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Viewing 1 to 30 of 671
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0088
Claudio Annicchiarico, Renzo Capitani
Abstract In a Formula SAE car, as for almost all racecars, suppressing or limiting the action of the differential mechanism is the technique mostly adopted to improve the traction exiting the high lateral acceleration corners. The common Limited Slip Differentials (LSDs) unbalance the traction torque distribution, generating as a secondary effect a yaw torque on the vehicle. If this feature is electronically controlled, these devices can be used to manage the attitude of the car. The yaw torque introduced by an electronically controlled LSD (which can also be called SAD, “Semi-Active Differential”) could suddenly change from oversteering (i.e. pro-yaw) to understeering (i.e. anti-yaw), depending on the driving conditions. Therefore, controlling the vehicle attitude with a SAD could be challenging, and its effectiveness could be low if compared with the common torque vectoring systems, which act on the brake system of the car.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2904
P. Christopher Manning, Eduardo D. Marquez, Leonard Figueroa, Douglas J. Nelson, Eli Hampton White, Lucas Wayne Shoults
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech is ready to compete in the Year 3 Final Competition for EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future. The team is confident in the reliability of their vehicle, and expects to finish among the top schools at Final Competition. During Year 3, the team refined the vehicle while following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP). Many refinements came about in Year 3 such as the implementation of a new rear subframe, the safety analysis of the high voltage (HV) bus, and the integration of Charge Sustaining (CS) control code. HEVT's vehicle architecture is an E85 Series-Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), which has many strengths and weaknesses. The primary strength is the pure EV mode and Series mode, which extend the range of the vehicle and reduce Petroleum Energy Usage (PEU) and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2907
Di Zhu, Ewan Pritchard
Abstract EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future is a three-year collegiate engineering competition established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM). North Carolina State University is designing a Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) on a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu vehicle platform. The designed vehicle has a pure electric range of 55 miles and an overall range of 235 miles with a range extension system. The vehicle is designed to reduce fuel consumption and gas emission while maintaining consumer acceptability in the areas of performance, utility, and safety. This reports details the vehicle development process with an emphasis on control system development and refinement. Advanced manufacturing, modeling, and simulation have been used to ensure a safe and functional vehicle at the upcoming year 3 final competition.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2906
Trevor Crain, Michael Ryan Mallory, Megan Cawley, Brian Fabien, Per Reinhall
Abstract This paper details the control system development process for the University of Washington (UW) EcoCAR 2 team over the three years of the competition. Particular emphasis is placed upon the control system development and validation process executed during Year 3 of the competition in an effort to meet Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS) established and refined by the team. The EcoCAR 2 competition challenges 15 universities across North America to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu without compromising consumer acceptability. The project takes place over a three year design cycle, where teams select a hybrid architecture and fuel choice before defining a set of VTS goals for the vehicle. These VTS are selected based on the desired static and dynamic performance targets to balance fuel consumption and emissions with consumer acceptability requirements.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2905
P. Christopher Manning, Eli White, Eduardo Marquez, Leonard Figueroa, Lucas Shoults, Douglas Nelson
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is participating in the 2012-2014 EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series organized by Argonne National Lab (ANL), and sponsored by General Motors Corporation (GM) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goals of the competition are to reduce well-to-wheel (WTW) petroleum energy consumption (PEU), WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emissions while maintaining vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and safety. Following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP), HEVT is designing, building, and refining an advanced technology vehicle over the course of the three year competition using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu donated by GM as a base vehicle.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2909
Chris D. Monaco, Chris Golecki, Benjamin Sattler, Daniel C. Haworth, Jeffrey S. Mayer, Gary Neal
Abstract As one of the fifteen universities in North America taking part in the EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future competition, The Pennsylvania State University Advanced Vehicle Team (PSUAVT) designed and implemented a series plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that reduces fuel consumption and emissions while maintaining high consumer acceptability and safety standards. This architecture allows the vehicle to operate as a pure electric vehicle until the Energy Storage System (ESS) State of Charge (SOC) is depleted. The Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) then supplements the battery to extend range beyond that of a purely electric vehicle. General Motors (GM) donated a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu for PSUAVT to use as the platform to implement the PSUAVT-selected series PHEV design. A 90 kW electric traction motor, a 16.2 kW-hr high capacity lithium-ion battery pack, and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) are now integrated into the vehicle.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2452
Colin Britcher, Wael Mokhtar, Stephen Way
Abstract Aerodynamic testing of heavy commercial vehicles is of increasing interest as demands for dramatically improved fuel economy take hold. Various challenges which compromise the fidelity of wind tunnel simulations must be overcome in order for the full potential of sophisticated aerodynamic treatments to be realized; three are addressed herein. First, a limited number of wind tunnels are available for testing of this class of vehicle at large scales. The authors suggest that facilities developed for large or full-scale testing of race cars may be an important resource. Second, ground simulation in wind tunnels has led to the development of Moving Ground Plane (MGP, aka Rolling Road (RR)) systems of various types. Questions arise as to the behavior of MGP/RR systems with vehicles at large yaw angles. It can actually be deduced that complete simulation of crosswind conditions on an open road in a wind tunnel may be impractical.
