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Viewing 121 to 150 of 7820
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1905
Kiran Patil, Javad Baqersad, Jennifer Bastiaan
Abstract Tires are one of the major sources of noise and vibration in vehicles. The vibration characteristic of a tire depends on its resonant frequencies and mode shapes. Hence, it is desirable to study how different parameters affect the characteristics of tires. In the current paper, experimental modal tests are performed on a tire in free-free and fixed conditions. To obtain the mode shapes and the natural frequencies, the tire is excited using a mechanical shaker and the response of the tire to the excitation is measured using three roving tri-axial accelerometers. The mode shapes and resonant frequencies of the tire are extracted using LMS PolyMax modal analysis. The obtained mode shapes in the two configurations are compared using Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) to show how mode shapes of tires change when the tire is moved from a free-free configuration to a fixed configuration. It is shown that some modes of the tire are more sensitive to boundary conditions.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1907
Yang Wang, Yong Xu, Xiao Tan
Abstract The vibration isolation performance of vehicle powertrain mounting system is mostly determined by the three-directional stiffness of each mount block. Because of the manufacturing tolerance and the coupling effect, the stiffness of mounts cannot be maintained stable. The purpose of this study was to find out the way to optimize the stiffness of mounts via the design of experiments (DOE). According to the DOE process, a full factorial design was implemented. The z-direction stiffness of three mount blocks in the mounting system was selected as the three analysis factors. The maximum and the minimum stiffness of each mount block within the manufacturing tolerance were selected as the two levels. The measured vibration of vehicle body under certain loading case was selected as the response factor. After eight times of experiment, the DOE parameters were analyzed with statistical methods.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1901
Christian Glandier, Stefanie Grollius
Abstract This paper presents the application to full vehicle finite element simulation of a steady state rolling tire/wheel/cavity finite element model developed in previous work and validated at the subsystem level. Its originality consists in presenting validation results not only for a wheel on a test bench, but for a full vehicle on the road. The excitation is based on measured road data. Two methods are considered: enforced displacement on the patch centerline and enforced displacement on a 2D patch mesh. Finally the importance of taking the rotation of the tire into account is highlighted. Numerical results and test track measurements are compared in the 20-300 Hz frequency range showing good agreement for wheel hub vibration as well as for acoustic pressure at the occupant’s ears.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1903
Masami Matsubara, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Tomohiko Ise, Shozo Kawamura
Abstract The tire is one of the most important parts, which influence the noise, vibration, and harshness of the passenger cars. It is well known that effect of rotation influences tire vibration characteristics, and earlier studies presented formulas of tire vibration behavior. However, there are no studies of tire vibration including lateral vibration on effect of rotation. In this paper, we present new formulas of tire vibration on effect of rotation using a three-dimensional flexible ring model. The model consists of the cylindrical ring represents the tread and the springs represent the sidewall stiffness. The equation of motion of lateral, longitudinal, and radial vibration on the tread are derived based on the assumption of inextensional deformation. Many of the associated numerical parameters are identified from experimental tests.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1895
Troy Bouman, Andrew Barnard, Joshua Alexander
Abstract Compared to moving coil loudspeakers, carbon nanotube (CNT) loudspeakers are extremely lightweight and are capable of creating sound over a broad frequency range (1 Hz to 100 kHz). The thermoacoustic effect that allows for this non-vibrating sound source is naturally inefficient and nonlinear. Signal processing techniques are one option that may help counteract these concerns. Previous studies have evaluated a hybrid efficiency metric, the ratio of the sound pressure level at a single point to the input electrical power. True efficiency is the ratio of output acoustic power to the input electrical power. True efficiency data are presented for two new drive signal processing techniques borrowed from the hearing aid industry. Spectral envelope decimation of an AC signal operates in the frequency domain (FCAC) and dynamic linear frequency compression of an AC signal operates in the time domain (TCAC). Each type of processing affects the true efficiency differently.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1891
Todd Freeman, Kelby Weilnau
Abstract Similar to the automotive industry, the expectations from customers for the noise and vibration performance of personal vehicles such as golf carts, ATV’s, and side-by-side vehicles has continued to evolve. Not only do customers expect these types of vehicles to be more refined and to have acoustic signatures that match the overall performance capabilities of the vehicle, but marketing efforts continue to focus on product differentiators which can include the acoustic and vibration performance. Due to this increased demand for acoustic and vibration performance, additional NVH efforts are often required to meet these expectations. This paper provides a sample of some of the efforts that have occurred to further refine and develop the noise and vibration signature for golf carts.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1899
Nathaniel Zylstra, Richard DeJong
