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Viewing 1 to 30 of 50
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2335
Tiantian Yang, Tie Wang, Jing Qiao, Ji Gao, Yizhuo Feng, Dandan Sun
Abstract The F-T diesel made from coal by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (F-T) can be used as a clean alternative fuel of diesel engine. To alleviate the drawback of high cost and low viscosity of F-T diesel, the Methanol-Biodiesel -F-T diesel multiple fuel (MBFT) was prepared by adding low-cost methanol and high-viscosity biodiesel as modifiers. Considering the immiscibility between alcohols and hydrocarbons, this paper carried out a series of stability tests and found that n-decanol was the optimum co-solvent of MBFT. The MBFTs blended by biodiesel with the volume fraction of 10% (10% vol.) and methanol with varying proportions of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% vol. were denoted as M0, M5, M10 and M15, respectively. The increasing methanol proportion caused the increase of the oxygen content in the blended fuels and the reduction of heat value, surface tension and cetane number. The influence of methanol proportion on combustion characteristics of turbo-charging engine was studied.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2194
Mateusz Pucilowski, Mehdi Jangi, Sam Shamun, Martin Tuner, Xue-Song Bai
Abstract Heavy-duty direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine running on methanol is studied at a high compression ratio (CR) of 27. The fuel is injected with a common-rail injector close to the top-dead-center (TDC) with two injection pressures of 800 bar and 1600 bar. Numerical simulations using Reynold Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT), and Well-Stirred-Reactor (WSR) models are employed to investigate local conditions of injection and combustion process to identify the mechanism behind the trend of increasing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions at higher injection pressures found in the experiments. It is shown that the numerical simulations successfully replicate the change of ignition delay time and capture variation of NOx emissions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2256
Muhammad Umer Waqas, Kai Morganti, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Bengt Johansson
Abstract The blending behavior of ethanol in five different hydrocarbon base fuels with octane numbers of approximately 70 and 84 was examined under Spark-Ignited (SI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) operating conditions. The Blending octane number (BON) was used to characterize the blending behavior on both a volume and molar basis. Previous studies have shown that the blending behavior of ethanol generally follows several well-established rules. In particular, non-linear blending effects are generally observed on a volume basis (i.e. BON > RON or MON of pure ethanol; 108 and 89, respectively), while linear blending effects are generally observed on a molar basis (i.e. BON = RON or MON of pure ethanol). This work firstly demonstrates that the non-linear volumetric blending effects traditionally observed under SI operating conditions are also observed under HCCI operating conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2277
Xiao Peng, Han Wu, Chia-Fon Lee, Qianbo Sun, Fushui Liu
Abstract Methanol has been regarded as a potential transportation fuel due to its advanced combustion characteristics and flexible source. However, it is suffering from misfire and high HC emissions problems under cold start and low load conditions either on methanol SI engine or on methanol/diesel dual fuel engine. Hydrogen is a potential addition that can enhance the combustion of methanol due to its high flammability and combustion stability. In the current work, the effect of hydrogen fraction on the laminar flame characteristics of methanol- hydrogen-air mixture under varied equivalence ratio was investigated on a constant volume combustion chamber system coupled with a schlieren setup. Experiments were performed over a wide range of equivalence ratio of the premixed charge, varied from 0.8 to 1.4, as well as different hydrogen fraction, 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (n/n). All tests were carried out at fixed temperature and pressure of 400K and 0.1MPa.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2278
Zhiwei Deng, Ang Li, Lei Zhu, Zhen Huang
Abstract In-cylinder thermochemical fuel reforming (TFR) in spark ignition natural gas engine was developed to reveal that thermochemical fuel reforming could increase H2 and CO concentration in reformed gas, leading to an increase of thermal efficiency and engine performance. Moreover, ethanol enrichment has been proved to have great potential to optimize TFR performance. In order to explain TFR phenomenon chemically, methane oxidation experiments were conducted in a laminar flow reactor with addition of ethanol and methanol at equivalent ratios of 1.5, 1.7, 1.9 and 2.1 from 948K to 1098K at atmospheric pressure. Experimental results showed that methanol have great ability to facilitate the oxidation of methane than that of ethanol. Meanwhile, the degree of methane conversion became more significantly as the equivalent ratio increased. Kinetic analysis of oxidation of methane with alcohol enrichment in a plug flow model was also conducted in this study.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2268
Zhanming Chen, Long Wang, Tiancong Zhang, Qimeng Duan, Bo Yang
Abstract Engines fuelled with Liquefied natural gas (LNG) have been widely used in the heavy-duty vehicles. However, they suffer from poor combustion performance and flame instability under fuel-lean condition. In this work, experiments were performed on a turbo-charged, spark-ignition engine fuelled with natural gas (NG) and methanol. The combustion characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate (HRR), burned mass fraction (BMF), ringing/knock intensity (RI), ignition delay, centroid of HRR, and coefficient of variation (COV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) were analyzed under light load (brake mean effective pressure=0.3876 MPa) with different methanol substitution rates (MSR=0%, 16%, 34%, 46%). The experimental results showed that combustion phase advanced with the increase in MSR due to faster burning velocity of methanol. Knock only occurred at MSR=46%, 2000 rpm.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2285
Eric Randolph, Raphael Gukelberger, Terrence Alger, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Chadwell, Antonio Bosquez Jr.
