This SAE Recommended Practice describes the equipment and procedure for determining the truck cab interior sound level over the upper half of the engine speed range. This practice applies to motor trucks and truck-tractors and does not include construction and industrial machinery.
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to various insulation materials used in vehicles for control of heat and noise and other applications.
Information in this report is applicable to design and development of aircraft jet blast windshield rain removal systems.
This information report presents data and recommendations pertaining to the design and development of transparent area washing systems for aircraft.
These recommendations are written to cover the subject of engine exhaust gas to air type heat exchangers under the following classifications:
This Aerospace Recommended Practice outlines the design, installation, testing and field maintenance criteria for aerospace vehicle cryogenic duct systems. These recommendations are considered currently applicable guides and are subject to revision due to the continuing development within industry.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the test procedure, environment, and instrumentation for determining the maximum sound level potential for motorcycles under wide open throttle acceleration and closed throttle deceleration.
This AS covers ULD utilized in finding flight data recorders, cockpit voice recorders or aircraft. Such ULDs are installed adjacent to the recorders in a manner that they are unlikely to become separated during crash conditions.
In the design of spacecraft, heat transfer becomes a criterion of operation to maintain structural and equipment integrity over long periods of time. The spacecraft thermal balance between cold space and solar, planetary, and equipment heat sources is the means by which the desired range of equipment and structural temperatures are obtained. With the total spacecraft balance set, subsystem and component temperatures can be analyzed for their corresponding thermal requirements. This section provides the means by which first-cut approximations of spacecraft surface, structure, and equipment temperatures may be made, using the curves of planetary and solar heat flux in conjunction with the desired coating radiative properties. Once the coating properties have been determined, the material to provide these requirements may be selected from the extensive thermal radiative properties tables and curves.
The prediction of vehicle temperatures during ascent through the earth’s atmosphere requires an accurate knowledge of the aerodynamic heating rates occurring at the vehicle surface. Flight parameters required in heating calculations include the local airstream velocity, pressure, and temperature at the boundary layer edge for the vehicle location in question. In addition, thermodynamic and transport air properties are required at these conditions. Both laminar and turbulent boundary layers occur during the boost trajectory. Experience has shown that laminar and turbulent heating are of equivalent importance. Laminar heating predominates in importance in the stagnation areas, but the large afterbody surfaces are most strongly affected by turbulent heating. Once the local flow conditions and corresponding air properties have been obtained, the convective heating rate may be calculated for a particular wall temperature.
Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from one point to another. Heat is transferred only under the influence of a temperature gradient or temperature difference. The direction of heat transfer is always from the point at the higher temperature to the point at the lower temperature, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the net transfer of energy within a fluid or solid occurring by the collisions of molecules, atoms, or electrons. Convection is the transfer of energy resulting from fluid motion. Convection involves the processes of conduction, fluid motion, and mass transfer. Radiation is the transfer of energy from one point to another in the absence of a transporting medium. In practical applications several modes of heat transfer occur simultaneously.
This section relates the engineering fundamentals and thermophysical property material of the previous sections to the airborne equipment for which thermodynamic considerations apply. For each generic classification of equipment, information is presented for the types of equipment included in these categories, and the thermodynamic design considerations with respect to performance, sizing, and selection of this equipment.
The pressurization system design considerations presented in this AIR deal with human physiological requirements, characteristics of pressurization air sources, methods of controlling cabin pressure, cabin leakage control, leakage calculation methods, and methods of emergency cabin pressure release.
This AIR is arranged in the following four sections: 2A - Properties of the Natural Environment 2B - Properties of Gases 2C - Properties of Liquids 2D - Properties of Solids A summary of each section is given below.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the procedure for measuring the maximum exterior sound level of recreational motorboats while being operated under a variety of operating conditions. It is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies minimum performance standards for all types of Electronic Displays and Electronic Display Systems that are intended for use in the flight deck by the flightcrew in all 14 CFR Part 23, 25, 27, and 29 aircraft. The requirements and recommendations in this document are intended to apply to all installed electronic displays and electronic display systems within the flight deck, regardless of intended function, criticality, or location within the flight deck, but may also be used for non-installed electronic displays. This document provides baseline requirements and recommendations (see section 2.3 for definitions of “shall” and “should”). This document primarily addresses hardware requirements, such as electrical, mechanical, optical, and environmental. It does not address system specific functions.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes minimum performance standards for new equipment anticollision light systems. This Aerospace Standard defines minimum light intensity in terms of "effective intensity" as defined in paragraph 3.5 of this standard and specified vertical and horizontal directions about the longitudinal and vertical axis of the airplane. It will also define flash rate and color for the anticollision light system. It is not intended that this standard require the use of any particular light source such as Xenon, LED or any other specific design of lamp.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides procedures, and information to conduct vibration (impact) tests on lighting devices and their components as well as other safety equipment used on vehicles.