Abstract A four element wind noise transducer has been designed with surface mounted electret microphones in an array pattern which allows for the separate determination of the acoustic and turbulent pressures in wind noise. Three closely spaced transducers, defining an x-y coordinate system, are positioned to determine the velocity and direction of the turbulent flow. A fourth transducer is positioned at a greater distance such that the correlation of the turbulent flow will be diminished while the correlation of the acoustic pressure remains due to its longer wavelength. By averaging the cross-spectral densities of the pressure signals over time, the two contributors to wind noise can be differentiated. In addition, a wireless interface has been designed to minimize the flow disturbance of the transducer array.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1893
Douglas Moore
Abstract This paper will examine the regulatory development process, discuss the technical principles of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), R51.03 test, and discuss the overall objectives of the ECE R51.03 noise emission regulation. The development of this global noise emission regulation was a multi-stakeholder process which has resulted in new test procedures and new noise emission regulation principles. New test procedures based on ISO 362-1:2015 move the test basis to representative in-use noise emission, independent of vehicle propulsion technology. As part of the regulatory development, a monitoring program was conducted by the European Union to assess the applicability of the proposed test to provide representative vehicle noise emission results. The monitoring results also provided the basis to determine equivalent stringency between the test procedures of ECE R51.02 and R51.03.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1804
Chulwoo Jung, Hyeon Seok Kim, Hyuckjin Oh, Kwang Hyeon Hwang, Hun Park
Abstract An efficient method to determine optimal bushing stiffness for improving noise and vibration of passenger cars is developed. In general, a passenger vehicle includes various bushings to connect body and chassis systems. These bushings control forces transferred between the systems. Noise and vibration of a vehicle are mainly caused by the forces from powertrain (engine and transmission) and road excitation. If bushings transfer less force to the body, levels of noise and vibration will be decreased. In order to manage the forces, bushing stiffness plays an important role. Therefore, it is required to properly design bushing stiffness when developing passenger vehicles. In the development process of a vehicle, bushing stiffness is decided in the early stage (before the test of an actual vehicle) and it is not validated until the test is performed.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1803
John Van Baren
Abstract The accumulated damage that a product experiences in the field due to the variety of vibration stresses placed upon it will eventually cause failures in the product. The failure modes resulting from these dynamic stresses can be replicated in the laboratory and correlated to end use environment to validate target reliability requirements. This presentation addresses three fundamental questions about developing accelerated random vibration stress tests.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1808
Francis Nardella
Abstract In a previous report, it was shown that power transmission through the camshaft reduced the first mode natural frequency of the power train and translated its convergence with dominant engine excitatory harmonics to a lower engine speed resulting in a marked reduction in torsional vibration while achieving 2/1 gear reduction for a 4-stroke 6-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine for aviation. This report describes a sweep though 2 and 4-stroke engines with differing numbers of cylinders configured as standard gear reduction (SGRE) and with power transmission through the camshaft (CDSE) or an equivalent dedicated internal driveshaft (DISE). Four and 6-cylinder 4-stroke engines were modeled as opposed boxer engines. Four and 6-cylinder 2-stroke engines and 8, 10 and 12-cylinder 2-stroke and 4-stroke engines were modeled as 180° V-engines. All 2-stroke engines were considered to be piston ported and configured as SGRE or DISE.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1799
Nagasuresh Inavolu, Jaganmohan Rao Medisetti, S. Nanda Kumar, J Lingeshkumar, Akshay Loya, Mvgprasad MV
Abstract Engine noise reduction is one of the highest priorities in vehicle development from the viewpoint of meeting stringent noise regulations. Engine noise reduction involves identification of noise sources and suppression of noise by changing the response of sources to input excitations. Noise can originate from several mechanical sources in engine. The present work focuses on systematic study of the behavior or response of engine structure and its ancillaries to engine excitation and thereby assess their contribution to overall engine noise. The approach includes engine noise and vibration measurement and component ranking using engine noise and vibration measurement in a non-anechoic environment, structural analysis of engine including experimental modal testing of engine and its components, etc. Correlation of the above obtained results is performed to identify the noise sources. Later, ranking of critical components was performed based on results of cladding exercise.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1806
Laurent Gagliardini
Abstract The input mobility is a crucial structural parameter regarding vibro-acoustic design of industrial objects. Whatever the frequency range, the vibrational power input into a structure -and consequently the average structural-acoustic response- is governed by the input mobility. When packaging structure-borne noise sources, the knowledge of the input mobility at the source connection points is mandatory for noise control. The input mobility is classically computed at the required points as a specific Frequency Response Function (FRF). During an industrial design process, the choice of connection points requires an a priori knowledge of the input mobility at every possible location of the studied structure-borne source, i.e. a mapping of the input mobility. The classical FRF computation at every Degree Of Freedom (DOF) of the considered structure would lead to consider millions of load cases which is beyond current computational limits.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1801
