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Viewing 1 to 30 of 716
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0026
Meichun Peng, Jiahao Wang, Jiaru li
Abstract It was developed an eco-driving cycle for an energy saving race car. A fuel consumption simulation model of race car was established to simulate the real engine and vehicle performance based on driving rules and racing track condition. It was studied the effects of engine throttle opening and the vehicle speed in acceleration and deceleration modes on fuel consumption. Several driving schemes were proposed and compared, the optimum results are as follows: with lowest fuel consumption, the engine throttle opening is 60% to 80%, the vehicle speed range is 5 to 65km/h during acceleration and deceleration modes. In addition, the race car should coast in neutral fully at deceleration mode within the allowable running time of the racing rules. An eco-driving cycle was designed based on the optimum results. The simulating results show that the race car fuel consumption with the eco-driving cycle can be reduced by 37% comparing with previous one.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2224
Miriam Di Russo, Jerry Ku, Juan Briones Idrovo
Abstract This paper details the development of the control algorithms to characterize the behavior of an electrohydraulic actuated dry clutch used in the powertrain of the Wayne State University EcoCAR 3 Pre-Transmission Parallel hybrid vehicle. The paper describes the methodology and processes behind the development of the clutch physical model and electronic control unit to support the calibration of the vehicle’s hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. The team is in final stages of Year Two competition, which focuses on the powertrain components integration into the selected hybrid architecture. The dry clutch used by the team to enable the coupling between the engine and the electric motor is a key component of the Pre-Transmission Parallel configuration.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2225
Juan Sebastian Briones Idrovo, Jerry Ku
Abstract This paper details the development of a test-bench simulation to characterize the behavior of an electro-hydraulic actuated dry clutch used in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain architecture of Wayne State University EcoCAR 3. Engage and disengage systems play a crucial role in a pre-transmission parallel hybrid architecture. The most common device used to meet the purpose of physically connecting internal combustion engine and electric powertrains is a dry clutch. Its own characteristics and capabilities allow its usage for this application. The transition between the pure electric and hybrid modes is dictated by the main control strategy. Therefore, the engaging system will be widely used when switching from charge depleting to charge sustaining mode, and vice versa. In addition, when torque is required from both sources for higher performance, the clutch will be responsible for mechanically connecting both torque sources.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2222
Eduardo D. Marquez, Douglas Nelson
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is currently developing a control strategy for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The hybrid powertrain is being implemented in a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro for the EcoCAR 3 competition. Fuzzy rule sets determine the torque split between the motor and the engine using the accelerator pedal position, vehicle speed and state of charge (SOC) as the input variables. The torque producing components are a 280 kW V8 L83 engine with active fuel management (AFM) and a post-transmission (P3) 100 kW custom motor. The vehicle operates in charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes. In CD mode, the model drives as an electric vehicle (EV) and depletes the battery pack till a lower state of charge threshold is reached. Then CS operation begins, and driver demand is supplied by the engine operating in V8 or AFM modes with supplemental or loading torque from the P3 motor.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1576
Federico Ballo, Gianpiero Mastinu, Massimiliano Gobbi
Abstract Mass minimization is a key objective for the design of racing motorcycle wheels. The structural optimization of a front motorcycle wheel is presented in the paper. Topology Optimization has been employed for deriving optimized structural layouts. The minimum compliance problem has been solved, symmetry and periodicity constraints have been introduced. The wheel has been optimized by considering several loading conditions. Actual loads have been measured during track tests by means of a special measuring wheel. The forces applied by the tire to the rim have been introduced in an original way. Different solutions characterized by different numbers of spokes have been analyzed and compared. The actual racing wheel has been further optimized accounting for technological constraints and the mass has been reduced down to 2.9 kilograms.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0003
Alberto Taraborrelli, Francesco Braghin
Abstract This paper reports the studies, design and developments of an electronic electro-actuated gearshifter installed on the DP7, which is Politecnico di Milano car that took part at Formula SAE 2015 competitions in Hockenheim and Varano dè Melegari. The original idea was born to replace the hydraulic gearshift system used until 2011 because of its high weight and cost. After many evaluations about the kind of technology to use, made by previous team members in the electronic department, the final project was a fully electric shifter. This system has proven its qualities among which are lightness and low cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0174
Jun Ni, Jibin Hu, Xueyuan Li, Bin Xu, Junjie Zhou
