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Viewing 1 to 30 of 689
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1539
Joshua Newbon, Robert Dominy, David Sims-Williams
Abstract It is well known that in motorsport the wake from an upstream vehicle can be detrimental to the handling characteristics of a following vehicle, in particular in formulae with high levels of downforce. Previous investigations have been performed to characterize the wake from an open wheel race car and its effect on a following car, either through the use of multiple vehicles or purpose-built wake generators. This study investigates how the wake of an upstream race car impacts the aerodynamic performance of a following car in a close-following scenario. Wakes are imposed on the inlet of a CFD simulation and wake parameters (eg: velocity deficit, trailing vorticity) are directly manipulated to investigate their individual impacts on the following vehicle. The approach provides a useful alternative to the simulation of multi-vehicle cases but a better simulation could be achieved by including wake unsteadiness from the upstream vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1536
Brett C. Peters, Mesbah Uddin, Jeremy Bain, Alex Curley, Maxwell Henry
Abstract Currently, most of the Navier-Stokes equation based Computational Fluid Dynamic solvers rely heavily on the robustness of unstructured finite volume discretization to solve complex flows. Widely used finite volume solvers are restricted to second order spatial accuracy while structured finite difference codes can easily resolve up to five orders of spatial discretization and beyond. In order to solve flow around complicated geometries, unstructured finite volume codes are employed to avoid tedious and time consuming handmade structured meshes. By using overset grids and NASA's overset grid solver, Overflow, structured finite difference solutions are achievable for complex geometries such as the DrivAer [1] model. This allows for higher order flow structures to be captured as compared to traditional finite volume schemes. The current paper compares flow field solutions computed with finite volume and finite difference methods to experimental results of the DrivAer model [1].
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0739
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon
Abstract Over the last decade large safety improvements have been made in crash protection for motorsports drivers. It has been well established that in side and rear impacts the driver seat provides the primary source for occupant retention and restraint. Beginning in the 2015 season, NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) Sprint Cup Series will require driver seats which have all seat belt restraint system anchorage locations integrated internally to the seat with a minimum of seven anchorage locations. This paper describes the development of the quasi-static test for the seat integrated seat belt restraint system portion of the NASCAR Seat Submission and Test Protocol Criteria. It reviews the methodology used to develop the testing including the developmental dynamic sled tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0228
Francesco Braghin, Francesco Salis
Abstract The objective of this study is to demonstrate the design and construction of an innovative active gear-shift and clutch for racecars, applied to a Formula Student car, based on the use of DC gear-motors. Racecars require extremely quick gear-shifts and every system to be as light as possible. The proposed solution is designed to reduce energy consumption, weight and improve gear-shift precision compared to traditionally employed electro-hydraulic solutions, although maintaining state of the art performances.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0414
Rory Lilley, M. Sh. Asfoor, Michael Santora, Dan Cordon, Edwin Odom, Steven W. Beyerlein
Abstract Over the last five years the Vandal Hybrid Racing team at the University of Idaho has developed a compact, lightweight, and mass centralized vehicle design with a rule-based energy management system. Major areas of innovation are a close fitting frame design made possible by the location of major components and engine modifications to improve performance. The innovative design features include a custom designed engine, battery pack and simplistic hybrid coupling system. The vehicle also incorporates a trailing link suspension, and realization of a rule-based Energy Management System (EMS) which determines the power split of the combustion and electric systems. The EMS oversees the operation of the Lynch electric motor and the YZ250F engine that is housed in a custom crankcase. The battery pack can initially store 2 MJ of energy in a single 50 lb. lithium polymer battery pack that is located underneath the cockpit.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1520
Massimiliano Gobbi, Giampiero Mastinu, Federico Ballo, Giorgio Previati
Abstract A wheel able to measure the generalized forces at the hub of a race motorcycle has been developed and used. The wheel has a very limited mass. It is made from magnesium with a special structure to sense the forces and provide the required level of stiffness. The wheel has been tested both indoor for preliminary approval and on the track. The three forces and the three moments acting at the hub can be measured with a resolution of 1N and 0.3Nm respectively. A specifically programmed DSP (Digital Signal Processor) embedded in the sensor allows real-time acquisition and processing of the six signals of forces/torques components. The signals are sent via Bluetooth to an onboard receiver connected to the vehicle CAN (Controller Area Network) bus. Each signal is sampled at 200Hz. The wheel can be used to derive the actual tyre characteristics or to record the loads acting at the hub.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1566
Youngil Koh, Kyongsu Yi, Kilsoo Kim