The Engineering Analysis System (EASY) computer program is summarized in this report. It provides techniques for analysis of steady-state and dynamic (transient) environmental control system (ECS) performance, control system stability, and for synthesis of optimal ECS. General uses of a transient analysis computer program for ECS design and development, and general features of EASY relative to these uses, are presented. This report summarizes the nine analysis options of EASY, EASY program organization for analyzing ECS, data input to the program and resulting data output, and a discussion of EASY limitations. A generalized computer program for determining transient thermodynamic performance of aircraft ECS, and methods for dynamic analysis of aircraft ECS are discussed in this report.
There are two ways to assess the characteristics of ride vibrations of a vehicle during its operation. Subjective evaluation and objective measurement. Subjective assessments of the ride vibrations experienced by drivers during ride evaluations are generally performed by a panel of drivers and/or passengers who are instructed to operate or ride a group of vehicles in a predetermined manner in order to subjectively assess the levels and characteristics of ride vibrations. Figures 6A through 6C show examples of subjective evaluation forms presently in use. The disadvantages of the subjective method include need for careful experimental design, need for statistically unbiased samples, complexity of human perceptions of vibrations, and difficulty in comparing qualitative data of vehicles evaluated at different times and/or by different groups of people. Often ride characterization is not an easy task using only qualitative or descriptive terms.
This specification covers the general requirements for cabin air safety valves for use in pressurized cabins of aircraft to prevent excess positive and negative pressures in the cabin and to provide a means of cabin pressure release in case of emergency.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the procedure for determining if recreational motorboats have effective exhaust muffling means when operating in the stationary mode. It is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
This standard should provide accurate fuel consumption prediction methods throughout the flight regime. The standard should apply to any fixed-wing, turbofan or turbojet-powered airplane.
New methods are available to assist in evaluating the risk of impulse noise-induced hearing loss from inflatable devices, for example, airbags and seat belt pretensioners. This document presents some background on impulse noise measurement techniques and assessment criteria. Related information relative to test details, for example, preamplifier specifications and filtering methods and criteria, will be discussed in a future recommended practice.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the instrumentation, test site, and test procedure for determining the maximum exterior sound level for snowmobiles. Sound propagation is directly related to the ground cover and provides the largest variation to the measured result. A correction factor is introduced to improve year round test repeatability of the results on grass surfaces by correcting their spectra to be similar to snow covered ground spectrums. Measured sound pressure levels are also highly dependent on the degree of track slip present when performing the vehicle acceleration. Operators should attempt to limit track slip as much as possible while maintaining the requirements described in 5.1.1.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the procedure for measuring the sound level of recreational motorboats in the vicinity of a shore bordering any recreational boating area during which time a boat is operating under conditions other than stationary mode operation. It is intended as a guide toward standard practice and is subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
Recommended Environmental Practices for Electronic Equipment Design in Heavy-Duty Vehicle Applications
The scope of this recommended practice encompasses the range of environments which influence the performance and reliability of the electronic equipment designed for heavy duty on and off road vehicles, as well as any appropriate stationary applications which also use these vehicle derived components. A few examples of such vehicles are on and off highway trucks, trailers, buses, construction equipment and agricultural equipment including implements.
The requirements of this document apply to all classes of motorcycles as defined in SAE J213.
This SAE Recommended Practice presents a test procedure for determining the airborne sound insulation performance of materials and composite layers of materials commonly found in mobility, industrial and commercial products under conditions of representative size and sound incidence so as to allow better correlation with in-use sound insulator performance. The frequency range of interest is typically 125 to 8000 Hz 1/3 octave band center frequencies. This test method is designed for testing flat samples, although in some applications the methodology can be extended to evaluate formed parts, pass-throughs, or other assemblies to determine their acoustical properties. For non-flat parts or assemblies where transmitted sound varies strongly across the test sample surface, a more appropriate methodology would be ASTM E90 (with a reverberant receiving chamber) or ASTM E 2249 (intensity method with an anechoic or hemi-anechoic receiving chamber).
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) outlines the causes and impacts of moisture and/or condensation in avionics equipment and provides recommendations for corrective and preventative action.