Abstract In order to discuss the limit handling performance of a FSAE race car, a method to generate the G-G diagram was proposed based on phase plane concept. The simulated G-G diagram was validated by experiments with an electric FSAE race car. In section 1, a nonlinear 7 DOFs dynamic model of a certain electric FSAE race car was built. The tire mechanical properties were described by Magic Formula, and the tire test data was provided by FSAE TTC. In section 2, firstly the steady-state yaw rate response was discussed in different vehicle speed and lateral acceleration based on the simulations. Then the method to generate the G-G diagram based on phase plane concept was proposed, and the simulated G-G diagram of a certain FSAE race car was obtained. In section 3, the testbed FSAE race car was described, including the important apparatuses used in the experiments. Based on the race track experiment, the G-G diagram of the race car was obtained.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0429
Paul Augustine, Timothy Hunter, Nathan Sievers, Xiaoru Guo
Abstract The performance of a structural design significantly depends upon the assumptions made on input load. In order to estimate the input load, during the design and development stage of the suspension assembly of a BAJA car, designers and analysts invest immense amount of time and effort to formulate the mathematical model of the design. These theoretical formulations may include idealization errors which can affect the performance of the car as a final product. Due to the errors associated with the assumption of design load, several components might have more weight or may have less strength than needed. This discrepancy between the assumed input load (lab or theoretical studies) and the actual load from the environment can be eliminated by performing a real life testing process using load recovery methodology. Commercial load cells exist in industry to give engineers insight to understanding the complex real world loading of their structures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1612
Francesco Mariani, Francesco Risi, Nicola Bartolini, Francesco Castellani, Lorenzo Scappaticci
Abstract Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors in the development of racing cars. At the speeds of formula cars reach the formula cars, the driver's neck can be subjected to stresses resulting from the aerodynamic forces acting on the helmet; developing an aerodynamic project that takes into account the comfort of the driver without affecting performance is certainly considered a challenging activity. The aim of the present work is to develop a low-pitching-momenthelmet for formula racing cars optimizing the shape and location, applying some aerodynamic appendices. This goal is pursued by adopting an approach based on both experimental and numerical activities. First, the aerodynamic configuration of an existing helmet was examined; through a testing campaign in the wind tunnel facilities of Perugia University, pressures acting on the helmet were scanned at various speeds and data about aerodynamic drag were collected.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1588
Abdalla Abdel-Rahman, Martin Agelin-Chaab, Gary Elfstrom, John Komar
Abstract Wind tunnels with integrated aerodynamic and thermodynamic testing with yaw capabilities are not common. In this study however, an integrated aerodynamic and thermodynamic testing system with yaw capabilities is developed and applied in the climatic wind tunnel at the University of Ontario-Institute of Technology (UOIT). This was done by installing an incremental force measuring system (FMS) on the large turntable that features a chassis dynamometer. The testing system was utilized to implement an integrated aero-thermal test on a full-scale race car. An efficient testing protocol was developed to streamline the integrated testing process. The FMS was used to enhance the test car’s stability, cornering speed, and fuel efficiency by using aerodynamic devices. These objectives were achieved by installing a high rear wing to increase the rear downforce, a modified front splitter extension to produce a front downforce gain, and front canards to contribute to drag reduction.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1581
Felix Wittmeier, Armin Michelbach, Jochen Wiedemann, Victor Senft
Abstract With its recent wind tunnel upgrade, FKFS installed the first interchangeable three-belt / five-belt-system (FKFS first®) in a full scale automotive wind tunnel. With the five-belt system, which today is a state-of-the-art ground simulation technique, the system is ideally suited for production vehicle development work. The five-belt system offers high flexibility, quick access to the underfloor and vehicle fixation, and setting the vehicle’s ride height by the restraint device. The first results of the five-belt system have already been published in SAE 2015-01-1557 [1]. The three-belt system on the other hand, offers a much more sophisticated ground simulation technique which is necessary especially for sports and racing cars. For such vehicles with very low ground clearances, it is important to have a more accurate ground simulation, in order to capture the same aerodynamic modes of action and response as on the road.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1173
Federico Bengolea, Stephen Samuel
Abstract In the continuous search for technology to improve the fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas emission levels from the automotive vehicle, the automotive industry has been evaluating various technological options. Since the introduction of stringent legislative targets in Europe as well as in the United States of America in late 20th Century, one of the viable options identified by the industry was the application of alternative powertrain. On the motorsport arena, changes introduced by the Formula 1 governing body (FIA) for the high-performance racing engines also focuses on fuel economy. FIA regulation for 2014 restricts the fuel-flow rate to a maximum of 100kg/hr beyond 10,500 rev/min and prescribe fuel flow rate below 10,500 rev/min operating conditions for the F1 Engines. In addition, Formula1 and Le Mans racing regulations actively promote the integration of the hybrid powertrain in order to achieve optimum fuel economy.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1589
Jackie A. Mohrfeld-Halterman, Mesbah Uddin
