This SAE Recommended Practice describes a laboratory test procedure for measuring the acoustical performance of a system consisting of a body cavity filler material formed into a rectangular cross-section channel. Materials for this test may include both heat reactive and chemically reactive products, with or without a shelf to simulate a baffle in an application, or a combination of body cavity filler and aluminum foil to enhance the performance. These materials are commonly installed in transportation systems such as ground vehicles, and thus reduce the noise propagation through the rails, rockers, and pillar/posts. This document is intended to rank order the acoustical performance of materials for application on channels using general automotive steel, such that the effects of sealing of pinch welds in addition to the material could be easily evaluated.
This ARP covers the basic criteria for the design of cabin pressure control systems (CPCS) for general aviation, commercial and military pressurized aircraft.
This SAE Recommended Practice describes a laboratory test procedure for measuring the thickness of various resilient insulating padding materials that are used in the automotive industry. Such padding materials may include synthetic or non-synthetic materials, fibrous or cellular materials, high loft or compressed materials, single layer homogeneous or multilayer products, low and high surface density products. Some of these samples may be deformable and elastic, high loft thermal and acoustical fibrous materials, as well. The test method described herein has been developed to establish a means of a uniform procedure for measuring the thickness of different types of samples not only for application to all ground vehicles, but also may be applicable to other situations or conditions. The test method is designed to measure the thickness of flat samples and not formed parts. This test method does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use.
This report provides data and general analysis methods for calculation of internal and external, pressurized and unpressurized airplane compartment pressures during rapid discharge of cabin pressure. References to the applicable current FAA and EASA rules and advisory material are provided. While rules and interpretations can be expected to evolve, numerous airplanes have been approved under current and past rules that will have a continuing need for analysis of production and field modifications, alterations and repairs. The data and basic principles provided by this report are adaptable to any compartment decompression analysis requirement.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) has been written for individuals associated with the ground level testing of large turbofan and turbojet engines, and particularly those who are interested in infrasound phenomena.
This standard specifies an engineering method for measuring acoustic power per unit area at points near the tire/pavement interface. The measurement quantifies the acoustic radiated sound intensity from the tire/pavement interface. This standard may be used to measure the sound intensity of varying tires and/or surfaces, over various operating conditions of the tire, or changes in surface characteristics.
This document defines various vehicular noises and vibrations that are attributed to being created by the foundation brake components of the vehicle, particularly on passenger cars and light trucks. These definitions cover both disc and drum brakes. The frequency ranges from near zero Hz (tactile sensations) all the way up to 17 kHz, or the upper limit of normal hearing. These noises and vibrations may either directly radiate off the brake system or provide the excitation energy that causes other vehicle components to react.
This recommended practice covers the attachment of bonded anti-noise brake pad shims only. Mechanically attached shims (those without bonding) are not covered by this procedure.
This SAE Standard establishes the procedure for determining the operator duty cycle sound pressure level Lodc to which operators of powered recreational craft up to 24 m in length are exposed during typical operation as determined by marine engine duty cycle studies. This document describes the instrumentation, the required calibration procedures, the test site, the specifications for “standard craft”, the craft operating conditions, microphone positioning, test procedure, engine speeds for each of the Duty Cycle modes and the formula and table for calculating the Duty Cycle operator ear sound pressure level. This document is subject to change to keep pace with technical advances as well as other international standards and practices. Changes in this Revision: The sound pressure level measurements performed while applying this document are based on the Five-Mode Marine Engine Duty Cycle instead of a single engine speed.
This AIR describes procedures for calculating emissions resulting from the main engines of commercial jet and turboprop aircraft through all modes of operation for all segments of a flight. Piston engine aircraft emissions are not included in this AIR. Some information about piston engine aircraft emissions can be found in FOCA 2007. The principal purpose of the procedures is to assist model developers in calculating aircraft emissions in a consistent and accurate manner that can be used to address various environmental assessments including those related to policy decisions and regulatory requirements.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes test procedures, test conditions, environment, and instrumentation for determining the exhaust sound pressure levels of stationary motorcycles. These are based on a comprehensive study of a wide variety of on-highway motorcycles, and therefore are intended to be applied to on-highway motorcycles. For off-highway motorcycles, SAE J1287 continues to be the recommended practice.
Laboratory Testing of Vehicle and Industrial Heat Exchangers for Durability Under Vibration-Induced Loading
This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to all liquid-to-gas, liquid-to-liquid, gas-to-gas, and gas-to-liquid heat exchangers used in vehicle and industrial cooling systems. This document outlines the test to determine durability characteristics of the heat exchanger from vibration-induced loading.
