Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 728
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1516
Daniel B. Honeycutt, Mesbah Uddin
Although, the implementation of lift-off prevention devices such as the NASCAR roof flaps have greatly reduced the frequency and severity of race vehicle aerodynamic lift-off incidents, airborne incidents still occur occasionally in motorsports. In many cases, contact with another vehicle contributes to the lift-off. Race vehicle aerodynamic lift-off incidents are analyzed and factors contributing to aerodynamic lift-off of various race vehicles are discussed in this paper. This is done by using aerodynamic lift data from wind tunnel testing for various NASCAR race vehicles, such as NASCAR stock cars and trucks, and sports car prototypes. The effectiveness of existing lift-off prevention measures and future trends in lift-off prevention are discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1546
Joshua Newbon, David Sims-Williams, Robert Dominy
The effect of upstream wakes on Grand Prix cars operating in wake flows has been investigated using experimental and computational methods. Multiple vehicle studies in conventional length wind tunnels require reduced scale to create representative vehicle separations; use of a short axial length wake generator allows the effect of an upstream vehicle to be quantified for greater separations than previously investigated. Aerodynamic downforce and drag were seen to reduce, with greater force reductions experienced at shorter axial spacings. With lateral offsets, downforce recovers at a greater rate than drag, returning to the isolated value for offsets greater than a half car width. The effect of the wake was investigated in CFD using multiple vehicle simulations and non-uniform boundary conditions to recreate the wake. Creating a non-uniform inlet condition allowed the wake parameters to be modified to test sensitivity to different wake features.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1260
Gianmarco Galmarini, Stefano Dell'Agostino, Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu
Apollo, the solar prototype vehicle of Politecnico di Milano (Technical University of Milan) is presented. Apollo has been employed within Shell Eco Marathon (SEM) Europe. The paper describes the concept design, the detailed design, the construction, the in-door tests, the outdoor tests, the successful employment at SEM and the end-of-life of the prototype. Apollo is a three wheeler with one driving wheel at the rear. A wing with solar cells provides part of the electric energy required for running. The conceptual design started from the accomodation of the pilot inside the vehicle. A number of iterations focusing on CFD (computation fluid dynamics) and wind-tunnel tests allowed to refine the total drag to less than 2N at 35 km/h. The tyre characteristic was measured on a drum and allowed to set the camber of front wheels to 4deg which provided the least rolling resistance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1592
Jingdong Cai, Saurabh Kapoor, Tushita Sikder, Yuping He
In this paper, active aerodynamic wings are investigated using numerical simulation in order to improve vehicle handling performance under high-speed cornering maneuvers. Air foils are selected and analyzed to determine the basic features of aerodynamic wings. Built upon the airfoil analysis, the 3D aerodynamic wing model is developed using a commercial software package, Siemens NX®. Then the virtual aerodynamic wings are assembled with the 3D vehicle model designed also using Siemens NX®. The resulting 3-D geometry model is used for aerodynamic analysis based on numerical simulation using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package, ANSYS FLUENT®. The CFD-based simulation data and the multibody dynamic vehicle model generated CarSim®are combined to study the effects of active aerodynamic wings on handling performance of high-speed vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1232
Tsubasa YAMAZAKI, Hidekazu UCHIYAMA, Kazuaki NAKAZAWA, Tsubasa ISOMURA, Hisashi OGATA
Solar car races are held worldwide, aiming to promote vehicles that help reduce environmental loads on the roads. In order to gain superiority in solar car racing, it is essential to develop a high efficiency brushless direct drive motor that optimizes the energy use to the fullest and allows high speed driving when needed.To achieve these goals, two development approaches of solar car motors are proposed: the high efficiency motor which improves electrical characteristics and significantly reduces energy loss; and the variable field magnet motor that offers instant speed boost for a temporary period of time for overtaking other opponents.We have developed a high efficiency motor with the application of an amorphous core and laminated magnets. Instead of the standard method of the W-EDM (Wire-Electric Discharge Machining) for amorphous cores, we utilized water jet cutting, through which we succeeded in insulation between laminated cores.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1432
Tadasuke Katsuhara, Yoshiki Takahira, Shigeki Hayashi, Yuichi Kitagawa, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
This paper discusses mechanisms of spine fracture during racecar crash, and investigates possible modifications to the seat and driver restraint system to help reduce spine fracture risk. This study focused on an accident during the World Endurance Championship in which a driver sustained bony spine fractures at T11 and T12 as the racecar collided against the tire wall. Finite element (FE) simulations were analyzed to understand the spinal fracture mechanism, the driver kinematics and interactions between the driver and the seat/restraint system. This FE model incorporated the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) scaled to the driver size, a model of the detailed racecar cockpit and a model of the seat/restraint systems. A frontal impact deceleration pulse was applied to the cockpit model. In the simulation, the driver torso moved forward under the shoulder belt and the pelvis was restrained by the crotch belt and the front of the seat cushion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1547