Abstract Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations and its application in a race vehicle multi-body full lap simulation. Developed to fit quasi steady state (QSS) wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1611
Masaki Nakagawa, Stephan Kallweit, Frank Michaux, Teppei Hojo
Abstract This paper presents typical flow structures around a 60%-scale wind-tunnel model of a Formula One (F1) car, using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). The customized PIV system is permanently installed in a wind tunnel to help aerodynamicists in the development loop. The PIV results enhance the understanding of the mean velocity field in the two-dimensional plane in some important areas of the car, such as the front-wheel wake and the underfloor flow. These real phenomena obtained in the wind tunnel also help maintain the accuracy of simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by allowing regular checking of the correlation with the real-world counterpart. This paper first surveys recent literature on unique flow structures around the rotating exposed wheel, mostly that on the isolated wheel, and then gives the background to F1 aerodynamics in the late 2000s.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1662
Jyotishman Ghosh, Andrea Tonoli, Nicola Amati, Weitao Chen
Abstract A method for estimating the sideslip angle of a Formula SAE vehicle with torque vectoring is presented. Torque vectoring introduces large tire longitudinal forces which lead to a reduction of the tire lateral forces. A novel tire model is utilized to represent this reduction of the lateral forces. The estimation is realized using an extended Kalman filter which takes in standard sensor measurements. The developed algorithm is tested by simulating slalom and figure eight maneuvers on a validated VI-CarRealTime vehicle model. Results indicate that the algorithm is able to estimate the sideslip angle of the vehicle reliably on a high friction surface track.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0193
Sankalp Talegaonkar, Mohammad Rafiq B. Agrewale, Kamalkishore Chhaganlal Vora
Abstract The Exhaust Noise is one of the major noise pollutants. It is well-known that for higher noise reduction, the engine has to bear high back pressure. For a race car, back-pressure plays a major role in engine's performance characteristics. For a given condition of engine rpm & load, conventional muffler has a fixed value of back-pressure and noise attenuation. Better acceleration requires low back-pressure, but the exhaust noise should also be less than the required (Norm) value (110 dBA). This contradicting condition is achieved here by using a ‘Butterfly Valve’ in this novel exhaust muffler. The butterfly valve assumes 2 positions i.e. fully open & fully closed. When the valve is fully closed, the noise reduction will be higher, but the back-pressure will also shoot up. When open, noise reduction will be less and so the back-pressure. So, when better performance is required, the valve is opened and back-pressure is reduced.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0838
Tadamasa Fukuoka, Kazuki Fujimoto, Yuya Hongo, Shinji Kajiwara
Kinki University formula project has been participating in the student Formula SAE of Japan (JSAE) every year for the Competition since the second time. The engine uses ZX-6R made by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for the Competition from the eighth time. “Improvement of limited performance” is inserted in the concept through the development of a power train. Supercharger loading, engine dry sump and engine cooling management were improved. 59.6 kW (80.6 PS) /9000 rpm of maximum output and 70.6 Nm (7.2 kgf m)/8000 rpm of maximum torque were achieved by the supercharger loading. We succeeded in getting 90% of torque band (4000∼10000rpm) by 50% of the number of revolutions in regular use (2000∼12000rpm). Using the dry sump system, hydraulic pressure constantly managed hydraulic pressure at the time of engine operations; the system, where the engine stops at the time of hydraulic pressure fall, was also built.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0839
Koichiro Kawata
In motorcycle race represented by MotoGP, the motorcycle bank angle in turning state reaches approximately 60 degrees. In such a large bank angle, it is important that response of the motorcycle for the road surface displacement input is relaxed by designing the frame with low stiffness in the side direction to secure the speed on cornering. On the other hand, strong frame stiffness of longitudinal direction is required with a proper frame displacement to resist large force by the rapid deceleration. As seen above, regarding stiffness of longitudinal and side direction of the frame of motorcycle, one should be high, and the other should be low. However, in general, the ratio estimated by stiffness of side direction per that of longitudinal direction is approximately constant with existing frame. This means that if the frame stiffness of side direction is lowered, that of the longitudinal would also be lowered accordingly.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2863
Yogesh Sharma, Rohit Kumar Garg, Rishabh Raj Bhargava, Aadityeshwar Saran Singh Deo, Aditya Krishna, Shubham Garg, Rahul Mehendiratta, Ankit Goila
There has been a rapid increase in popularity of multipurpose All-terrain vehicles (ATV) across the globe over the past few years. SAE BAJA event gives student-community an opportunity to delve deeper into the nitty-gritty of designing a single seat, four-wheeled off road vehicle. The design and development methodology presented in this paper is useful in conceptualization of an ATV for SAE BAJA event. The vehicle is divided into various subsystems including chassis, suspension, drive train, steering, and braking system. Further these subsystems are designed and comprehensively analyzed in software like SolidWorks, ANSYS, WINGEO and MS-Excel. The 3-D model of roll cage is designed in SolidWorks and analyzed in ANSYS 9.0 for front, rear and side impact along with front and side roll-over conditions. Special case of wheel bump is also analyzed. Weight, wall thickness and bending strength of tubing used for roll cage are comprehensively studied.
