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Viewing 151 to 180 of 7819
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1816
Mahsa Asgarisabet, Andrew Barnard
Abstract Carbon Nanotube (CNT) thin film speakers produce sound with the thermoacoustic effect. Alternating current passes through the low heat capacity CNT thin film changing the surface temperature rapidly. CNT thin film does not vibrate; instead it heats and cools the air adjacent to the film, creating sound pressure waves. These speakers are inexpensive, transparent, stretchable, flexible, magnet-free, and lightweight. Because of their novelty, developing a model and better understanding the performance of CNT speakers is useful in technology development in applications that require ultra-lightweight sub-systems. The automotive industry is a prime example of where these speakers can be enabling technology for innovative new component design. Developing a multi-physics (Electrical-Thermal-Acoustical) FEA model, for planar CNT speakers is studied in this paper. The temperature variation on the CNT thin film is obtained by applying alternating electrical current to the CNT film.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1755
Frank C. Valeri, James T. Lagodzinski, Scott M. Reilly, John P. Miller
Abstract Hybrid powertrain vehicles inherently create discontinuous sounds during operation. The discontinuous noise created from the electrical motors during transition states are undesirable since they can create tones that do not correlate with the dynamics of the vehicle. The audible level of these motor whines and discontinuous tones can be reduced via common noise abatement techniques or reducing the amount of regeneration braking. One electronic solution which does not affect mass or fuel economy is Masking Sound Enhancement (MSE). MSE is an algorithm that uses the infotainment system to mask the naturally occurring discontinuous hybrid drive unit and driveline tones. MSE enables a variety of benefits, such as more aggressive regenerative braking strategies which yield higher levels of fuel economy and results in a more pleasing interior vehicle powertrain sound. This paper will discuss the techniques and signals used to implement MSE in a hybrid powertrain equipped vehicle.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1754
Kyoung-Jin Chang, Seonghyeon Kim, Dong Chul Park, So Youn Moon, Sunghwan Park, Myung Hwan Yun
Abstract This paper aims to establish a systematic process of developing a brand driving sound. Firstly, principal factors of a brand sound identity are extracted from factor analysis of many sample cars. As a result, brand sound positioning map is drawn using jury test data. Also, the multiple regression analysis of subjective and objective test results is carried. As a result, the principal factors are expressed by objective test data and brand sound positioning map can be easily updated from the measurement data. In addition, what should be improved for designing a target sound is reviewed. Secondly, various technologies of target sound design are discussed to involve the brand identity and vehicle’s character in driving sound. Also, an efficient tool to implement the target sound with an active sound design (ASD) system in a vehicle is introduced. This tool enables to efficiently design, tune and simulate a target sound for ASD system in a laboratory.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1778
Enrico Galvagno, Antonio Tota, Mauro Velardocchia, Alessandro Vigliani
Abstract This paper explores the potentiality of reducing noise and vibration of a vehicle transmission thanks to powertrain control integration with active braking. Due to external disturbances, coming from the driver, e.g. during tip-in / tip-out maneuvers, or from the road, e.g. crossing a speed bump or driving on a rough road, the torsional backlashes between transmission rotating components (gears, synchronizers, splines, CV joints), may lead to NVH issues known as clonk. This study initially focuses on the positive effect on transmission NVH performance of a concurrent application of a braking torque at the driving wheels and of an engine torque increase during these maneuvers; then a powertrain/brake integrated control strategy is proposed. The braking system is activated in advance with respect to the perturbation and it is deactivated immediately after to minimize losses.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1837
Paul R. Donavan, Carrie Janello
Abstract Acoustic beamforming was used to localize noise sources on heavy trucks operating on highways in California and North Carolina at a total of 20 sites. Over 1,200 trucks were measured under a variety of operating conditions, including cruise on level highways, on upgrades, down degrades, low speed acceleration, and for various speeds and pavements. The contours produced by the beamforming measurements were used to identify specific source contributions under these conditions and for a variety of heavy trucks. Consistently, the highest noise levels were seen at the tire-pavement interface, with lesser additional noise radiated from the engine compartment. Noise from elevated exhaust stacks was only documented for less than 5% of the trucks measured. The results were further reduced to produce vertical profiles of noise levels versus height above the roadway. The profiles were normalized to the highest noise level at ground level.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1856