Abstract This paper presents a tire slip-angle based speed control race driver model. In developing a chassis control system for enhancement of high-speed driving performance, analysis of the vehicle-driver interaction at limit handling is one of the main research issues. Thus, a driver model which represents driving characteristics in a racing situation is required to develop a chassis control system. Since a race driver drives a vehicle as fast as possible on a given racing line without losing control, the proposed driver model is developed to ensure a lateral stability. In racing situation, one of the reasons which cause the lateral instabilities is an excessive corner-entry speed. The lateral instability in that moment is hard to handle with only a steering control. To guarantee the lateral stability of the vehicle while maximizing a cornering speed, a desired speed is determined to retain a tire slip-angle that maximizes lateral tire forces without front tire saturation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0727
Udayakumar Rajamanickam, Anshul Singhal, Miller Jothi
Abstract This paper aims at Fiber Reinforced Panel or FRP mold and panel manufacturing of body panel and driver seat for a Formula Society of Automotive Engineers or FSAE racecar. The competition involves designing a Formula 1 type car that lays the standards for a high performance-racing car [1]. This calls for a high Power: Weight ratio. The rules of the competition ensure a mandatory use of an air restrictor with an engine of a maximum capacity of 600cc to reduce the power of the engines [2]. Hence, to compensate for the loss of power the target now shifts to minimizing the car's weight without compromising the strength. The body panel and driver's seat are two most valuable parts as the first adds elegance and aerodynamics to the car while the latter makes it comfortable for the driver to drive the car under high lateral load shifts. Weight reduction in this area is easier as strength is not the dominating factor.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0740
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon, John W. Melvin, Mike Rains
Abstract Throughout the first decade of the twenty first century, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) race series. Enhancements to the occupant restraint system include the development and implementation of head and neck restraints, minimum performance requirements for belts and seats and the introduction of energy absorbing foam are a few highlights, among others. This paper discusses nineteen sled tests used to analyze hypothesized improvements to restraint system mounting geometry. The testing matrix included three sled acceleration profiles, three impact orientations, two Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) sizes as well as the restraint system design variables.
2015-03-30
Technical Paper
2015-01-0094
Supakit Rooppakhun, Pornporm Boonporm, Worawat Puangcha-um
Abstract In this study, the method of analyzing the thin-wall crashing box of impact attenuator for student formula is proposed by the means of simulation and validation following Formula Society of Automotive Engineers-SAE rules. The analysis was performed based on computerized simulation software for calculated the absorption capacity of the simple and multiple cell of thin-walled tubes. The effect of thin-wall thickness consisted of 1.2 mm, 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm was also evaluated. The simulation results as energy absorption, crashing force efficiency, and absorbed energy per unit mass were identified among nine patterns. According to the results, the increase of interior cell number and the wall thickness contribute the absorbed energy ability. However, the increment of wall thickness lead to the increase of crashing force magnitude. Regarding the kinetic energy, a 2×2 multiple cell box with the thickness of 2 mm is designated for construction and verify.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0073
Hayden Charles Smith, Sam Paterson, Clara Mazzone, Sammy Diasinos, Graham Doig
Abstract The Sunswift Solar Car project has been running at UNSW Australia in Sydney for 20 years as of 2015. It is an entirely student-run endeavour which revolves around the design and development of a solar/electric vehicle nominally designed to compete in the World Solar Challenge rally from Darwin to Adelaide every 2 years. The student cohort is drawn from a range of schools, disciplines and backgrounds, and the team has been increasingly successful and high-profile particularly in its second decade. The excellent level of hands-on training that the project provides to students is not rewarded with academic credit yet many of the alumni credit the project with launching their careers and ambitions. The team's world record-breaking latest vehicle, eVe, is the fifth constructed and presents a radical departure from previous cars in that it carries a passenger in a conventional layout and is based around a road-going sports car.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0072
Sahil Kakria, Daljeet Singh
Abstract Suspension and chassis play a vital role in the structural performance of a Formula SAE vehicle. This paper focuses on CAE modeling and simulation study of the FSAE vehicle structure to analyze and improve its characteristics; and also the fabrication of the structure. This has been done for the current vehicle prepared according to 2014 Formula SAE rules; as part of Thapar University (TU) Formula student team - Team Fateh. The study started with Multi Body Dynamic (MBD) model building of front and rear suspension system using ADAMS/Car and Finite Element (FE) model building of space frame type chassis using HyperMesh for the current (2014) and previous (2011 and 2012) TU FSAE vehicles. The MBD model was used for carrying out kinematic analysis (suspension wheel travel) to calculate and analyze the roll centers using Design of Experiments (DOE) study.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0064
Sung Hoon Cho
Abstract The rollcage for WRC race body/rollcage has been developed and optimized by DFSS methodology. It is designed on the principle of reducing it to a Min. of weight compared to the other OEM and the initial set-up model with the torsional stiffness and strength increased. As a result, 12% increased torsional stiffness, maximized strength and 3.7% weight reduction could be achieved. In terms of economics, it is feasible to have a production cost savings of about 11% per car and the effect is further, considering the development period is substantially decreased, 5 to 2 months. Also, in the process of optimizing rollcage structure, applicable items to monocoque body are suggested by investigating the parts and structures that highly affect the body performance.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0071