2015-09-27
Journal Article
2015-01-2679
David B. Antanaitis
Abstract An aspect of high performance brake design that has remained strikingly empirical is that of determining the correct sizing of the brake pad - in terms of both area and volume - to match well with a high performance vehicle application. Too small of a pad risks issues with fade and wear life on the track, and too large has significant penalties in cost, mass, and packaging space of the caliper, along with difficulties in maintaining adequate caliper stiffness and its impact on pedal feel and response time. As most who have spent time around high performance brakes can attest to, there methods for determining minimum brake pad area, usually related in some form or another to the peak power the brake must absorb (functions of vehicle mass and top speed are common). However, the basis for these metrics are often lost (or closely guarded), and provide very little guidance for the effects of the final design (pad area) deviating from the recommended value.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0359
Paulo Augusto Soliman, Mario Eduardo Santos Martins, Adriano Schommer
Abstract This paper presents the design process of an aerodynamic kit for a Formula SAE competition vehicle using CFD with special attention to the distribution of aerodynamic loads. The methodology for the development of concepts is to create a boundary that respects the geometric constraints of the vehicle and also complies with FSAE 2015/16 Rules. Inside these boundaries different geometries of aerodynamic accessories can be analyzed and several full vehicle models can be created. The initial model is conceived based on the literature and then analyzed with CFD to generate another model. The process is repeated until it reaches a model that cannot be considered optimum but is close enough to the targets previously defined. The governing equations for the numerical simulation are presented as well as the reason for their use.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0409
Gabriel Kuntzer, Mario E. S. Martins, Fernando M. Bayer, Paulo A. Soliman, Marcello Sangaletti
Abstract The performance required by the actual spark ignition engines have increased the demands on the cooling system. In addition, in formula style competitions like Formula SAE the use of aerodynamics brought new problems about airflow restriction, requiring a complex study in the heat exchange area. The ideal cooling system in this case uses a heat exchanger that will maintain the engine on the optimum working temperature. To make this possible the paper presents a methods of evaluating heat exchangers and to predict the heat generated by the engine. In order to get the data needed for the analysis, some experimental measurements are made, the water pump flow rate are measured and temperature sensors are added to both, cold and hot, fluids. The air velocity profile through the radiator core showed to be a very important factor in this situation, trying to predict it, CFD simulations have been used.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0436
Carlos A. P. da Costa, Pedro A. do P. P. Maciel, Diego F. da Cruz, Bruno S. F. C. H. Santos
Abstract The use of automatic transmissions currently is associated with softness and comfort while driving, and almost never during races. Despite the many benefits that its application can provide, there is still in the auto racing field a fear of the implementation of this system. Many sport steering fans prefer the manual, sequential or semi-automatic transmissions, because of the fact that in automotive competitions, it is the driver who sets the best time to change the gear. However, the use of Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) does not only keep the engine always at its best power range, but also eliminates waste of time between gear changes, which can theoretically ensure more uniform and efficient acceleration. In this work, we studied the application of a continuously variable transmission in the Formula CEFAST team's prototype at the Federal Center of Technological Education of Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG) in Belo Horizonte.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0147
André Tognolli, Camila Cristina Garcia Serafim, Bruno Afonso Garcia
Abstract This paper explores the method of modeling and validation the computational tools able to accurately replicate the dynamic behavior of a Formula SAE vehicle. Based on limitations in conducting physical tests, it is possible to mathematically predict the forces and momentum generated on the steering column of the vehicle, minimizing effort and improving driver comfort even before the component physically manufactured. The results in permanent state due technical instrumentations were used in the physical vehicles and compared with other proposals (skid Pad test). As the software simulating the same path, it was possible to adopt values of speed and wheel steering, allowing compare the dynamics of the vehicle, through the signals from other sensors installed in the data acquisition system, validating the behavior of the models presented in permanent state. Other aspects were studied to understand vehicle behavior concerning lateral stability and steering behavior.