Sivasankaran Sadasivam, Aditya Palsule, Ekambaram Loganathan, Nagasuresh Inavolu, Jaganmohan Rao Medisetti
Abstract Powertrain is the major source of noise and vibration in commercial vehicles and has significant contribution on both interior and exterior noise levels. It is vital to reduce the radiated noise from powertrain to meet customer expectations of vehicle comfort and to abide by the legislative noise requirements. Sound intensity mapping technique can identify the critical components of noise radiation from the powertrain. Sound intensity mapping has revealed that oil sump as one of the major contributors for radiated noise from powertrain. Accounting the effect of dynamic coupling of oil on the sump is crucial in predicting its noise radiation performance. Through numerical methods, some amount of work done in predicting the dynamic characteristics of structures filled with fluid.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1800
Robert White
Abstract Several analytical tools exist for estimating a driveshaft’s critical speed, from simple elementary beam theory to sophisticated FEA models. Ultimately, nothing is better than a test, because no one will argue with the outcome from a well-designed measurement. Impact response measurements are easy, but they tend to over predict the critical speed. A test which sweeps the shaft speed up until failure is telling, but the speed causing failure is strongly dependent on even small amounts of variation in rotor unbalance. Waterfall plots of shaft displacement measurements offer the best indication of critical speed, however sometimes the resonance isn’t unmistakable or multiple resonances exist, making the critical speed unclear. A method less susceptible to system variation is offered here, fitting shaft orbit measurements to the theoretical single degree of freedom equation.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1820
Martin Sopouch, Josip Hozmec, Alessandro Cadario
Abstract This paper presents a simulation environment and methodology for noise and vibration analyses of a driven rear axle in a bus application, with particular focus on medium to high frequency range (400 Hz to 3 kHz). The workflow demonstrates structure borne noise and sound radiation analyses. The fully flexible Multi-Body Dynamics (MBD) model - serving to cover the actual mechanical excitation mechanisms and the structural domain - includes geometrical contacts of hypoid gear in the central gear and planetary gear integrated at hubs, considering non-linear meshing stiffness. Contribution of aforementioned gear stages, as well as the propeller shaft universal joint at the pinion axle, on overall axle noise levels is investigated by means of sensitivity analysis. Based on the surface velocities computed at the vibrating axle-housing structure the Wave Based Technique (WBT) is employed to solve the airborne noise problem and predict the radiated sound.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1818
Ramya Teja, T. R. Milind, Rodney C. Glover, Sunil Sonawane
Abstract Helical gears are commonly used instead of spur gears due to their potential higher load carrying capacity, efficiency and lower noise. Transmission Error (TE) is defined as deviation from perfect motion transfer by a gear pair. TE is dominant source of gear whine noise and hence gears pairs are generally analyzed and designed for low TE. In the process of designing helical gears for lower TE, the shuttling moment can become a significant excitation source. Shuttling moment is caused due to shifting of the centroid of tooth normal force back and forth across the lead. The amount of shuttling force or moment is produced by combination of design parameters, misalignment and manufacturing errors. Limited details are available on this excitation and its effect on overall noise radiated from gear box or transmission at its gear mesh frequency and harmonics.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1824
Reza Kashani, Karthik S. Jayakumar, Neville Bugli, Jeff Lapp
Abstract Passive, tuned acoustic absorbers, such as Helmholtz resonators (HR) and quarter-wave tubes, are commonly used solutions for abating the low-frequency tonal noise in air induction systems. Since absorption at multiple frequencies is required, multiple absorbers tuned to different frequencies are commonly used. Typically, the large size and multiple numbers of these devices under the hood is a packaging challenge. Also, the lack of acoustic damping narrows their effective bandwidth and creates undesirable side lobes. Active noise control could address all of the above-mentioned issues. Most active noise control systems use feedforward adaptive algorithms as their controllers. These complex algorithms need fast, powerful digital signal processors to run. To ensure the convergence of the adaptation algorithm, the rate of adaptation should be made slow.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1822
Kopal Agarwal, Sandip Hazra
Abstract In this study we will be discussing two issues related to vibrations which effect car owners. The first one, called lateral shake, can be described as a lateral vibration felt by customer in low speed of around 1200rpm, when vehicle shakes severely in Y-direction. The vibration is significantly felt at the thighs of passengers. A 16DOF rigid body model is established to simulate the power train & body system. The second vibration issue, called drive away shudder (also known as clutch judder/chatter/shudder) is a vibration felt by customers at the time of marching off. The vibration is significantly felt at the time of clutch engagement as a shiver in vehicle. While the common solution of shudder is to optimize clutch friction & engagement, in this study solution has been provided by optimizing the power train mounting system. Clutch shudder is observed on a medium sized car when driven in the range of 10-20 Km/h.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1812