Junji Yoshida, Koki Tanaka, Rie Nakamoto, Ken Fukasawa
Abstract In this study, we combined operational transfer path analysis (OTPA) method with CAE technique to obtain high contributing vibration modes. A rear frame model of a small construction machine was employed for the analysis. 20 vibration modes were obtained by CAE (eigenmode analysis) under 200 Hz. Subsequently, operational test, in which a sinusoidal input force was given, was carried out. For applying OTPA, acceleration signals at 15 points on the rear frame were used as the reference signals and the cab vibration positioned on the frame via rubber bushes was used as the response signal. These acceleration signals were then measured simultaneously in the operational condition. As the result of OTPA, high contributing principal component modes were calculated and high contributing vibration modes were also extracted using mode shape correlation between them. Two in the 20 calculated vibration modes remained as the important modes to the cab vibration through the analyses.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1870
Saeed Siavoshani, Prasad Balkrishna Vesikar, Daniel Pentis, Rajani Ippili
Abstract The objective of this paper is to develop a robust methodology to study internal combustion (IC) engine block vibrations and to quantify the contribution of combustion pressure loads and inertial loads (mechanical loads) in overall vibration levels. An established technique for noise separation that, until recently, has not been applied to engine noise is Wiener filtering. In this paper, the harmonic part of the overall vibration response of the IC engine block is removed, resulting in a residual broadband response which is uncorrelated to the source signal. This residue of the response signal and the similarly calculated residue of the combustion pressure represent the dynamic portion of their respective raw signals for that specific operating condition (engine speed and load). The dynamic portion of the combustion pressure is assumed to be correlated only to the combustion event.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1845
Jon Furlich, Jason Blough, Darrell Robinette
Abstract When a manual transmission (MT) powertrain is subjected to high speeds and high torques, the vehicle driveshaft, and other components experience an increase in stored potential energy. When the engine and driveshaft are decoupled during an up or down shift, the potential energy is released causing clunk during the shift event. The customer desires a smooth shift thus reduction of clunk will improve experience and satisfaction. In this study, a six-speed MT, rear-wheel-drive (RWD) passenger vehicle was used to experimentally capture acoustic and vibration data during the clunk event. To replicate the in-situ results, additional data was collected and analyzed for powertrain component roll and pitch. A lumped parameter model of key powertrain components was created to replicate the clunk event and correlate with test data. The lumped parameter model was used to modify clutch tip-out parameters, which resulted in reduced prop shaft oscillations.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1846
Fabio Bianciardi, Karl Janssens, Konstantinos Gryllias, Simone Delvecchio, Claudio Manna
Abstract The noise radiated by an ICE engine results from a mixture of various complex sources such as combustion, injection, piston slap, turbocharger, etc. Some of these have been categorized as combustion related noise and others as mechanical noise. Of great concern is the assessment of combustion noise which, under some operating conditions, is likely to predominate over the other sources of noise. The residual noise, produced by various other sources, is commonly referred to as mechanical noise. Being able to extract combustion and mechanical noise is of prime interest in the development phase of the engine and also for diagnostic purposes. This paper presents the application of combustion mechanical noise separation techniques on a V8 engine. Three techniques, namely the multi regression analysis, the classical Wiener filter and the cyclostationary (synchronous) Wiener filter, have been investigated.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1777