Chen Fu, Mesbah Uddin, Clay Robinson, Arturo Guzman, David Bailey
Cost benefit and teraflops restrictions imposed by the sanctioning body made steady-state RANS CFD simulation still a widely accepted first approximation tool for aerodynamics evaluations in motorsports, in spite of its limitations. Researches involving generic and simplified vehicle bodies have shown that the veracity aerodynamic CFD predictions strongly depends on the turbulence model being used. Also the ability of a turbulence model to accurately predict the aerodynamic characteristics can be vehicle shape dependent as well. Modifications to the turbulence model coefficients in some turbulence models have the potential to improve the predictive capability for a particular vehicle shape. This paper presents a systematic study of turbulence modelling effects on the prediction of aerodynamic characteristics of a NASCAR Gen-6 Cup racecar. Steady-state RANS simulations are completed using a commercial CFD package, STAR-CCM+, from CD-Adapco.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1597
Christoforos Chatzikomis, Aldo Sorniotti, Patrick Gruber, Matthew Bastin, Raja Mazuir Shah, Yuri Orlov
Electric vehicles with multiple motors permit continuous direct yaw moment control, also called torque-vectoring. This allows to significantly enhance the cornering response, e.g., by extending the linear region of the vehicle understeer characteristic and by increasing the maximum achievable lateral acceleration. These benefits are well documented for human-driven cars, yet limited information is available for autonomous/driverless cars. In particular, over the last few years, steering controllers for automated driving at the cornering limit have considerably advanced, but it is unclear how these controllers should be integrated alongside a torque-vectoring system. This contribution discusses the integration of torque-vectoring control and automated driving, including the design and implementation of the torque-vectoring controller of the autonomous and driverless electric racing vehicle for the RoboRace competition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0423
Lei Yang, Qiang Li, Chuxuan Wang, Yunqing Zhang
The frame is an important subsystem for the FSAE race car, as it supports and connects to other subsystems. The weight, frequency and structure of the frame influence on the race car performances such as acceleration, handling, ride and durability. A rigid-flexible coupling FSAE race car model with flexible frame is implemented in ADAMS/car. By extracting the forces and torques of the joints which connect the frame to other subsystems in various race car extreme conditions, the loads transfer path from road and aerodynamic forces to the frame is discussed. The strength, stiffness and free mode analysis of the frame are carried out by means of Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the stress analysis and checking are under loads extracted from dynamic simulation with the rigid-flexible coupling FSAE race car model. According to the FEA results, an optimization of the frame is implemented by topological and size optimization.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0509
Jyotishman Ghosh, Andrea Tonoli, Nicola Amati
This paper presents a novel strategy for the control of motor torques of a rear wheel drive electric vehicle with the objective of improving the lap time of the vehicle around a racetrack. The control strategy is based upon increasing the size of the friction circle by implementing torque vectoring and tire slip control. A two level nested control strategy is used for the motor torque control. While the outer level is responsible for computing the desired corrective torque vectoring yaw moment, the inner level controls the motor torques in order to realize the desired corrective torque vectoring yaw moment while simultaneously controlling the wheel longitudinal slip. The performance of the developed controller is analysed by simulating laps around a racetrack with a non-linear multi-body vehicle model and a professional human racing driver controller setting.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1261
Mark Woodland, Dillon Savage, Patrick Paulus, Aaron Eliason, Cade Smith, Dan Cordon, Steven W. Beyerlein
The University of Idaho has sponsored entries in the Collegiate Design Series Clean Snowmobile Competition since 2001. Over this period our teams have won several first place awards and are annually competitive in nearly all dynamic and static events. This paper examines key principles from the project management and knowledge management literature that are appropriate for student-led competitions. Special emphasis is given to implementing these principles with a team composition consisting of students at multiple levels in their academic study (underclassmen, seniors, and graduate students). A variety of high-impact methodologies/tools are described along with our local implementation.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0026
Meichun Peng, Jiahao Wang, Jiaru li
Abstract It was developed an eco-driving cycle for an energy saving race car. A fuel consumption simulation model of race car was established to simulate the real engine and vehicle performance based on driving rules and racing track condition. It was studied the effects of engine throttle opening and the vehicle speed in acceleration and deceleration modes on fuel consumption. Several driving schemes were proposed and compared, the optimum results are as follows: with lowest fuel consumption, the engine throttle opening is 60% to 80%, the vehicle speed range is 5 to 65km/h during acceleration and deceleration modes. In addition, the race car should coast in neutral fully at deceleration mode within the allowable running time of the racing rules. An eco-driving cycle was designed based on the optimum results. The simulating results show that the race car fuel consumption with the eco-driving cycle can be reduced by 37% comparing with previous one.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0239
