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Viewing 1 to 30 of 713
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1612
Francesco Mariani, Francesco Risi, Nicola Bartolini, Francesco Castellani, Lorenzo Scappaticci
Aerodynamics of formula vehicles covers one of the most important roles in the development of racing cars. At the speeds which usually reach the formula cars, the driver's neck can be subjected to stresses resulting from the aerodynamic forces acting on the helmet; developing an aerodynamic project that takes into account the comfort of the driver without thereby affecting the performance can be undoubtedly considered a challenging activity. The aim of the present work is to develop a zero-pitching-moment-helmet for formula racing cars optimizing the shape and the location of some aerodynamic appendices to be applied on it. The goal is pursued adopting an approach based on both experimental and numerical activities. At earliest stage the aerodynamic configuration of an existing helmet was examined; trough a testing campaign in the wind tunnel facilities of Perugia University, pressures acting on the helmet were scanned at various speeds and data about aerodynamic drag were collected.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1255
David Mackanic, Eduardo D. Marquez, James Dennington, Jacob McClean, Kaitlyn Wheeler, Douglas Nelson
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech has completed several modeling and testing stages to develop models that represent the P3 PHEV powertrain the team is building as part the EcoCAR 3 competition. The model development process consists of several major steps. First, Model-in-the-Loop (MIL) testing is conducted to validate a conventional vehicle model against data provided by General Motors, down-select a desired powertrain configuration, and generate initial vehicle technical specifications (VTS). HEVT is pursuing a performance powertrain that balances high performance with minimal energy consumption. Initial MIL modeling results yield an IVM-60 mph time of 4.9 seconds and an overall UF-weighted 4-cycle energy consumption of 560 Wh/km. MIL modeling provides an initial reference to compare subsequent vehicle modeling.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1252
Arjun Khanna, Sam Yacinthe, Jason Ward, M.J. Yatsko, Shawn Midlam-Mohler
Vehicle modeling is important to vehicle development as it allows for initial vehicle architecture investigation and validation. A well designed vehicle model will be critical to hybrid supervisory control refinement and development. The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team designing a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of reducing the environmental impact of the vehicle, the Ohio State Camaro has been designed with a 44-mile all-electric range. It also features an 18.9 kWh Li-ion energy storage system, a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85) fuel, a 5-speed automated manual transmission, and a 150 kW peak electric machine. This report details the model and controls development process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 1 of the competition. The focus will be on overall development of a vehicle model, initial simulation results, and supervisory controls development.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1257
Sam Yacinthe, Arjun Khanna, Jason Ward, M.J. Yatsko, Shawn Midlam-Mohler
The design of a performance hybrid electric vehicle includes a wide range of architecture possibilities. A large part of the design process is identifying reasonable vehicle architectures and vehicle performance capabilities. The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team designed a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of reducing the environmental impact of the vehicle, the Ohio State Camaro has been designed with a 44-mile all-electric range. It also features an 18.9 kWh Li-ion energy storage system, a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85) fuel, a 5-speed automated manual transmission, and a 150 kW peak electric machine. This report details the design and modeling process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 1 of the competition. The process included researching the customer needs of the vehicle, determining team design goals, initial modeling, and selecting a vehicle architecture.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1581
Felix Wittmeier, Armin Michelbach, Jochen Wiedemann, Victor Senft
With its recent wind tunnel upgrade, FKFS installed the first interchangeable 3-belt / 5-belt-system in a full scale automotive wind tunnel. With the 5-belt-system, which today is a state-of-the-art ground simulation technique, the system is ideally suited for day to day passenger car development work. The 5-belt system offers high flexibility, quick access to the underfloor and vehicle fixation, and setting the vehicle’s ride height by the restraint device. The first results of the 5-belt-system have already been presented in SAE 2015-01-1557. The 3-belt system on the other hand, offers a much more sophisticated ground simulation technique which is necessary especially for sports and racing cars. For such vehicles with low ground clearance, it is important to have a more accurate ground simulation, in order to capture the same aerodynamic modes of action and response as on the road.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1576
Federico Ballo, Gianpiero Mastinu, Massimiliano Gobbi