Thomas Wellmann, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Abstract The automotive industry continues to develop new technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. Powertrain and driveline related technologies will play a key role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Specifically, use of technologies such as downsized engines, idle start-stop systems, aggressive torque converter lock-up schedules, wide-ratio spread transmissions, and electrified propulsion systems are vital towards meeting aggressive fuel economy targets. Judicious combinations of such powertrain and driveline technology packages in conjunction with measures such as the use of low rolling resistance tires and vehicle lightweighting will be required to meet future OEM fleet CO2 targets. Many of the technologies needed for meeting the fuel economy and CO2 targets come with unique NVH challenges. In order to ensure customer acceptance of new vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges be understood and solved.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1776
Mohsen Kolivand, Glen Steyer, Clifford Krieger, Max-Ferdinand Stroh
Abstract Hypoid gears transmission error (TE) is a metric that is usually used to evaluate their NVH performance in component level. The test is usually done at nominal position as well as out of positions where the pinion and gear are moved along their own axis and also along offset direction to evaluate sensitivity of the measured TE to positional errors. Such practice is crucial in practical applications where the gear sets are inevitably exposed to off position conditions due to a) housing machining and building errors, b) deflections of housing, bearings, etc. under load and c) thermal expansions or contractions of housing due to ambient temperature variations. From initial design to development stage, efforts should be made to design the gear sets to be robust enough to all combinations of misalignments emanated from all three mentioned categories.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1892
Yosuke Tanabe, Masanori Watanabe, Takafumi Hara, Katsuhiro Hoshino, Akira Inoue, Masaru Yamasaki
Abstract Predicting the vibration of a motor gearbox assembly driven by a PWM inverter in the early stages of development is demanding because the assembly is one of the dominant noise sources of electric vehicles (EVs). In this paper, we propose a simulation model that can predict the transient vibration excited by gear meshing, reaction force from the mount, and electromagnetic forces including the carrier frequency component of the inverter up to 10 kHz. By utilizing the techniques of structural model reduction and state space modeling, the proposed model can predict the vibration of assembly in the operating condition with a system level EV simulator. A verification test was conducted to compare the simulation results with the running test results of the EV.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1786
Hiroshi Yokoyama, Ryo Adachi, Taiki Minato, Akiyoshi Iida
Abstract The objective of this paper is to clarify the mechanism for the reduction of cavity tone with blowing jets aligned in the spanwise direction in the upstream boundary layer. Also, the effects of spacing of the jets on the reduction are focused. To achieve these objectives, direct aeroacoustic simulations were conducted along with wind tunnel experiments. The depth-to-length ratio of cavity was D/L = 0.5. The incoming boundary layer was laminar, where the boundary layer thickness was δ/L = 0.055. The predicted flow fields without control show that two-dimensional large-scale vortices are shed and become acoustic sources in the cavity. The effects of spanwise spacing of spanwise-aligned jets on the cavity flow and tone were clarified with computations and experiments with the different pitches of s/L = 0.1 - 1.0 (s/δ = 1.8-18.2). As a result, the largest reduction level was obtained for s/L = 0.5.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1825
Takenori Miyamoto, Hiroshi Yokoyama, Akiyoshi Iida
Abstract Intense aeroacoustic feedback noises may radiate from flow around an airfoil, rearview mirror with small gaps and so on. Reductions of these noises are important issues in the development of industrial application. The intense noise from a bonnet of the automobile is one of the typical problems of acoustic feedback noise. In order to reduce this noise, plasma actuator (PA) was utilized to control flow and acoustic fields. The aim of this investigation is to clarify the effects of flow control by the PA on noise reduction and the noise reduction mechanism. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted with a half scale bonnet model and a low noise wind tunnel. Simultaneous measurements of flow and noise fields were conducted to understand the generation mechanism of the bonnet noise. Coherent output power (COP) of the velocity fluctuations with reference to far-field sound pressure was measured to visualize noise source distribution.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1756
Seonghyeon Kim, Kyoung-Jin Chang, Dong Chul Park, Seung Min Lee, Sang Kwon Lee