Lucas Iensen Bortoluzzi, Adriano Schommer, Mario Martins, Alexandre Aparecido Buenos
Abstract In many vehicle motorsport categories, the one of the most important factors that lead a team to the victory is the suspension setup. Parameters like roll stiffness and camber changing are essential to the vehicle behavior during a driving situation. To handle these variables, features like suspension hardpoints arrangement, pivot points position and spring stiffness can be settled. However a setup only will perform a desirable effect if the chosen configuration does not change. Ideally, to make it possible, every component that holds suspension loads (suspension members, mounting plates and chassis) would have to be infinitely rigid. Even though it is not achievable, the existing deformation can be small enough to be negligible when compared with suspension displacement. In order to reach this target, this paper introduce a spring modeling and a Finite Element multibody modeling process of a Formula SAE prototype’s suspension and chassis.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2224
Miriam Di Russo, Jerry Ku, Juan Briones Idrovo
Abstract This paper details the development of the control algorithms to characterize the behavior of an electrohydraulic actuated dry clutch used in the powertrain of the Wayne State University EcoCAR 3 Pre-Transmission Parallel hybrid vehicle. The paper describes the methodology and processes behind the development of the clutch physical model and electronic control unit to support the calibration of the vehicle’s hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. The team is in final stages of Year Two competition, which focuses on the powertrain components integration into the selected hybrid architecture. The dry clutch used by the team to enable the coupling between the engine and the electric motor is a key component of the Pre-Transmission Parallel configuration.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2225
Juan Sebastian Briones Idrovo, Jerry Ku
Abstract This paper details the development of a test-bench simulation to characterize the behavior of an electro-hydraulic actuated dry clutch used in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain architecture of Wayne State University EcoCAR 3. Engage and disengage systems play a crucial role in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid architecture. The most common device used to meet the purpose of physically connecting internal combustion engine and electric powertrains is a dry clutch. Its own characteristics and capabilities allow its usage for this application. The transition between the pure electric and hybrid modes is dictated by the main control strategy. Therefore, the engaging system will be widely used when switching from charge depleting to charge sustaining mode, and vice versa. In addition, when torque is required from both sources for higher performance, the clutch will be responsible for mechanically connecting both torque sources.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2222
Eduardo D. Marquez, Douglas Nelson
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is currently developing a control strategy for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The hybrid powertrain is being implemented in a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro for the EcoCAR 3 competition. Fuzzy rule sets determine the torque split between the motor and the engine using the accelerator pedal position, vehicle speed and state of charge (SOC) as the input variables. The torque producing components are a 280 kW V8 L83 engine with active fuel management (AFM) and a post-transmission (P3) 100 kW custom motor. The vehicle operates in charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes. In CD mode, the model drives as an electric vehicle (EV) and depletes the battery pack till a lower state of charge threshold is reached. Then CS operation begins, and driver demand is supplied by the engine operating in V8 or AFM modes with supplemental or loading torque from the P3 motor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1576
Federico Ballo, Gianpiero Mastinu, Massimiliano Gobbi
Abstract Mass minimization is a key objective for the design of racing motorcycle wheels. The structural optimization of a front motorcycle wheel is presented in the paper. Topology Optimization has been employed for deriving optimized structural layouts. The minimum compliance problem has been solved, symmetry and periodicity constraints have been introduced. The wheel has been optimized by considering several loading conditions. Actual loads have been measured during track tests by means of a special measuring wheel. The forces applied by the tire to the rim have been introduced in an original way. Different solutions characterized by different numbers of spokes have been analyzed and compared. The actual racing wheel has been further optimized accounting for technological constraints and the mass has been reduced down to 2.9 kilograms.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0003
Alberto Taraborrelli, Francesco Braghin
Abstract This paper reports the studies, design and developments of an electronic electro-actuated gearshifter installed on the DP7, which is Politecnico di Milano car that took part at Formula SAE 2015 competitions in Hockenheim and Varano dè Melegari. The original idea was born to replace the hydraulic gearshift system used until 2011 because of its high weight and cost. After many evaluations about the kind of technology to use, made by previous team members in the electronic department, the final project was a fully electric shifter. This system has proven its qualities among which are lightness and low cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0174