2014-09-28
Journal Article
2014-01-2487
Mohamed Samy Barakat
The Braking System is the most crucial part of the racing vehicle. There is no doubt, that if only one minority failure in the braking system took place, this would be more than enough reason to cause the racing team disqualification from the competition. Time is the main and the most important criteria for any racing competition; on the other hand the formula student “FS UK SAE” competition care the most about developing the automotive engineering sense in the students by putting them under strict rules normally taken from the original version “formula 1” to encourage their creativity to reach the optimum performance under these strict rules. One of the most important rules is “No Braking by wire”, and the obvious consequences are more stopping distance and time. Braking distance is a critical facture in achieving racing success in a competitive domain.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0099
Andrea Toso, Alessandro Moroni
Abstract Professional driving simulators can be successfully exploited to shorten the traditional design-prototype testing-production process relative to a new race car. Consider as a real example the Dallara 2014 Super Formula (“SF”) race car; built in 2013 at the Dallara factory in Varano de' Melegari, Parma, Italy and scheduled to race in Japan in 2014. Professional race drivers from the SF series have already been conducting multiple test sessions with the Dallara Simulator (Dec 2012), working together with vehicle dynamicists, aerodynamicists, designers, structural engineers and engine manufacturers, in an effort to evaluate and validate kinematics, steering geometry, aerodynamics, packaging, cooling, engine performance, as well as monocoque stiffness and minor installation details, even before the design had started.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0098
Anthony Barkman, Kelvin Tan, Arin McIntosh, Peter Hylton, Wendy Otoupal-Hylton
This paper discusses a project intended as a design study for a team of college students preparing for careers in motorsports. The project's objective was to conduct a design study on the possible redesign of the suspension for a dirt-track sprint car. The car examined was typical of those which race on one-quarter to one-half mile dirt oval tracks across the United States. The mission of this concept study was to develop a different configuration from the traditional torsion bar spring system, for the front end. The design included moving the dampers inboard with the addition of a rocker to relate the movement through the front suspension system. For the rear end, components were designed to allow the radius rod to be adjustable from the cockpit, thus providing the driver with adjustability to changing track conditions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0561
Grant Hankins, Kenneth Krajnik, Bradley Galedrige, Shahab Sakha, Peter Hylton, Wendy Otoupal
Abstract A number of performance and safety related aspects of motorsports have begun to receive increased attention in recent years, using the types of engineering analysis common to other industries such as aerospace engineering. As these new engineering approaches have begun to play a larger role in the motorsports industry, there has been an increase in the use of engineering tools in motorsports design and an increase in the inclusion of motorsports in the engineering education process. The design, modeling, and analysis aspects of a recent project examining the design of roll cages for American short-track open-wheel racing cars will be discussed in this paper. Roll cage structures were initially integrated into cars of this type in the 1960s. Countless lives have been saved and serious injuries prevented since the introduction of cages into these types of cars.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1926
John P. Utley, David K. Irick
Abstract For the EcoCAR 2 collegiate engineering competition, The University of Tennessee is modifying a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu Eco from a mild hybrid into a series-parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. For this design, the team is exchanging the engine for one that is E85 compatible, slightly separating the engine and transmission, and coupling an electric generator to the engine. In the rear of the vehicle, a modified all-wheel drive subframe will be implemented. This subframe will house a traction motor and a single gear electric drive transmission. A custom fuel tank and fuel system will be constructed for the vehicle, in order to use E85 fuel. Furthermore, an energy storage system will be placed in the rear of the vehicle, in the trunk and spare tire space. Modifications for the packaging must be made and analysis must be performed to validate the structural integrity of all modifications.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0355
Atishay Jain