Abstract This paper presents a systematic approach to interior engine sound design for enhancing sound character of car interior sound effectively. Nowadays an active noise control technology is widely used in vehicle industry. Particularly, an active sound design (ASD) technique using vehicle’s audio system for controlling interior sound due to powertrain has become a general method to improve sound quality or character. The ASD system using speakers has the advantage of creating various sounds relatively easy. In this study, the novel systematic approach is proposed to guide the efficient design of powerful and pleasant acceleration sound by order spectrum analysis. At first, primary attributes of powerful and pleasant sound were analyzed and sound concept was derived. Secondly, the optimal linearity and the level envelope of firing order were derived by subjective evaluation.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1810
Shinichiro Kobayashi, Kenjiro Hakomoto, Kousuke Kawase, Makoto Kidokoro, Jouji Kimura
Abstract As the issue of global warming has become more serious, needs for downsizing or weight saving of an engine has been getting stronger, and forces exerted on engine parts, especially force on a crankshaft, have been getting larger and larger. In addition, since a crankshaft is a heavy engine part, needs for saving weight have been getting stronger and stronger. Therefore, determining the mechanism of high stress generation in a crankshaft system is urgently needed. This paper describes the characteristics and mechanism of a severe bending stress caused by the whirl of crankshaft rear end of an inline 6-cylinder medium-duty diesel engine. The authors measured bending stress on the fillets of the crankshaft, and found severe levels of sharp peaks in the stress curves for the crankshaft rear. To figure out why the severe levels of sharp peaks appear, they analyzed and studied the measured data.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1811
Jouji Kimura, Tatsuya Tanaka, Kenjiro Hakomoto, Kousuke Kawase, Shinichiro Kobayashi
Abstract Since the sizes of the flywheel and clutch have been enlarged due to downsizing of diesel engines, the mass and moment of inertia at the crankshaft rear end have increased. Consequently, the serious bending stresses have appeared in the crankshaft rear. This paper describes the characteristics of those serious bending stresses, based on the mechanism for whirl resonance. The whirl resonance is largely impacted by the mass of the flywheel and clutch and by the distance from the crank-journal center of the rear end to the center of gravity of the flywheel and clutch.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1797
Adrien Mann, Raj Nair, Jaspreet Singh Gill, Brett Birschbach, Patrick Crowley
Abstract Exhaust systems including mufflers are commonly mounted on engines to reduce the firing cycle noise originating from the combustion process. However, mufflers also produce flow-induced self-noise, originating from the complex flow path throughout the muffler. As an engine prototype is not available in the early stages of a development program, it is challenging to assess the acoustic performance of the full system when only experiment is available. It is also difficult to pinpoint the design features of a muffler generating noise, as a portion of the noise is generated internally. Numerical approaches are a possible alternative. However, capturing non-linear dissipation mechanisms and thermal fluctuations of exhaust flows is challenging, while necessary to accurately predict flow noise.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1796
Rick D. Dehner, Ahmet Selamet, Michael Steiger, Keith Miazgowicz, Ahsanul Karim
Abstract Ported shroud compressor covers recirculate low momentum air near the inducer blade tips, and the use of these devices has traditionally been confined to extending the low-flow operating region at elevated rotational speeds for compressors on compression-ignition (CI) engines. Implementation of ported shrouds on compressors for spark-ignition (SI) engines has been generally avoided due to operation at pressure ratios below the region where ported shrouds improve low-flow range, the slight efficiency penalty, and the perception of increased noise. The present study provides an experimental investigation of performance and acoustics for a SI engine turbocharger compressor both with a ported shroud and without (baseline). The objective of implementing the ported shroud was to reduce mid-flow range broadband whoosh noise of the baseline compressor over 4-12 kHz.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1758
Seung Min Lee, Dong Chul Park, Seonghyeon Kim, Sang Kwon Lee
Abstract Recently the interior sound is actively generated by the active sound design (ASD) device in a passenger car. Therefore, the objective evaluation method for the sound quality of actively designed sounds is required. In previous research, the sound quality of interior sound has been presented with powerful and pleasant for the existing passenger car. This paper presents a novel approach method for the objective evaluation of powerfulness and pleasantness of actively designed interior sound. The powerfulness has been evaluated based on the degreed of modulation and a quantity of low frequency booming of the sound in the paper. On the other hand, the pleasantness is evaluated based on the slope ratio of harmonic orders per octave in frequency domain. These evaluation methods are successfully applied to the objective evaluation of luxury passenger car.