Steven Sorenson, Gordon Ebbitt, Scott Smith, Todd Remtema
Abstract In an effort to reduce mass, future automotive bodies will feature lower gage steel or lighter weight materials such as aluminum. An unfortunate side effect of lighter weight bodies is a reduction in sound transmission loss (TL). For barrier based systems, as the total system mass (including the sheet metal, decoupler, and barrier) goes down the transmission loss is reduced. If the reduced surface density from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, however, performance can be restored (though, of course, this eliminates the mass savings). In fact, if all of the saved mass from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, the TL performance may be improved over the original system. This is because the optimum performance for a barrier based system is achieved when the sheet metal and the barrier have equal surface densities. That is not the case for standard steel constructions where the surface density of the sheet metal is higher than the barrier.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1816
Mahsa Asgarisabet, Andrew Barnard
Abstract Carbon Nanotube (CNT) thin film speakers produce sound with the thermoacoustic effect. Alternating current passes through the low heat capacity CNT thin film changing the surface temperature rapidly. CNT thin film does not vibrate; instead it heats and cools the air adjacent to the film, creating sound pressure waves. These speakers are inexpensive, transparent, stretchable, flexible, magnet-free, and lightweight. Because of their novelty, developing a model and better understanding the performance of CNT speakers is useful in technology development in applications that require ultra-lightweight sub-systems. The automotive industry is a prime example of where these speakers can be enabling technology for innovative new component design. Developing a multi-physics (Electrical-Thermal-Acoustical) FEA model, for planar CNT speakers is studied in this paper. The temperature variation on the CNT thin film is obtained by applying alternating electrical current to the CNT film.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1814
Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy, Vikram Bhatia, Shivani Polasani, W Keith Fisher
Abstract The automotive industry continues to develop technologies for reducing vehicle fuel consumption. Specifically, vehicle lightweighting is expected to be a key enabler for achieving fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Hybrid glass laminates that incorporate fusion draw and ion exchange innovations are thinner and thereby, offer more than 30% weight reduction compared to conventional automotive laminates. These lightweight hybrid laminates provide additional benefits, including improved toughness and superior optics. However, glazing weight reduction leads to an increase in transmission of sound through the laminates for certain frequencies. This paper documents a study that uses a systematic test-based approach to understand the sensitivity of interior vehicle noise behavior to changes in acoustic attenuation driven by installation of lightweight glass.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1836
Fangfang Wang, Peter Johnson, Hugh Davies, Bronson Du
Abstract Whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with several adverse health and safety outcomes including low-back pain (LBP) and driver fatigue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three commercially-available air-suspension truck seats for reducing truck drivers’ exposures to WBV. Seventeen truck drivers operating over a standardized route were recruited for this study and three commercially-available air suspension seats were evaluated. The predominant, z-axis average weighted vibration (Aw) and Vibration Dose Values (VDV) were calculated and normalized to represent eight hours of truck operation. In addition, the Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility (SEAT), the ratio of the seat-measured vibration divided by the floor-measured vibration, was compared across the three seats. One seat had significantly higher on-road WBV exposures whereas there were no differences across seats in off-road WBV exposures.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1839
Edward T. Lee
Abstract It is common for automotive manufacturers and off-highway machinery manufacturers to gain insight into the system’s structural dynamics by evaluating the system inertance functions near the mount locations. The acoustic response of the operator’s ears is a function of the vibro-acoustic characteristics of the system structural dynamics interacting with the cavity, with the actual load applied at the mount locations. The overall vibro-acoustic characteristics can be influenced by a change in local stiffness. To analyze the response of a system, it is necessary to go beyond analyzing its transfer functions. The actual load needs to be understood and applied to the transfer function set. Finite element (FE) based analysis provides a good foundation for deterministic solutions. However the finite element method decreases in accuracy as frequency increases.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1826
Sagar Deshmukh, Sandip Hazra
Abstract Engine mounting system maintains the position of powertrain in the vehicle with respect to chassis and other accessories during inertia, torque reaction loads and roadway disturbances. The mounting system also plays a role in terms of isolation of the rest of the vehicle and its occupants from powertrain and helps in maintaining vehicle ride and handling condition. This paper investigates the performance comparison between hydromount and switchable hydromount during idle and ride performance. The optimization scheme aims to improve the performance of the mounting system in order to achieve overall powertrain performance and NVH attribute balancing through switchable mount technology.