Abstract One of the key aspects of designing a race car chassis is Torsion Stiffness (Roll stiffness). Designers strive to develop a chassis design with a high value of roll stiffness to counter the forces applied by the suspension during cornering while keeping the weight as low as possible. CAD and static analysis techniques are instrumental for virtual testing and validation in the initial stages of a project prior to experimental testing. This paper intends to encapsulate elementary analysis skills and their application in designing and developing tubular frame structures for amateur racing vehicles and simultaneously focusing on reducing the time for the design and development process.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0616
Matthew R. James, Simon Watkins, Matthew Watts
Abstract As open-wheeled racing cars frequently race in close proximity, a limiting factor on the ability to overtake is the aerodynamic performance of the vehicle while operating in a leading car's wake. Whilst various studies have examined the effectiveness of wings operating in turbulent flow, there has been limited research undertaken on the aerodynamic effect of such conditions on wheels. This study describes the influence of upstream turbulence on the wake flow features of an isolated wheel, since the flow field of a wheel will generally be turbulent (due to the wakes of upstream cars and/or bodywork). Pressure distributions and velocity vector plots are examined, which were obtained using a four-hole pressure-sensitive Cobra probe on a traverse 2.5 diameters downstream of the wheel axle line, in smooth and turbulent flow.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0508
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon, Don Krueger
First required in 1970 in NASCAR® (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) the driver's window safety net or driver's window net has continually evolved and improved. The driver's window net has played an important role in protecting race car drivers from injury. Driver's window nets were originally used to help keep the driver's upper torso, head and arms inside the interior of the race vehicle during crashes. As restraint systems were improved, the role of the driver's window net in stock car racing has transitioned to keeping flailing hands inside the interior of the car while also serving as a shield to protect the driver from intruding debris. This paper describes three separate window net and window net mounting tests and the use of these tests to design an improved window net mounting system.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1780
Soovadeep Bakshi, Parveen Dhillon, Teja Maruvada
This paper presents the method of designing an optimized light weight, cost effective planetary gearbox for a Formula Student vehicle. The gearbox has a high speed functioning capability, in addition to the compact size and light weight. The iterative optimization procedure used provides a technique for selecting the best possible configuration of the gearbox. Conventional gearboxes used for this purpose are generally two step reduction gearboxes, which are bulkier in terms of weight and volume. Also, a review of the existing market reveals that the planetary gearboxes manufactured in India are not capable of handling high speeds, thus rendering them futile for racing applications. The target reduction ratio for the gearbox is a fixed parameter. The method involves design and optimization of the gear-train with the calculated ratio.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1052
Jingsi Wu, Owusu Agyeman Badu, Yonchen Tai, Albert R. George
While many composite monocoque and semi-monocoque chassis have been built there is very little open literature on how to design one. This paper considers a variety of issues related to composite monocoque design of an automotive chassis with particular emphasis on designing a Formula SAE or other race car monocoque chassis. The main deformation modes and loads considered are longitudinal torsion, local bending around mounting points, and vertical bending. The paper first considers the design of elements of an isotropic material monocoque that has satisfactory torsional, hardpoint, and vertical bending stiffness. The isotropic analysis is used to gain insight and acquire knowledge about the behavior of shells and monocoque structures when subjected to a vehicle's applied loads. The isotropic modeling is then used to set initial design targets for a full anisotropic composite analysis.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0596
Christopher Craig, Martin A. Passmore
Recent changes to the rules regarding aerodynamics within Formula SAE, combined with faster circuits at the European FSAE events, have made the implementation of aerodynamic devices, to add down-force, a more relevant topic. As with any race series it is essential that a detailed analysis is completed to establish the costs and benefits of including an aerodynamic package on the vehicle. The aim of the work reported here was to create a methodology that would fully evaluate all aspects of the package and conclude with an estimate of the likely gain in points at a typical FSAE event. The paper limits the analysis to a front and rear wing combination, but the approach taken can be applied to more complex aerodynamic packages.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0600
Matthew Watts, Simon Watkins
