bands of high absorption. The work presented here focuses on the development, modeling and testing of novel configurations of backing constructions and materials. These configurations are aimed at both dialing in the absorption properties at specific frequencies of interest and creating broadband sound absorbers. In this work, several backing cavity strategies are considered and evaluated.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1877
Justin Gimbal, Joy Gallagher, John Reffner
Abstract Damping materials are applied to the vehicle body during production to provide passenger comfort by reducing noise and structural vibration through energy dissipation. Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) Engineers identify critical areas of the vehicle body for material placement. Damping materials, which include liquid applied dampers, are typically applied directly on the structure, covering large areas. These film forming materials can be spray applied using automation and, after baking, result in a cured viscoelastic damping layer on the target substrate. Typical liquid applied dampers contain an aqueous dispersion of film forming polymer which functions to bind inorganic materials together in the coating and provide a composite structure that dissipates energy. Representative damping coatings were prepared from dispersions of polymers with varying viscoelastic properties and chemical compositions.
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