Marc Russouw
A broad spectrum of modelling techniques exists for predicting tyre performance and force characteristics under various operating conditions. These can range from purely theoretical models to semi-empirical fits of data collected from constrained or on-vehicle testing. This paper puts forward a combination of existing techniques for modelling the performance of a racing slick tyre using data obtained from constrained tyre testing with the aim of reducing computational expense and capturing salient differences in tyre behaviour under changes in inclination angle, pressure and normal load. The force vs. slip data is non-dimensionalised and compressed such that a single characteristic curve taking into account the above parameters can be fitted and then expanded. Response surface modelling of the characteristic curve coefficients is also used to interpolate tyre performance between the test data points.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0078
John Christensen
Abstract The Curtin Motorsport Team (CMT) currently utilise a 4130 alloy steel space frame chassis for their entry into the Formula SAE-A competition (FSAE). According to SolidWorks models, the current chassis has a weight of 32kg with a torsional stiffness of 744Nm/degree. Although this is an adequate system proven to be cost effective, relatively easy to manufacture and is torsionally stiff enough for a chassis in FSAE, CMT wish to investigate the feasibility of a carbon fibre monocoque chassis. The main goals of this paper are to benchmark the current space frame chassis design, and investigate feasibility of a carbon fibre monocoque, while reducing the chassis' weight, and increasing its torsional stiffness without increasing manufacture time. Preliminary modelling indicates that a transition to a half monocoque will yield a weight drop of 18kg, and a full monocoque will yield a drop of 23kg.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0022
James Keogh, Tracie Barber, Sammy Diasinos, Graham Doig
Abstract When a vehicle travels through a corner it can experience a significant change in aerodynamic performance due to the curved path of its motion. The yaw angle of the flow will vary along its length and the relative velocity of the flow will increase with distance from the central axis of its rotation. Aerodynamic analysis of vehicles in the cornering condition is an important design parameter, particularly in motorsport. Most racing-cars are designed to produce downforce that will compromise straight-line speed to allow large gains to be made in the corners. Despite the cornering condition being important, aerodynamicists are restricted in their ability to replicate the condition experimentally. Whirling arms, rotary rigs, curved test sections and bent wind tunnel models are experimental techniques capable of replicating some aspects of the cornering condition, but are all compromised solutions.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0185
Kartik Panchal
Abstract The front and rear wings are essential in race cars in order to increase the down-force and enhance the stability of vehicle at high speed. The present work focuses on the computational modeling of NACA 4412 airfoil for front and rear wing of the racing vehicle and assesses its performance characteristics. The effect on wing characteristics in vicinity of ground and tire for varying angle of attack in moving ground frame has been studied. The computation has been carried out using high fidelity computational fluid dynamics model to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The front wing has been split into two parts main wing and flap with chord length of 0.3 m and 0.15 m respectively. Similarly, the rear wing was modeled with the chord length 0.3 m and aspect ratio of 1.5. The pressure and velocity flow distribution over the body of the vehicle has been studied for varying angle of attack.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0208
Xiongwen Lu
Abstract The main purpose of this paper is to research the aerodynamic characteristics of the Formula SAE car. A more accurate CAD model is built to reduce the impact of oversimplification. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method is adapted. The computational domain is meshed with tetrahedral and polyhedral cells and the flow field is predicted using the Realizable k - ε turbulence model. Data obtained in this study include the aerodynamic drag and lift coefficients, pressure distribution on external surfaces and velocity distribution at different cross sections. The pressure distribution is investigated in a quantitative manner. An in-depth study is undertaken to analyze the turbulence structure in the wake. The research indicates that the front and rear wings have a notable impact on the external aerodynamics of the car. Furthermore, several suggestions are put forward to make the Formula SAE car achieve higher levels of performance.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0088
Claudio Annicchiarico, Renzo Capitani
Abstract In a Formula SAE car, as for almost all racecars, suppressing or limiting the action of the differential mechanism is the technique mostly adopted to improve the traction exiting the high lateral acceleration corners. The common Limited Slip Differentials (LSDs) unbalance the traction torque distribution, generating as a secondary effect a yaw torque on the vehicle. If this feature is electronically controlled, these devices can be used to manage the attitude of the car. The yaw torque introduced by an electronically controlled LSD (which can also be called SAD, “Semi-Active Differential”) could suddenly change from oversteering (i.e. pro-yaw) to understeering (i.e. anti-yaw), depending on the driving conditions. Therefore, controlling the vehicle attitude with a SAD could be challenging, and its effectiveness could be low if compared with the common torque vectoring systems, which act on the brake system of the car.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2909