This document addresses robustness of electrical/electronic modules for use in automotive applications. Where practical, methods of extrinsic reliability detection and prevention will also be addressed. This document primarily deals with electrical/electronic modules (EEMs), but can easily be adapted for use on mechatronics, sensors, actuators and switches. EEM qualification is the main scope of this document. Other procedures addressing random failures are specifically addressed in the CPI (Component Process Interaction) section 10. This document is to be used within the context of the Zero Defect concept for component manufacturing and product use. It is recommended that the robustness of semiconductor devices and other components used in the EEM be assured using SAE J1879 OCT2007, Handbook for Robustness Validation of Semiconductor Devices in Automotive Applications.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the test procedure, environment and instrumentation for determining the sound levels of snowmobiles in the stationary test mode. This test method is intended to provide an accurate measurement of exhaust and other engine noise and may be used to evaluate new and in-use snowmobiles to determine compliance with noise control regulations. Sound level measurements obtained with this test method are not intended as an engineering determination of overall machine noise. For this purpose, the use of SAE J192 is recommended.
This SAE Standard describes the instrumentation and procedures to be used in measuring sound levels at the operator station for self-propelled sweepers as defined in SAE J2130 and self-propelled off-road work machines in categories 1, 2, 4, and 5, of SAE J1116. This SAE document is applicable to machines that have operator stations where the operator can either stand or sit and will be either transported by, or walk with the machine during its operation. The sound levels obtained using this procedure are repeatable and representative of the higher range of sound levels generated by machines under actual field operating conditions. Due to variability of field operating conditions, this data is not intended to be used for operator noise exposure evaluations. Measurement and calculation of the operator's sound exposure should follow SAE J1116.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the test procedure, environment, and instrumentation to be used for measuring the exterior exhaust sound level for passenger cars, multipurpose vehicles, and light trucks under stationary conditions providing a continuous measure of exhaust system sound level over a range of engine speeds. This document applies only to road vehicles equipped with an internal combustion engine. The method is designed to meet the requirements of simplicity as far as they are consistent with reproducibility of results under the operating conditions of the vehicle.
This SAE Standard is used to determine the exterior A-weighted equivalent sound power level of static and in-place dynamic machines (dozer, loader, excavator, and backhoe) similar to the sound power obtained in ISO 6393 static and ISO 6395 dynamic sound power test procedures. Additional machine types, specifically sweepers and scrubbers, covered by SAE J2130 have been added, and other work machine types covered by SAE J1116 may be added with appropriate cycle descriptions and machine preparation. The recommended test procedures include conventional integrating sound pressure level methods or the sound intensity method using paired microphones. The sound intensity methodology provides a practical indoor alternative and permits measurement in the factory environment. The procedures in this document assume that the dominant sources are not highly sensitive to load (i.e., cooling fan, engine, track system).
This SAE Standard is equivalent to ISO 362-1:2007 and specifies an engineering method for measuring the noise emitted by road vehicles under typical urban traffic conditions. The specifications are intended to reproduce the level of noise which is generated by the principal noise sources during normal driving in urban traffic. The method is designed to meet the requirements of simplicity as far as they are consistent with reproducibility of results under the operating conditions of the vehicle. The test method requires an acoustical environment which is only obtained in an extensive open space. Such conditions are usually provided for during: measurements of vehicles for regulatory certification measurements at the manufacturing stage measurements at official testing stations The results obtained by this method give an objective measure of the noise emitted under the specified conditions of test.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) protection considerations for environmental control system (ECS) design. It is intended to familiarize the ECS designer with the subject in order to know what information will be required to do an ECS design where NBC protection is a requirement. This is not intended to be a thorough discussion of NBC protection. Such a document would be large and would be classified. Topics of NBC protection that are more pertinent to the ECS designer are discussed in more detail. Those of peripheral interest, but of which the ECS designer should be aware are briefly discussed. Only radiological aspects of nuclear blast are discussed. The term CBR (Chemical, Biological, and Radiological) has been used to contrast with NBC to indicate that only the radiological aspects of a nuclear blast are being discussed.
This SAE Standard establishes the test procedure, environment, and instrumentation for determining the exhaust sound pressure levels of motorcycles under stationary conditions. Care must be taken not to confuse stationary sound pressure levels with total motorcycle sound pressure levels. This test does not evaluate total motorcycle sound during operation. For this purpose, SAE J331 or SAE J47 is recommended. Any allowable sound limits (dBA) set in relation to SAE J1287 for exhaust sound pressure level should not conflict with the allowable sound limits (dBA) for total sound pressure level per the EPA requirements specified in the US Code of Federal Regulations, 40 Part 205.