2017-05-24
Technical Paper
2017-36-0003
Rafael Paini Pavlak, Patric Daniel Neis, Jean Carlos Poletto, Liu Yesukai de Barros, Ney Francisco Ferreira
Abstract The current study presents some testing procedures which have been designed for friction and noise measurements of brake friction materials using a laboratory-scale tribometer. The uncertainties (errors) and precision of the measurements are also described in this paper. Some case studies related to friction, wear and noise related issues in brake friction materials were chosen to show the respective testing procedures. Through the error study, it was shown that the uncertainties of the lab. test bench are mainly associated with 3 variables: torque, force and sliding radius. The combined uncertainty of the friction measurements is less than or equal to ±1%, considering the typical operating range of the machine. The possibility of using two samples from a single brake pad also contributes to the reliability of the machine test and procedures.
2017-05-24
Technical Paper
2017-36-0006
Claudio Jr. Ferreto, Ademir S. Carvalho, Robson D. A. Abreu, Pedro F. Marinho, Luiz R. Guimarães
Abstract Brake noise causes discomfort to passengers and a perception of reduced vehicle quality. Other types of vehicle noises have been significantly reduced and consequently brake noise and vibration are becoming more perceivable by owners, leading to high warranty costs. It is known in the Brake Industry that the natural frequencies of brake rotors may have a significant participation in disc brake squeal generation, and, a robust process control of this characteristic in the manufacturing gives an important contribution to reduce brake noise. However, recent studies have demonstrated a significant variation of natural frequencies due to manufacturing and this is the outcome of carbon equivalent content in gray cast iron. This paper is concerned with the understanding of this phenomenon and its influence on disc brake noise generation. For this research, it was manufactured two batches of this rotor from two different grades of carbon equivalent.
2017-05-24
Technical Paper
2017-36-0007
Luiz Roberto Guimarães, Robson Demétrius Araújo Abreu, Ademir Carvalho, Claudio Jr. Ferreto
Abstract The improvement of motor’s power requires consequently the improvement in brake system also. The kinetic energy of moving vehicles is transformed in a big part of heat, but there is a part that can be transformed in vibration and sound pressure. One of these vibration and sound pressure complain is known as howl noise. The howl noise complain is very intense and uncomfortable for passengers and pedestrians. Today, the customers spend a lot of money in his vehicles comfort and this disorder can’t occur. This paper presents a methodology which uses Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) and Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) to survey the dynamic behavior of suspension and brake systems at the howl noise occurrence condition.
2017-05-24
Technical Paper
2017-36-0015
Alexis Klauber Chaia Kléperon, Robson Demétrius Araújo Abreu, Rômulo Morais Bitencourt, Francis José Marochi Almeida
Abstract The vibroacoustic comfort sense inside vehicles is a topic of major concern in current automotive industry. Moreover, the increase in demand of users and the competition in the automotive sector lead automakers to invest in developing more comfortable vehicles. Thus, even noises in specific usage scenarios and short time is claimed. This paper raises the cause and proposes solutions to a noise from the brake system known as "Moan Noise". This noise happens under specific conditions of use, but is easily identified by the user. Moreover, it is a random phenomenon and difficult to characterize. Thus, this study shows a methodology to survey the phenomenon under study and validation of proposals for improvement through operational techniques and experimental modal analysis.
2017-05-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9678
G Agawane, Varun Jadon, Venkatesham Balide, R Banerjee
Abstract Liquid sloshing noise from an automotive fuel tank is becoming increasingly important during frequent accelerating/decelerating driving conditions. It is becoming more apparent due to significant decrease in other noise sources in a vehicle, particularly in hybrid vehicles. As a step toward understanding the dynamics of liquid sloshing and noise generation mechanism, an experimental study was performed in a partially filled rectangular tank. A systematic study was performed to understand the effects of critical parameters like fill level and acceleration/deceleration magnitude. Response parameters like dynamic pressure, dynamic force, dynamic acceleration and sound pressure levels along with high speed video images were recorded. The proposed experimental setup was able to demonstrate major events leading to sloshing noise generation. These events in the sloshing mechanism have been analysed from the dynamic sensor data and correlated with high speed video images.