Chris D. Monaco, Chris Golecki, Benjamin Sattler, Daniel C. Haworth, Jeffrey S. Mayer, Gary Neal
Abstract As one of the fifteen universities in North America taking part in the EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future competition, The Pennsylvania State University Advanced Vehicle Team (PSUAVT) designed and implemented a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that reduces fuel consumption and emissions while maintaining high consumer acceptability and safety standards. This architecture allows the vehicle to operate as a pure electric vehicle until the Energy Storage System (ESS) State of Charge (SOC) is depleted. The Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) then supplements the battery to extend range beyond that of a purely electric vehicle. General Motors (GM) donated a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu for PSUAVT to use as the platform to implement the PSUAVT-selected series PHEV design. A 90 kW electric traction motor, a 16.2 kW-hr high capacity lithium-ion battery pack, and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) are now integrated into the vehicle.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2906
Trevor Crain, Michael Ryan Mallory, Megan Cawley, Brian Fabien, Per Reinhall
Abstract This paper details the control system development process for the University of Washington (UW) EcoCAR 2 team over the three years of the competition. Particular emphasis is placed upon the control system development and validation process executed during Year 3 of the competition in an effort to meet Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS) established and refined by the team. The EcoCAR 2 competition challenges 15 universities across North America to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu without compromising consumer acceptability. The project takes place over a three year design cycle, where teams select a hybrid architecture and fuel choice before defining a set of VTS goals for the vehicle. These VTS are selected based on the desired static and dynamic performance targets to balance fuel consumption and emissions with consumer acceptability requirements.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2907
Di Zhu, Ewan Pritchard
Abstract EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future is a three-year collegiate engineering competition established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM). North Carolina State University is designing a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) on a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu vehicle platform. The designed vehicle has a pure electric range of 55 miles and an overall range of 235 miles with a range extension system. The vehicle is designed to reduce fuel consumption and gas emission while maintaining consumer acceptability in the areas of performance, utility, and safety. This reports details the vehicle development process with an emphasis on control system development and refinement. Advanced manufacturing, modeling, and simulation have been used to ensure a safe and functional vehicle at the upcoming year 3 final competition.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2905
P. Christopher Manning, Eli White, Eduardo Marquez, Leonard Figueroa, Lucas Shoults, Douglas Nelson
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is participating in the 2012-2014 EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series organized by Argonne National Lab (ANL), and sponsored by General Motors Corporation (GM) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goals of the competition are to reduce well-to-wheel (WTW) petroleum energy consumption (PEU), WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emissions while maintaining vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and safety. Following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP), HEVT is designing, building, and refining an advanced technology vehicle over the course of the three year competition using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu donated by GM as a base vehicle.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2904
P. Christopher Manning, Eduardo D. Marquez, Leonard Figueroa, Douglas J. Nelson, Eli Hampton White, Lucas Wayne Shoults
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech is ready to compete in the Year 3 Final Competition for EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future. The team is confident in the reliability of their vehicle, and expects to finish among the top schools at Final Competition. During Year 3, the team refined the vehicle while following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP). Many refinements came about in Year 3 such as the implementation of a new rear subframe, the safety analysis of the high voltage (HV) bus, and the integration of Charge Sustaining (CS) control code. HEVT's vehicle architecture is an E85 Series-Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), which has many strengths and weaknesses. The primary strength is the pure EV mode and Series mode, which extend the range of the vehicle and reduce Petroleum Energy Usage (PEU) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2452
Colin Britcher, Wael Mokhtar, Stephen Way
Abstract Aerodynamic testing of heavy commercial vehicles is of increasing interest as demands for dramatically improved fuel economy take hold. Various challenges which compromise the fidelity of wind tunnel simulations must be overcome in order for the full potential of sophisticated aerodynamic treatments to be realized; three are addressed herein. First, a limited number of wind tunnels are available for testing of this class of vehicle at large scales. The authors suggest that facilities developed for large or full-scale testing of race cars may be an important resource. Second, ground simulation in wind tunnels has led to the development of Moving Ground Plane (MGP, aka Rolling Road (RR)) systems of various types. Questions arise as to the behavior of MGP/RR systems with vehicles at large yaw angles. It can actually be deduced that complete simulation of crosswind conditions on an open road in a wind tunnel may be impractical.