Jun Ni, Jibin Hu, Xueyuan Li, Bin Xu, Junjie Zhou
Abstract In order to discuss the limit handling performance of a FSAE race car, a method to generate the G-G diagram was proposed based on phase plane concept. The simulated G-G diagram was validated by experiments with an electric FSAE race car. In section 1, a nonlinear 7 DOFs dynamic model of a certain electric FSAE race car was built. The tire mechanical properties were described by Magic Formula, and the tire test data was provided by FSAE TTC. In section 2, firstly the steady-state yaw rate response was discussed in different vehicle speed and lateral acceleration based on the simulations. Then the method to generate the G-G diagram based on phase plane concept was proposed, and the simulated G-G diagram of a certain FSAE race car was obtained. In section 3, the testbed FSAE race car was described, including the important apparatuses used in the experiments. Based on the race track experiment, the G-G diagram of the race car was obtained.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0429
Paul Augustine, Timothy Hunter, Nathan Sievers, Xiaoru Guo
Abstract The performance of a structural design significantly depends upon the assumptions made on input load. In order to estimate the input load, during the design and development stage of the suspension assembly of a BAJA car, designers and analysts invest immense amount of time and effort to formulate the mathematical model of the design. These theoretical formulations may include idealization errors which can affect the performance of the car as a final product. Due to the errors associated with the assumption of design load, several components might have more weight or may have less strength than needed. This discrepancy between the assumed input load (lab or theoretical studies) and the actual load from the environment can be eliminated by performing a real life testing process using load recovery methodology. Commercial load cells exist in industry to give engineers insight to understanding the complex real world loading of their structures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1612
Francesco Mariani, Francesco Risi, Nicola Bartolini, Francesco Castellani, Lorenzo Scappaticci
Abstract Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors in the development of racing cars. At the speeds of formula cars reach the formula cars, the driver's neck can be subjected to stresses resulting from the aerodynamic forces acting on the helmet; developing an aerodynamic project that takes into account the comfort of the driver without affecting performance is certainly considered a challenging activity. The aim of the present work is to develop a low-pitching-momenthelmet for formula racing cars optimizing the shape and location, applying some aerodynamic appendices. This goal is pursued by adopting an approach based on both experimental and numerical activities. First, the aerodynamic configuration of an existing helmet was examined; through a testing campaign in the wind tunnel facilities of Perugia University, pressures acting on the helmet were scanned at various speeds and data about aerodynamic drag were collected.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1588
Abdalla Abdel-Rahman, Martin Agelin-Chaab, Gary Elfstrom, John Komar
Abstract Wind tunnels with integrated aerodynamic and thermodynamic testing with yaw capabilities are not common. In this study however, an integrated aerodynamic and thermodynamic testing system with yaw capabilities is developed and applied in the climatic wind tunnel at the University of Ontario-Institute of Technology (UOIT). This was done by installing an incremental force measuring system (FMS) on the large turntable that features a chassis dynamometer. The testing system was utilized to implement an integrated aero-thermal test on a full-scale race car. An efficient testing protocol was developed to streamline the integrated testing process. The FMS was used to enhance the test car’s stability, cornering speed, and fuel efficiency by using aerodynamic devices. These objectives were achieved by installing a high rear wing to increase the rear downforce, a modified front splitter extension to produce a front downforce gain, and front canards to contribute to drag reduction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1581
Felix Wittmeier, Armin Michelbach, Jochen Wiedemann, Victor Senft
Abstract With its recent wind tunnel upgrade, FKFS installed the first interchangeable three-belt / five-belt-system (FKFS first®) in a full scale automotive wind tunnel. With the five-belt system, which today is a state-of-the-art ground simulation technique, the system is ideally suited for production vehicle development work. The five-belt system offers high flexibility, quick access to the underfloor and vehicle fixation, and setting the vehicle’s ride height by the restraint device. The first results of the five-belt system have already been published in SAE 2015-01-1557 [1]. The three-belt system on the other hand, offers a much more sophisticated ground simulation technique which is necessary especially for sports and racing cars. For such vehicles with very low ground clearances, it is important to have a more accurate ground simulation, in order to capture the same aerodynamic modes of action and response as on the road.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1173
Federico Bengolea, Stephen Samuel