Mass minimization is a key objective for the design of racing motorcycle wheels. The structural optimization of a front motorcycle wheel is discussed. Topology Optimization approach has been employed for deriving optimized structural layouts. The minimum compliance problem has been solved, symmetry and periodicity constraints have been considered. The wheel has been optimized considering several loading conditions. Actual loads have been measured during track tests. The forces applied by the tire to the rim have been introduced in an original way. Different solutions characterized by different numbers of spokes have been investigated and compared. The actual racing wheel -currently produced- has been further optimized accounting for technological constraints.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1173
Federico Bengolea, Stephen Samuel
In the continuous search for technology to improve the fuel economy and reduce green-house gas emission levels from automotive vehicle, automotive industry has been evaluating various technological options. Since the introduction of stringent legislative targets in Europe as well as in the United States of America in late 20th Century, one of the viable options identified by the industry was the application of alternative powertrain. On the motorsport arena, changes introduced by the Formula 1 governing body (FIA) for the high performance racing engines also focuses on fuel economy. FIA regulation for 2014 restricts the fuel-flow rate to maximum of 100kg/hr beyond 10500 rev/min and prescribe fuel flow rate below 10500 rev/min operating conditions for the F1 Engines. In addition, Formula1 and Le Mans racing regulations actively promote the integration of the hybrid powertrain in order to achieve high fuel economy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1256
Miriam Di Russo, Zhuoran Zhang, Hao Wu, Kathryn della Porta, Jerry C. Ku
This paper details the first year of modeling and simulation, and powertrain control development for the Wayne State University EcoCAR 3 vehicle. Included in this paper are the processes for developing simulation platforms, plant models and electronic control units to support the supervisory control system development. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. The team is in the final stages of Year One competition, which, as the “non-vehicle year,” focuses on the preliminary design, simulation, and hybrid modes selection for the team’s selected vehicle architecture. The team chose a Pre- Transmission Parallel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) architecture for its performance capability, multiplicity of operational modes, and drivetrain configuration that retains the vehicle’s rear-wheel drive configuration.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1253
Patrick Ellsworth, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler, Daniel VanLanen, Ben Gaffney, Caixia Wang, Trong Shen, Wenhao Wu, Paul McInnis
The drive to improve and optimize hybrid vehicle operation is increasing with the growing market of hybrids. This has resulted in an increased demand for engineers trained in hybrid vehicle design. General Motors (GM) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the benefit of training and educating students in this field, and achieves it through a unique competition EcoCAR 3. The University of Waterloo Alternative Fuels Team (UWAFT), as part of the EcoCAR 3 competition has developed a control strategy for a novel parallel-split hybrid architecture. The architecture features an engine, transmission and two electric motors; one pre-transmission and one post-transmission. The control strategy operates these powertrain components in a series, parallel, and all electric power flow, switching between these strategies to optimize the efficiency of the vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1249
Khashayar Olia, David Blekhman
The EcoCAR3 team of California State University, Los Angeles is designing a Parallel Post transmission Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) that will maintain consumer acceptability in the areas of performance, utility and safety with the end-goal of reducing Well-to-Wheel Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. The team’s vehicle utilizes a 2.4L Ecotec engine and a 134 HP electric motor as propulsion systems and also features a 12.6 KW/h battery pack to which will give the vehicle an estimated fuel economy of 59 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge). This article presents the details of the vehicles two main operating modes, Electric Vehicle (EV) and Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV). Then followed by the optimized operating strategy in which the lower emission and longer battery life is achieved under the definition of an “Eco-Performance” mode and a power-split optimization strategy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1248
Brian Magnuson, Michael Ryan Mallory, Brian Fabien, Ajay Gowda
This paper investigates a method that uses driver prediction to anticipate the power output of a series plug-in, hybrid-electric vehicle to improve conventional thermostatic, load-following, or hybrid control strategies. In simulation, the driver prediction algorithm utilizes a hidden Markov model to predict where the driver will go while a regression tree predicts how fast the driver will drive based on historical route and speed driver-data. A vehicle optimization algorithm analyzes these predictions combined with road elevation to command a minimum amount of torque from the onboard generator to minimize the petroleum energy used by the vehicle during the entire drive. Matlab and Simulink are used both to run the prediction and optimization algorithms as well as simulate a rear wheel drive series plug-in, hybrid-electric vehicle, a city road-network, and multiple simulated vehicle drivers each with different driving characteristics.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1245