2014-09-28
Journal Article
2014-01-2487
Mohamed Samy Barakat
The Braking System is the most crucial part of the racing vehicle. There is no doubt, that if only one minority failure in the braking system took place, this would be more than enough reason to cause the racing team disqualification from the competition. Time is the main and the most important criteria for any racing competition; on the other hand the formula student “FS UK SAE” competition care the most about developing the automotive engineering sense in the students by putting them under strict rules normally taken from the original version “formula 1” to encourage their creativity to reach the optimum performance under these strict rules. One of the most important rules is “No Braking by wire”, and the obvious consequences are more stopping distance and time. Braking distance is a critical facture in achieving racing success in a competitive domain.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0561
Grant Hankins, Kenneth Krajnik, Bradley Galedrige, Shahab Sakha, Peter Hylton, Wendy Otoupal
Abstract A number of performance and safety related aspects of motorsports have begun to receive increased attention in recent years, using the types of engineering analysis common to other industries such as aerospace engineering. As these new engineering approaches have begun to play a larger role in the motorsports industry, there has been an increase in the use of engineering tools in motorsports design and an increase in the inclusion of motorsports in the engineering education process. The design, modeling, and analysis aspects of a recent project examining the design of roll cages for American short-track open-wheel racing cars will be discussed in this paper. Roll cage structures were initially integrated into cars of this type in the 1960s. Countless lives have been saved and serious injuries prevented since the introduction of cages into these types of cars.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1926
John P. Utley, David K. Irick
Abstract For the EcoCAR 2 collegiate engineering competition, The University of Tennessee is modifying a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu Eco from a mild hybrid into a series-parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. For this design, the team is exchanging the engine for one that is E85 compatible, slightly separating the engine and transmission, and coupling an electric generator to the engine. In the rear of the vehicle, a modified all-wheel drive subframe will be implemented. This subframe will house a traction motor and a single gear electric drive transmission. A custom fuel tank and fuel system will be constructed for the vehicle, in order to use E85 fuel. Furthermore, an energy storage system will be placed in the rear of the vehicle, in the trunk and spare tire space. Modifications for the packaging must be made and analysis must be performed to validate the structural integrity of all modifications.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0098
Anthony Barkman, Kelvin Tan, Arin McIntosh, Peter Hylton, Wendy Otoupal-Hylton
This paper discusses a project intended as a design study for a team of college students preparing for careers in motorsports. The project's objective was to conduct a design study on the possible redesign of the suspension for a dirt-track sprint car. The car examined was typical of those which race on one-quarter to one-half mile dirt oval tracks across the United States. The mission of this concept study was to develop a different configuration from the traditional torsion bar spring system, for the front end. The design included moving the dampers inboard with the addition of a rocker to relate the movement through the front suspension system. For the rear end, components were designed to allow the radius rod to be adjustable from the cockpit, thus providing the driver with adjustability to changing track conditions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0099
Andrea Toso, Alessandro Moroni
Abstract Professional driving simulators can be successfully exploited to shorten the traditional design-prototype testing-production process relative to a new race car. Consider as a real example the Dallara 2014 Super Formula (“SF”) race car; built in 2013 at the Dallara factory in Varano de' Melegari, Parma, Italy and scheduled to race in Japan in 2014. Professional race drivers from the SF series have already been conducting multiple test sessions with the Dallara Simulator (Dec 2012), working together with vehicle dynamicists, aerodynamicists, designers, structural engineers and engine manufacturers, in an effort to evaluate and validate kinematics, steering geometry, aerodynamics, packaging, cooling, engine performance, as well as monocoque stiffness and minor installation details, even before the design had started.
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