2017-06-05
Journal Article
2017-01-1830
Thomas Haase, Henning Bühmann, Martin Radestock, Hans Peter Monner
Abstract Due to the strengthened CO2 and NOx regulations, future vehicles have to be lightweight and efficient. But, lightweight structures are prone to vibrations and radiate sound efficiently. Therefore, many active control approaches are studied to lower noise radiation besides the passive methods. One active approach for reducing sound radiation from structures is the active structural acoustic control (ASAC). Since the early 90’s, several theoretical studies regarding ASAC systems were presented, but only very little experimental investigations can be found for this alternative to passive damping solutions. The theoretical simulations show promising results of ASAC systems compared to active vibration control approaches. So, for that reason in this paper an experiment is conducted to investigate the performance of an ASAC system in the frequency range up to 600 Hz.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1828
Jonathan Christian, Dylan Stafford
Abstract The use of active noise control (ANC) systems in automotive applications has been common practice for well over a decade. Many of these systems utilize at least one error microphone that is placed inside the vehicle cabin and provides feedback to the algorithm in order to assess the effectiveness of the anti-noise signal as it attempts to cancel primary noise. Prior work pertaining to optimal error microphone placement has not provided any objective metrics that correlate to the noise reduction experienced inside the vehicle cabin. The goal of this paper is to establish empirically-based metrics which can be used to quantitatively describe why one microphone position in the vehicle is superior or less favorable when compared to another. These metrics are used when considering concurrent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) ANC systems that utilize the same error microphones but are trying to attenuate both broadband and narrowband noise.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1855
Ramakanta Routaray
Abstract The basic function of a motorcycle frame is somewhat similar to that of the skeleton in the human body, i.e. to hold together the different parts in one rigid structure. One of the major benefits (for a motorcycle enthusiast) of using an advanced frame design lies in the sporty handling characteristics of the bike. A well designed frame can add to the joy of riding a motorcycle as the bike would feel more stable, effortless, and confident around corners, in straight lines and while braking. A well approved modeling [2] techniques or adequate guide line principles have to be followed while designing the body and chassis in order to achieve the vibration within control. This paper depicts a methodological right approach (guide lines) while designing the body and chassis of a two wheeler in order to control noise and vibration of the body and chassis.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1843
Taejin Shin, Jaemin Jin, Sang Kwon Lee, Insoo Jung
Abstract This paper presents the influence of radiated noise from engine surface according to assembly condition between the engine block and oil pan. At the first, the force exciting the main bearing of cylinder block is calculated by using a multi-body dynamics model of the engine crankshaft. Secondly, the modal analysis is processed to obtain the mode contribution and modal participation factors for the FEM of a virtual cylinder block. Thirdly, the radiated noise from a structure is calculated by acoustic-FEM analysis. This structure is assembled by the virtual oil pan with a rigid connection method and a soft connection method. The sandwich panel connection model is used for the soft connection method. The sound radiated from this assemble structure is calculated according to two different connection properties respectively. The sound matrices for two results are compared using an objective method.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1845
Jon Furlich, Jason Blough, Darrell Robinette
Abstract When a manual transmission (MT) powertrain is subjected to high speeds and high torques, the vehicle driveshaft, and other components experience an increase in stored potential energy. When the engine and driveshaft are decoupled during an up or down shift, the potential energy is released causing clunk during the shift event. The customer desires a smooth shift thus reduction of clunk will improve experience and satisfaction. In this study, a six-speed MT, rear-wheel-drive (RWD) passenger vehicle was used to experimentally capture acoustic and vibration data during the clunk event. To replicate the in-situ results, additional data was collected and analyzed for powertrain component roll and pitch. A lumped parameter model of key powertrain components was created to replicate the clunk event and correlate with test data. The lumped parameter model was used to modify clutch tip-out parameters, which resulted in reduced prop shaft oscillations.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 7820

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