Recommendations presented in this document are intended primarily for the acquisition of far-field noise data. The test engine is to be appropriately configured and operated so that the sound pressure levels obtained are consistent with the specific objectives of the test. The principal output of the data reduction system is one-third octave band sound pressure levels. However, when appropriate, data may be recorded for purposes of broader or narrower bandwidth analysis.
The prediction of vehicle temperatures during ascent through the earth’s atmosphere requires an accurate knowledge of the aerodynamic heating rates occurring at the vehicle surface. Flight parameters required in heating calculations include the local airstream velocity, pressure, and temperature at the boundary layer edge for the vehicle location in question. In addition, thermodynamic and transport air properties are required at these conditions. Both laminar and turbulent boundary layers occur during the boost trajectory. Experience has shown that laminar and turbulent heating are of equivalent importance. Laminar heating predominates in importance in the stagnation areas, but the large afterbody surfaces are most strongly affected by turbulent heating. Once the local flow conditions and corresponding air properties have been obtained, the convective heating rate may be calculated for a particular wall temperature.
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS ) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174.
This procedure is applicable to squeal type noise occurrences for passenger car and light truck type vehicles that are used under conventional operating conditions. For the purposes of this test procedure, squeal is defined as occurring between 900 and 18 000 Hz.
This SAE Standard sets forth the procedures to be used in measuring sound levels and determining the time weighted sound level at the operator's station(s) of specified off-road self-propelled work machines. This document applies to the following work machines which have operator stations as specified in SAE J1116: Crawler Loader Wheel Loader Dumper Tractor Scraper Grader Crawler Tractor with Dozer Wheel Tractor with Dozer Pad Foot Wheel Compactor with Dozer Backhoe Hydraulic Excavator Log Skidder Excavator and Wheel Feller-Buncher Pipelayer Roller/Compactor Trencher Sweeper The instrumentation requirements and specific work cycles for these machines are described. The method used to calculate the time weighted average sound level at the operator station(s) is specified for Leq(5), or optional exchange rates, during continuous operation in a work cycle. A method to relate the time weighted average sound level at the operator station(s) to operator sound exposure is also provided.
The vehicle dynamics terminology presented herein pertains to passenger cars and light trucks with two axles and to those vehicles pulling single-axle trailers. The terminology presents symbols and definitions covering the following subjects: axis systems, vehicle bodies, suspension and steering systems, brakes, tires and wheels, operating states and modes, control and disturbance inputs, vehicle responses, and vehicle characterizing descriptors. The scope does not include terms relating to the human perception of vehicle response.
This SAE Standard establishes the minimum operational life, environmental requirements, and sound level output for electrically driven Vehicular Traffic Sound Signalling Devices (hereinafter referred to as Horns) on new automotive vehicles. Test equipment, environment, and procedures are specified.
This SAE Standard defines a method for the measurement of the whole body vibration to which the seated operator of off-highway self-propelled work machines is exposed while performing an actual or simulated operation. It applies to vibration transmitted to the operator through the seat. There are not equivalent ISO Standards. In the main body of this document, conditions are defined for measuring and recording whole body vibration of the seated operator of off-highway self-propelled work machines. The specification of instruments, analytic methods, and description of site and operating conditions allows the measurements to be made and reported with an acceptable precision. The procedure includes means of weighing the vibration level at different frequencies as specified in ISO2631. A standard format for reporting spectral data is recommended. The definitions, instruments, and analytic methods also apply to simulated tests for operator vibration as performed in laboratories.
This Recommended Practice defines classes of tractors having similar characteristics which affect the vibration transmitted to the operator through the operator seat. This recommended practice establishes input data parameters for conducting operator seat vibration tests for various classifications for agricultural wheeled tractors. The classification is intended to aid in the selection of a seat for a specific tractor model and to reduce the amount of testing necessary to determine compliance with applicable standards and/or recommendations. Classification is based on basic configuration and total mass. Instrumentation and measurement procedures are specified in SAE J1013 JAN80. Test procedures are defined in SAE J1384. This document is in compliance with DIS 5007 adopted by ISO/TC23/SC3 October 1984 in Madrid, Spain.
This SAE Standard describes a procedure for the evaluation of operator seats which may be fitted to agricultural wheeled tractors per SAE J1150 and/or earthmoving machines per SAE J1057. This procedure evaluates only the vertical vibration performance and should not be considered a comprehensive seat evaluation procedure.