2017-05-18
Journal Article
2017-01-9681
Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenova
Abstract Bearing and gear condition monitoring are important to improve a mechanical system reliability and performance. In the early stage of bearing failures, the Bearing Characteristic Frequencies (BCFs) contain very little energy and are often overwhelmed by noise and higher-level macro-structural vibrations, an effective signal processing method would be necessary to eliminate such corrupting noise and interference. Referring to the non-stationary characteristics of roller bearing fault vibration signals, a roller bearing condition monitoring method based on Envelope Process to raw time-domain vibration signal and Autocorrelation enhancement to the residual signal is put forward in this paper. The concept of Envelope and Autocorrelation techniques and its implementation for defect identification are discussed. Also, distinction of bearing fault signal as cyclostationary from periodic signal for gear fault.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9175
Yitao Zhu, Makarand Datar, Kalyan Addepalli, Natalie Remisoski
Nowadays, the vehicle design is highly ruled by the increasing customer demands and expectations. In addition to ride comfort and vehicle handling, the Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior of the powertrain is also a critical factor that has a big impact on the customer experience. To evaluate the powertrain NVH characteristics, the NVH error states should be studied. A typical NVH event could be decoupled into 3 parts: source, path, and receiver. Take-off shudder, which evaluates the NVH severity level during vehicle take-off, is one of the most important NVH error states. The main sources of Front Wheel Drive (FWD) take-off shudder are the plunging Constant Velocity Joints (CVJ) on the left and right half shafts. This is because a plunging CVJ generates a third order plunging force with half shaft Revolution Per Minute (RPM), which is along the slip of the plunging CVJ.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9625
Souhir Tounsi
Abstract In this paper, we present a design and control methodology of an innovated structure of switching synchronous motor. This control strategy is based on the pulse width modulation technique imposing currents sum of a continuous value and a value having a shape varying in phase opposition with respect to the variation of the inductances. This control technology can greatly reduce vibration of the entire system due to the strong fluctuation of the torque developed by the engine, generally characterizing switching synchronous motors. A systemic design and modelling program is developed. This program is validated following the implementation and the simulation of the control model in the simulation environment Matlab-Simulink. Simulation results are with good scientific level and encourage subsequently the industrialization of the global system.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9627
André Lundkvist, Roger Johnsson, Arne Nykänen, Jakob Stridfelt
Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if 3D auditory displays could be used to enhance parking assistance systems (PAS). Objective measurements and estimations of workload were used to assess the benefits of different 3D auditory displays. In today’s cars, PAS normally use a visual display together with simple sound signals to inform drivers of obstacles in close proximity. These systems rely heavily on the visual display, as the sound does not provide information about obstacles' location. This may cause the driver to lose focus on the surroundings and reduce situational awareness. Two user studies (during summer and winter) were conducted to compare three different systems. The baseline system corresponded to a system normally found in today’s cars. The other systems were designed with a 3D auditory display, conveying information of where obstacles were located through sound. A visual display was also available.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1741
Hyerin Choi, JunHo Song, Jae kwang Lee, Jaeyong Ko
Abstract Recently, it is one of the major problems in the automotive industry that grating is occurred form the place that more than two different materials combined. It is the most severe case that the noise generates between automobile seats and other relative parts (or within seat parts). The purpose of this research verifies and suggests the way to reduce squeak noise between two different parts through the stick-slip test which is regulated by VDA. The two materials - the seat trim cover and the plastic - were selected as major factors. We conducted the test with two different types of seat trim cover (authentic and artificial leather) and plastics (PP and ABS) with 4 levels of embossing size (0 to 3, level ‘0’ is non-embossing. Level 1 is the biggest embossing and it goes through smaller. Level 3 is the smallest embossing size). Test results were reported with 1 to 10 Risk Priority Number (RPN) which was proposed by VDA (Verband der Automotilindustrie).
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