2015-09-22
Technical Paper
2015-36-0539
Lucas Travi Farias, Adriano Schommer, Bruno Ziegler Haselein, Paulo Soliman, Leandro Costa de Oliveira
Abstract High performance vehicles are subjected to a high level of loads during short time intervals. Due this situation, manufacturing procedures that conventionally are used in the automotive industry commonly do not achieve the design specifications defined to maximize the overall performance of the vehicle. This situation is highlighted when the overall performance of the system depends on a compromise between variables. The research developed by a German motorsport team aimed to fix the overheating problem found on the front brake system of a Formula SAE prototype using topology optimization combined with the manufacturing processes called Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) to develop and fabricate a new 4 piston monoblock brake caliper. The DMLS process is based on powder metallurgy, using an Yb-fibre laser to melt a powder material and generate the product by a progressive deposition of layers.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0414
Rory Lilley, M. Sh. Asfoor, Michael Santora, Dan Cordon, Edwin Odom, Steven W. Beyerlein
Abstract Over the last five years the Vandal Hybrid Racing team at the University of Idaho has developed a compact, lightweight, and mass centralized vehicle design with a rule-based energy management system. Major areas of innovation are a close fitting frame design made possible by the location of major components and engine modifications to improve performance. The innovative design features include a custom designed engine, battery pack and simplistic hybrid coupling system. The vehicle also incorporates a trailing link suspension, and realization of a rule-based Energy Management System (EMS) which determines the power split of the combustion and electric systems. The EMS oversees the operation of the Lynch electric motor and the YZ250F engine that is housed in a custom crankcase. The battery pack can initially store 2 MJ of energy in a single 50 lb. lithium polymer battery pack that is located underneath the cockpit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1536
Brett C. Peters, Mesbah Uddin, Jeremy Bain, Alex Curley, Maxwell Henry
Abstract Currently, most of the Navier-Stokes equation based Computational Fluid Dynamic solvers rely heavily on the robustness of unstructured finite volume discretization to solve complex flows. Widely used finite volume solvers are restricted to second order spatial accuracy while structured finite difference codes can easily resolve up to five orders of spatial discretization and beyond. In order to solve flow around complicated geometries, unstructured finite volume codes are employed to avoid tedious and time consuming handmade structured meshes. By using overset grids and NASA's overset grid solver, Overflow, structured finite difference solutions are achievable for complex geometries such as the DrivAer [1] model. This allows for higher order flow structures to be captured as compared to traditional finite volume schemes. The current paper compares flow field solutions computed with finite volume and finite difference methods to experimental results of the DrivAer model [1].
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1539
Joshua Newbon, Robert Dominy, David Sims-Williams
Abstract It is well known that in motorsport the wake from an upstream vehicle can be detrimental to the handling characteristics of a following vehicle, in particular in formulae with high levels of downforce. Previous investigations have been performed to characterize the wake from an open wheel race car and its effect on a following car, either through the use of multiple vehicles or purpose-built wake generators. This study investigates how the wake of an upstream race car impacts the aerodynamic performance of a following car in a close-following scenario. Wakes are imposed on the inlet of a CFD simulation and wake parameters (eg: velocity deficit, trailing vorticity) are directly manipulated to investigate their individual impacts on the following vehicle. The approach provides a useful alternative to the simulation of multi-vehicle cases but a better simulation could be achieved by including wake unsteadiness from the upstream vehicle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1520
Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu, Federico Ballo, Giorgio Previati
Abstract A wheel able to measure the generalized forces at the hub of a race motorcycle has been developed and used. The wheel has a very limited mass. It is made from magnesium with a special structure to sense the forces and provide the required level of stiffness. The wheel has been tested both indoor for preliminary approval and on the track. The three forces and the three moments acting at the hub can be measured with a resolution of 1N and 0.3Nm respectively. A specifically programmed DSP (Digital Signal Processor) embedded in the sensor allows real-time acquisition and processing of the six signals of forces/torques components. The signals are sent via Bluetooth to an onboard receiver connected to the vehicle CAN (Controller Area Network) bus. Each signal is sampled at 200Hz. The wheel can be used to derive the actual tyre characteristics or to record the loads acting at the hub.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0740
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon, John W. Melvin, Mike Rains
Abstract Throughout the first decade of the twenty first century, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) race series. Enhancements to the occupant restraint system include the development and implementation of head and neck restraints, minimum performance requirements for belts and seats and the introduction of energy absorbing foam are a few highlights, among others. This paper discusses nineteen sled tests used to analyze hypothesized improvements to restraint system mounting geometry. The testing matrix included three sled acceleration profiles, three impact orientations, two Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) sizes as well as the restraint system design variables.
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