For the modern Formula 1 racing car, the degradation in aerodynamic performance when following another car is well documented. The problem can be broken into two parts; firstly the wake flow generated by these vehicles and the subsequent interaction a following car has with this field. Previous research [1, 2 & 3] has focused upon investigating the later without completely characterizing the former. This paper seeks to address this deficiency with initial data from a newly commissioned 30% scale Formula One wind tunnel model built to the 2011 technical regulations. Experimentation was carried out in the Industrial Wind-Tunnel (IWT) at RMIT University. In the absence of a rolling road an elevated ground plane was implemented; the results obtained show good agreement with the limited published material available. Using a high frequency response, four-hole pressure probe the aft body flow was investigated at multiple downstream locations.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2824
Vaseem Akram Abdul, Ajay Kumar Maddineni, Mohammad Rafiq B Agrewale
An open wheeled open cockpit high speed car with 800 CC MPFI engine was developed validated and run at 105 kmph. The key focus was to build a car with superior aerodynamic characteristics especially in terms of drag. This work discusses in detail about the design and simulation of car using CFD package followed by Wind Tunnel testing. The design of high speed car starts with design of seat according to the ergonomics of the driver followed by the space frame. Based on the space frame designed, the body panels are sketched and CAD model is developed. The CAD model is imported in CFD package for virtual testing and validated through wind tunnel results. For this 1:3 scale model was manufactured using Rapid Prototyping.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9118
Yoshiki Fukuhara, Naoya Kimata, Takashi Suzuki
The paper reviews the experimental development of fuel economy of engine powering the 2012 Formula SAE single seat race car of the University of Sophia. The balance of high power and low fuel consumption is biggest challenge of racing engine. It was found that improving the efficiency of engine by supercharging as a way to achieve that. In order to adapt the supercharger for the engine, the important design points are below: It was found that intake air blow-by gas at combustion chamber is increased in low engine speed. To improve that, the valve overlap angle was changed to adopt supercharged engine and improve effective compression ratio. Typically the racing engine demands maximum torque for performance but that does not imply that the air fuel ratio should be rich than theoretical. The point is the maximum torque of the engine is proportional to the amount of air intake. Therefore, supercharged engine is possible to increase the supercharging pressure for bigger torque.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9100
Tetsuya Fujimoto, Takashi Suzuki
Nowadays, cornering performance of FSAE (Formula SAE) cars are dramatically improved due to less mass, kinematic developments and tires. In such circumstance, under high speed conditions, aerodynamical devices work better. It had been decided to attach aerodynamical devices that consist of front wing, rear wing, diffuser (floor) and deflector for SR11 (Fig. 1, Table 1), a FSAE car developed by Sophia Racing (Japan). Fig. 1 SR11Table 1 Vehicle configuration of SR11 To start with developing aerodynamical devices, it had been assumed that how they work. Lap time simulation had been done with VI-car-realtime, which shows the laptime could be shorten by 2 seconds of 60 seconds for a usual FSAE endurance course with 60kgf at 60km/h downforce. Dragforce had been assumed to work well while once, it had been supposed to have a bad influence for laptime.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0064
Paulo Bosquiero Zanetti
Data analysis is an important way to validate and optimize engineering's designs. With the development of wireless transmission systems, race cars use telemetry as a solution to measure the car's behavior by the analysis of acquired data. Wireless communication systems provide the possibility to analyze data in real-time situations, allowing tactical decision making based on the vehicle's embedded signals interpretation. This paper intends to describe the design process of a wireless data transmission system applied to a Formula SAE vehicle. Based on the prototyping microcontroller Arduino™ and the radio-transmission module Xbee®, the wireless transmission system here described is capable of transmitting 16 analog and 54 digital embedded signals and can be easily adapted for the user's requirements, through the system's open-source characteristics.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0326
Antonio Flavio Aires Rodrigues, Luiz Carlos Gertz, André Cervieri, Lucas Figueiró Berto