Abstract In the continuous search for technology to improve the fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas emission levels from the automotive vehicle, the automotive industry has been evaluating various technological options. Since the introduction of stringent legislative targets in Europe as well as in the United States of America in late 20th Century, one of the viable options identified by the industry was the application of alternative powertrain. On the motorsport arena, changes introduced by the Formula 1 governing body (FIA) for the high-performance racing engines also focuses on fuel economy. FIA regulation for 2014 restricts the fuel-flow rate to a maximum of 100kg/hr beyond 10,500 rev/min and prescribe fuel flow rate below 10,500 rev/min operating conditions for the F1 Engines. In addition, Formula1 and Le Mans racing regulations actively promote the integration of the hybrid powertrain in order to achieve optimum fuel economy.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1589
Jackie A. Mohrfeld-Halterman, Mesbah Uddin
Abstract Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations and its application in a race vehicle multi-body full lap simulation. Developed to fit quasi steady state (QSS) wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1611
Masaki Nakagawa, Stephan Kallweit, Frank Michaux, Teppei Hojo
Abstract This paper presents typical flow structures around a 60%-scale wind-tunnel model of a Formula One (F1) car, using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). The customized PIV system is permanently installed in a wind tunnel to help aerodynamicists in the development loop. The PIV results enhance the understanding of the mean velocity field in the two-dimensional plane in some important areas of the car, such as the front-wheel wake and the underfloor flow. These real phenomena obtained in the wind tunnel also help maintain the accuracy of simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by allowing regular checking of the correlation with the real-world counterpart. This paper first surveys recent literature on unique flow structures around the rotating exposed wheel, mostly that on the isolated wheel, and then gives the background to F1 aerodynamics in the late 2000s.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1662
Jyotishman Ghosh, Andrea Tonoli, Nicola Amati, Weitao Chen
Abstract A method for estimating the sideslip angle of a Formula SAE vehicle with torque vectoring is presented. Torque vectoring introduces large tire longitudinal forces which lead to a reduction of the tire lateral forces. A novel tire model is utilized to represent this reduction of the lateral forces. The estimation is realized using an extended Kalman filter which takes in standard sensor measurements. The developed algorithm is tested by simulating slalom and figure eight maneuvers on a validated VI-CarRealTime vehicle model. Results indicate that the algorithm is able to estimate the sideslip angle of the vehicle reliably on a high friction surface track.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0193
Sankalp Talegaonkar, Mohammad Rafiq B. Agrewale, Kamalkishore Chhaganlal Vora
Abstract The Exhaust Noise is one of the major noise pollutants. It is well-known that for higher noise reduction, the engine has to bear high back pressure. For a race car, back-pressure plays a major role in engine's performance characteristics. For a given condition of engine rpm & load, conventional muffler has a fixed value of back-pressure and noise attenuation. Better acceleration requires low back-pressure, but the exhaust noise should also be less than the required (Norm) value (110 dBA). This contradicting condition is achieved here by using a ‘Butterfly Valve’ in this novel exhaust muffler. The butterfly valve assumes 2 positions i.e. fully open & fully closed. When the valve is fully closed, the noise reduction will be higher, but the back-pressure will also shoot up. When open, noise reduction will be less and so the back-pressure. So, when better performance is required, the valve is opened and back-pressure is reduced.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0838
Tadamasa Fukuoka, Kazuki Fujimoto, Yuya Hongo, Shinji Kajiwara
Kinki University formula project has been participating in the student Formula SAE of Japan (JSAE) every year for the Competition since the second time. The engine uses ZX-6R made by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for the Competition from the eighth time. “Improvement of limited performance” is inserted in the concept through the development of a power train. Supercharger loading, engine dry sump and engine cooling management were improved. 59.6 kW (80.6 PS) /9000 rpm of maximum output and 70.6 Nm (7.2 kgf m)/8000 rpm of maximum torque were achieved by the supercharger loading. We succeeded in getting 90% of torque band (4000∼10000rpm) by 50% of the number of revolutions in regular use (2000∼12000rpm). Using the dry sump system, hydraulic pressure constantly managed hydraulic pressure at the time of engine operations; the system, where the engine stops at the time of hydraulic pressure fall, was also built.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0839
Koichiro Kawata
In motorcycle race represented by MotoGP, the motorcycle bank angle in turning state reaches approximately 60 degrees. In such a large bank angle, it is important that response of the motorcycle for the road surface displacement input is relaxed by designing the frame with low stiffness in the side direction to secure the speed on cornering. On the other hand, strong frame stiffness of longitudinal direction is required with a proper frame displacement to resist large force by the rapid deceleration. As seen above, regarding stiffness of longitudinal and side direction of the frame of motorcycle, one should be high, and the other should be low. However, in general, the ratio estimated by stiffness of side direction per that of longitudinal direction is approximately constant with existing frame. This means that if the frame stiffness of side direction is lowered, that of the longitudinal would also be lowered accordingly.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 728

Filter

Subtopics