Jonathan D. Cox, Michael Leamy
The Georgia Tech EcoCAR 3 team’s selection of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) architecture for the EcoCAR 3 competition is presented in detail, with a focus on the team’s modeling and simulation efforts and how they informed the team’s architecture selection and subsequent component decisions. EcoCAR 3, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and General Motors, is the latest in a series of Advanced Vehicle Technology Competitions (AVTCs) and features 16 universities from the United States and Canada competing to transform the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro into a hybrid electric American muscle car. Team vehicles will be scored on performance, emissions, fuel economy, consumer acceptability, and more over the course of the four-year competition. During the first year, the Georgia Tech team considered numerous component combinations and HEV architectures, including series RWD and AWD, parallel, and power-split.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1250
Sushil kumar, Joshua Conter, Megan Cawley, Rashad Maady, Matt West, Abdel raouf Mayyas
The Arizona State University EcoCAR-3 team is a new team in Advanced Vehicle Technology Competitions (AVTCs), competing among 16 North American Universities under a 4 year competition aimed at redesigning a high performance conventional vehicle into a hybrid electric vehicle, reducing the environmental impacts while maintaining the performance of the vehicle. The team imitates General Motors (GM) Vehicle Development Process (VDP) in designing, building and refining the vehicle. The first step in design process is Powertrain Architecture selection, and the team is designing a parallel pre-transmission plug-in hybrid vehicle to meet the competition targets. The proposed powertrain consists of a 2.4L gasoline (E85) engine, a 140 kW electric motor, 6-speed automatic gearbox and 18.9 kWh battery pack. The vehicle is capable of delivering 30 mile all-electric operation, along with an impressive Utility Factor weighted fuel economy of 50 mpgee.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0172
Tim Tudor, Kerry Tudor
This paper presents an investigation into the effect of front wheel steer geometry on steer induced load transfer. An in-house mathematical model has been developed which quantifies and illustrates these effects. The model has also been used to predict how common geometry variables affect the resulting steer induced load transfer. It is shown that the effect of steer on overall load transfer is significant, especially for high roll stiffness vehicles, and that the effect may be used to manipulate vehicle handling balance. The paper also shows that the resulting load transfer can be controlled by utilising an upright mounted pushrod design and how such a configuration may also be used to control front ride height with steer. The relationships between common design variables and the resulting steer effect have been determined.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0174
Jun Ni, Jibin Hu, Xueyuan Li, Bin Xu, Junjie Zhou
In order to discuss the limit handling performance of a FSAE race car, a method to generate the G-G diagram was proposed based on phase plane concept, and the simulated G-G diagram was validated by experiments with an electric FSAE race car. In section 1, a nonlinear 7 DOFs dynamic model of a certain electric FSAE race car was built. The tire mechanical properties were described by Magic Formula, and the tire test data was provided by FSAE TTC. In section 2, the nonlinear behavior of the model was discussed. The phase plane of longitudinal and lateral acceleration was obtained based on nonlinear dynamics approach, and the influence of important parameters on G-G diagram was discussed, such as C.G location and aerodynamic downforce. In section 3, the Beijing Institute of Technology FSAE electric race car was described, which won the 1st prize in FSAE China in 2014.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1254
Eric Jambor, Thomas Bradley
EcoCAR 3 is a university based competition with the goal of hybridizing a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to increase fuel economy, decrease environmental impact, and maintain user acceptability. To achieve this goal, university teams across North America must design, test, and implement automotive systems. The Colorado State University (CSU) team has designed a parallel pre-transmission plug in hybrid electric design. This design will add torque from the engine and motor onto a single shaft to drive the vehicle. Since both the torque generating devices are pre-transmission the torque will be multiplied by both the transmission and final drive. To handle the large amount of torque generated by the entire powertrain system the vehicle's rear half-shafts require a more robust design. Taking advantage of this, the CSU team has decided to pursue the use of composites to increase the shaft's robustness while decreasing component weight.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1589
Jackie A. Mohrfeld, Mesbah Uddin
Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations. Developed to fit quasi steady state wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper. This procedure is extended to the other five aerodynamic degrees of freedom to develop a complete, high fidelity, six degree of freedom quasi steady state aerodynamic model.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0429
Paul Augustine, Timothy Hunter, Nathan Sievers, Xiaoru Guo
The performance of a structural design depends upon the assumptions made on input load. In order to estimate the input load, during the design stage of the suspension assembly of a BAJA car, designers invest immense amount of time and effort to formulate the mathematical model of the design. The theoretical formulations may include idealization errors which can affect the performance of the car as a final product. These errors in estimating design load will lead to more weight or less strength than needed. This discrepancy between the assumed input load and the actual load from the environment can be eliminated by performing a real life testing process using load recovery methodology. Commercial load cells exist in industry to understand the real world loading of structures. A limitation of load cells is that the structure needs to be modified to accept the load cell and not all desired loading can be measured.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0193
Sankalp Talegaonkar, Mohammad Rafiq B. Agrewale, Kamalkishore Chhaganlal Vora
Abstract The Exhaust Noise is one of the major noise pollutants. It is well-known that for higher noise reduction, the engine has to bear high back pressure. For a race car, back-pressure plays a major role in engine's performance characteristics. For a given condition of engine rpm & load, conventional muffler has a fixed value of back-pressure and noise attenuation. Better acceleration requires low back-pressure, but the exhaust noise should also be less than the required (Norm) value (110 dBA). This contradicting condition is achieved here by using a ‘Butterfly Valve’ in this novel exhaust muffler. The butterfly valve assumes 2 positions i.e. fully open & fully closed. When the valve is fully closed, the noise reduction will be higher, but the back-pressure will also shoot up. When open, noise reduction will be less and so the back-pressure. So, when better performance is required, the valve is opened and back-pressure is reduced.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0838
Tadamasa Fukuoka, Kazuki Fujimoto, Yuya Hongo, Shinji Kajiwara
Kinki University formula project has been participating in the student Formula SAE of Japan (JSAE) every year for the Competition since the second time. The engine uses ZX-6R made by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for the Competition from the eighth time. “Improvement of limited performance” is inserted in the concept through the development of a power train. Supercharger loading, engine dry sump and engine cooling management were improved. 59.6 kW (80.6 PS) /9000 rpm of maximum output and 70.6 Nm (7.2 kgf m)/8000 rpm of maximum torque were achieved by the supercharger loading. We succeeded in getting 90% of torque band (4000∼10000rpm) by 50% of the number of revolutions in regular use (2000∼12000rpm). Using the dry sump system, hydraulic pressure constantly managed hydraulic pressure at the time of engine operations; the system, where the engine stops at the time of hydraulic pressure fall, was also built.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0839
Koichiro Kawata
In motorcycle race represented by MotoGP, the motorcycle bank angle in turning state reaches approximately 60 degrees. In such a large bank angle, it is important that response of the motorcycle for the road surface displacement input is relaxed by designing the frame with low stiffness in the side direction to secure the speed on cornering. On the other hand, strong frame stiffness of longitudinal direction is required with a proper frame displacement to resist large force by the rapid deceleration. As seen above, regarding stiffness of longitudinal and side direction of the frame of motorcycle, one should be high, and the other should be low. However, in general, the ratio estimated by stiffness of side direction per that of longitudinal direction is approximately constant with existing frame. This means that if the frame stiffness of side direction is lowered, that of the longitudinal would also be lowered accordingly.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2863
Yogesh Sharma, Rohit Kumar Garg, Rishabh Raj Bhargava, Aadityeshwar Saran Singh Deo, Aditya Krishna, Shubham Garg, Rahul Mehendiratta, Ankit Goila
There has been a rapid increase in popularity of multipurpose All-terrain vehicles (ATV) across the globe over the past few years. SAE BAJA event gives student-community an opportunity to delve deeper into the nitty-gritty of designing a single seat, four-wheeled off road vehicle. The design and development methodology presented in this paper is useful in conceptualization of an ATV for SAE BAJA event. The vehicle is divided into various subsystems including chassis, suspension, drive train, steering, and braking system. Further these subsystems are designed and comprehensively analyzed in software like SolidWorks, ANSYS, WINGEO and MS-Excel. The 3-D model of roll cage is designed in SolidWorks and analyzed in ANSYS 9.0 for front, rear and side impact along with front and side roll-over conditions. Special case of wheel bump is also analyzed. Weight, wall thickness and bending strength of tubing used for roll cage are comprehensively studied.