The purpose of this study was to develop a body of a competition vehicle, the sports prototype category. This category has the aerodynamics as one of its main features, so much of their good performance depends on your body. The project proposal was generating an initial 3D CAD geometry, based on studies and existing vehicles. After analysis of the initial model, modifications were proposed in order to achieve better results for a competition vehicle. The simulation of the airflow over the 3D model of the body was performed in three steps: generation of geometry in SolidWorks CAD program, discretization of the model and the limited domain around it, using mesh generation program ICEM, and resolution of the flow in program of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), ANSYS (FLUENT). The turbulence model used in this work has two equations, which models the turbulent kinetic energy k and dissipation ε.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0472
Paulo César Sigoli, Mauro Moraes de Souza, Juliano Savoy
The main characteristics required when fastening racing cars wheel are the resistance to self-loosening plus high-speed to assembling and disassembling of the wheel. To attend these two contradictory characteristics, it is necessary to develop differentiated fastening solutions. This work presents a new concept of fastening central wheel nuts for racing cars with improved fastening efficiency regard safety and assembly speed in comparison to the current fastening. The new wheel nut was designed and validated through analytical and FEM analysis as well as real tests.
2013-09-30
Journal Article
2013-01-2039
David B. Antanaitis
Driving on the race track is an especially grueling situation for the automotive brake system. Temperatures can exceed the phase transition temperature of the disc material, wear rates of friction material can be orders of magnitude higher than during street use, and hydraulic pressures and mechanical stresses on components can approach their design limits. It is a given that friction material under these conditions will wear unevenly - causing taper and cupping wear - and an associated set of performance degradations will occur, including an increase in fluid consumption (pedal travel increase) and loss of mechanical efficiency (pedal force increase).
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0407
L. Daniel Metz
Various mechanical and electromechanical configurations have been proposed for the recapture of vehicle kinetic energy during deceleration. For example, in Formula One racing, a KERS (Kinetic Energy Recovery System) was mandated by the FIA for each racing car during the 2011 World Championship season and beyond, and many passenger car manufacturers are examining the potential for implementation of such systems or have already done so. In this work, we examine the potential energy savings benefits available with a KERS, as well as a few design considerations. Some sample calculations are provided to illustrate the concepts.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0709
Luz Adriana Mejía, Francisco Valero, Vicente Mata
The main objective of this study is to apply a dynamic parameter identification methodology to a double-wishbone type front suspension of a race car. Two methodologies for identification are presented: the first one is based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and elimination by means of the relative standard deviation of each parameter, while the second comprises three consecutive steps: the elimination of those less contributive parameters, the application of SVD method and elimination by relative standard deviation. The physical feasibility of the obtained parameters is taken into account. Both methodologies are validated with collected data of virtual simulation in a computational package program.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0801
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon
Since its inception in 1948, NASCAR® (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc.) has continually strived to promote and improve driver, crew and spectator safety. As the vehicles used in NASCAR have changed over the years, their windshields have evolved also. The 1948 NASCAR Rulebook specified that all cars must have safety glass. In 2013, the NASCAR Sprint cup Series will use a laminated polycarbonate windshield. This paper describes the ballistic testing of the latest polycarbonate laminated design as well as previous monolithic polycarbonate designs.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0797
Sven Rehnberg, Lucas Börjesson, Robert Svensson, Jonathan Rice
This paper describes the design process of a full aerodynamic package of a Formula SAE (FSAE) style race car. The meaning of a full aerodynamic package in this context is a front wing, a rear wing and a diffuser; the focus will however be on the wings. The vehicle for which the aerodynamic package is designed is the Chalmers Formula Student (CFS) 2012 FSAE car, but vehicle data logged from the CFS 2011 FSAE car was used during the design phase. This data was used to evaluate how the aerodynamic package will influence the behaviour of the vehicle, both in terms of lateral and longitudinal acceleration as well as fuel consumption, in order to determine whether or not an aerodynamic package can enhance the vehicle performance. The main tool used during the design process was numerical simulations (computational fluid dynamics, CFD) and special attention was paid to post-processing of these simulations.
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