2015-09-27
Journal Article
2015-01-2679
David B. Antanaitis
Abstract An aspect of high performance brake design that has remained strikingly empirical is that of determining the correct sizing of the brake pad - in terms of both area and volume - to match well with a high performance vehicle application. Too small of a pad risks issues with fade and wear life on the track, and too large has significant penalties in cost, mass, and packaging space of the caliper, along with difficulties in maintaining adequate caliper stiffness and its impact on pedal feel and response time. As most who have spent time around high performance brakes can attest to, there methods for determining minimum brake pad area, usually related in some form or another to the peak power the brake must absorb (functions of vehicle mass and top speed are common). However, the basis for these metrics are often lost (or closely guarded), and provide very little guidance for the effects of the final design (pad area) deviating from the recommended value.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0414
Rory Lilley, M. Sh. Asfoor, Michael Santora, Dan Cordon, Edwin Odom, Steven W. Beyerlein
Abstract Over the last five years the Vandal Hybrid Racing team at the University of Idaho has developed a compact, lightweight, and mass centralized vehicle design with a rule-based energy management system. Major areas of innovation are a close fitting frame design made possible by the location of major components and engine modifications to improve performance. The innovative design features include a custom designed engine, battery pack and simplistic hybrid coupling system. The vehicle also incorporates a trailing link suspension, and realization of a rule-based Energy Management System (EMS) which determines the power split of the combustion and electric systems. The EMS oversees the operation of the Lynch electric motor and the YZ250F engine that is housed in a custom crankcase. The battery pack can initially store 2 MJ of energy in a single 50 lb. lithium polymer battery pack that is located underneath the cockpit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1536
Brett C. Peters, Mesbah Uddin, Jeremy Bain, Alex Curley, Maxwell Henry
Abstract Currently, most of the Navier-Stokes equation based Computational Fluid Dynamic solvers rely heavily on the robustness of unstructured finite volume discretization to solve complex flows. Widely used finite volume solvers are restricted to second order spatial accuracy while structured finite difference codes can easily resolve up to five orders of spatial discretization and beyond. In order to solve flow around complicated geometries, unstructured finite volume codes are employed to avoid tedious and time consuming handmade structured meshes. By using overset grids and NASA's overset grid solver, Overflow, structured finite difference solutions are achievable for complex geometries such as the DrivAer [1] model. This allows for higher order flow structures to be captured as compared to traditional finite volume schemes. The current paper compares flow field solutions computed with finite volume and finite difference methods to experimental results of the DrivAer model [1].
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0228
Francesco Braghin, Francesco Salis
Abstract The objective of this study is to demonstrate the design and construction of an innovative active gear-shift and clutch for racecars, applied to a Formula Student car, based on the use of DC gear-motors. Racecars require extremely quick gear-shifts and every system to be as light as possible. The proposed solution is designed to reduce energy consumption, weight and improve gear-shift precision compared to traditionally employed electro-hydraulic solutions, although maintaining state of the art performances.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0727
Udayakumar Rajamanickam, Anshul Singhal, Miller Jothi
Abstract This paper aims at Fiber Reinforced Panel or FRP mold and panel manufacturing of body panel and driver seat for a Formula Society of Automotive Engineers or FSAE racecar. The competition involves designing a Formula 1 type car that lays the standards for a high performance-racing car [1]. This calls for a high Power: Weight ratio. The rules of the competition ensure a mandatory use of an air restrictor with an engine of a maximum capacity of 600cc to reduce the power of the engines [2]. Hence, to compensate for the loss of power the target now shifts to minimizing the car's weight without compromising the strength. The body panel and driver's seat are two most valuable parts as the first adds elegance and aerodynamics to the car while the latter makes it comfortable for the driver to drive the car under high lateral load shifts. Weight reduction in this area is easier as strength is not the dominating factor.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0740
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon, John W. Melvin, Mike Rains
Abstract Throughout the first decade of the twenty first century, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) race series. Enhancements to the occupant restraint system include the development and implementation of head and neck restraints, minimum performance requirements for belts and seats and the introduction of energy absorbing foam are a few highlights, among others. This paper discusses nineteen sled tests used to analyze hypothesized improvements to restraint system mounting geometry. The testing matrix included three sled acceleration profiles, three impact orientations, two Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) sizes as well as the restraint system design variables.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0739
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon
Abstract Over the last decade large safety improvements have been made in crash protection for motorsports drivers. It has been well established that in side and rear impacts the driver seat provides the primary source for occupant retention and restraint. Beginning in the 2015 season, NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) Sprint Cup Series will require driver seats which have all seat belt restraint system anchorage locations integrated internally to the seat with a minimum of seven anchorage locations. This paper describes the development of the quasi-static test for the seat integrated seat belt restraint system portion of the NASCAR Seat Submission and Test Protocol Criteria. It reviews the methodology used to develop the testing including the developmental dynamic sled tests.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1566
Youngil Koh, Kyongsu Yi, Kilsoo Kim
Abstract This paper presents a tire slip-angle based speed control race driver model. In developing a chassis control system for enhancement of high-speed driving performance, analysis of the vehicle-driver interaction at limit handling is one of the main research issues. Thus, a driver model which represents driving characteristics in a racing situation is required to develop a chassis control system. Since a race driver drives a vehicle as fast as possible on a given racing line without losing control, the proposed driver model is developed to ensure a lateral stability. In racing situation, one of the reasons which cause the lateral instabilities is an excessive corner-entry speed. The lateral instability in that moment is hard to handle with only a steering control. To guarantee the lateral stability of the vehicle while maximizing a cornering speed, a desired speed is determined to retain a tire slip-angle that maximizes lateral tire forces without front tire saturation.
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