Abstract The primary focus of this investigation was to determine the hydrogen reformation, efficiency and knock mitigation benefits of methanol-fueled Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) operation, when compared to other EGR types. A 2.0 L turbocharged port fuel injected engine was operated with internal EGR, high-pressure loop (HPL) EGR and D-EGR configurations. The internal, HPL-EGR, and D-EGR configurations were operated on neat methanol to demonstrate the relative benefit of D-EGR over other EGR types. The D-EGR configuration was also tested on high octane gasoline to highlight the differences to methanol. An additional sub-task of the work was to investigate the combustion response of these configurations. Methanol did not increase its H2 yield for a given D-EGR cylinder equivalence ratio, even though the H:C ratio of methanol is over twice typical gasoline.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1963
Pavan Bharadwaja Bhaskar, S Srihari
Abstract In recent times control of emissions has been the major issue resulting strict emission norms. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) reduction is a major concern over the years and diesel engine has big hand when compared to gasoline. Several promising techniques have been developed, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is one of the effective ways to trim down the NOx emissions by keeping thermal efficiency identical to diesel engine. However, this concept lags in controlling CO and HC emissions. Methanol fuel blends are chosen as it significantly improves the combustion quality. Oxygen content in methanol drags attention as it can compensate HC and CO emissions caused by HCCI mode of combustion. In this work conventional diesel engine is converted into HCCI engine by mounting diesel vaporizer at inlet manifold to attain homogenous mixture. An experimental investigations have been carried out to analyse performance and emission characteristics using different methanol blends.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1288
Noriko Shisa, Shinsuke Ishihara, Yougui Huang, Mikio Asai, Katsuhiko Ariga
Abstract Despite the fact that methanol is toxic to human health and causes serious damage to automobile engines and fuel system components, methanol-containing gasoline is becoming popular in some areas. Methanol demonstrates similar chemical properties to ethanol (which is already established as an additive to gasoline), so that it is difficult to identify methanol-containing gasoline without performing proper chemical analysis. In this study, we report a low-cost, portable, and easy-to-operate sensor that selectively changes color in response to methanol contained in gasoline. The colorimetric sensor will be useful for automobile users to avoid methanol-containing gasoline upon refueling.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0758
Yaopeng Li, Ming Jia, Yachao Chang, Guangfu Xu
Abstract Multi-dimensional models coupled with a reduced chemical mechanism were used to investigate the effect of fuel on exergy destruction fraction and sources in a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine. The exergy destruction due to chemical reaction (Deschem) makes the largest contribution to the total exergy destruction. Different from the obvious low temperature heat release (LTHR) behavior in gasoline/diesel RCCI, methanol has a negative effect on the LTHR of diesel, so the exergy destruction accumulation from LTHR to high temperature heat release (HTHR) can be avoided in methanol/diesel RCCI, contributing to the reduction of Deschem. Moreover, the combustion temperature in methanol/diesel RCCI is higher compared to gasoline/diesel RCCI, which is also beneficial to the lower exergy destruction fraction. Therefore, the exergy destruction of methanol/diesel RCCI is lower than that of gasoline/diesel RCCI at the same combustion phasing.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0726
Muhammad Waqas, Nimal Naser, Mani Sarathy, Jeroen Feijs, Kai Morganti, Gustav Nyrenstedt, Bengt Johansson
Abstract Gasoline-ethanol-methanol (GEM) blends, with constant stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio (iso-stoichiometric blending rule) and equivalent to binary gasoline-ethanol blends (E2, E5, E10 and E15 in % vol.), were defined to investigate the effect of methanol and combined mixtures of ethanol and methanol when blended with three FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) Gasolines, I, J and A corresponding to RON 70.2, 73.8 and 83.9, respectively, and their corresponding Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs). A Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was used under Spark Ignition and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited modes. An ignition quality tester was utilized in the Compression Ignition mode. One of the promising properties of GEM blends, which are derived using the iso-stoichiometric blending rule, is that they maintain a constant octane number, which has led to the introduction of methanol as a drop-in fuel to supplement bio-derived ethanol.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0539
Duc-Khanh Nguyen, Sebastian Verhelst
Abstract Methanol fueled spark ignition (SI) engines have the potential for very high efficiency using an advanced heat recovery system for fuel reforming. In order to allow simulation of such an engine system, several sub-models are needed. This paper reports the development of two laminar burning velocity correlations, corresponding to two reforming concepts, one in which the reformer uses water from an extra tank to produce hydrogen rich gas (syngas) and another that employs the water vapor in the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream to produce reformed-EGR (R-EGR). This work uses a one-dimensional (1D) flame simulation tool with a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism to predict the laminar burning velocities of methanol/syngas blends and correlate it. The syngas is a mixture of H2/CO/CO2 with a CO selectivity of 6.5% to simulate the methanol steam reforming products over a Cu-Mn/Al catalyst.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1282
Ashish Jaiswal, Tarun Mehra, Monis Alam, Jatin Agarwal, Harshil Kathpalia
Abstract Dependency and increase in use of fossil fuels is leading to its depletion and raises serious environmental concerns. There are international obligations to reduce emissions and requirements to strengthen security of fuel supply which is pressuring the automobile industry to use cleaner and more sustainable fuels. Hydrogen fits these criteria as it is not just an abundant alternative but also a clean propellant and Hydrogen engines represent an economic alternative to fuel cells. In the present investigation, EGR has been used on hydrogen boosted SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation and gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends without EGR.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1289
Zinong Zuo, Yiqiang Pei, Jing Qin, Ruoyu Jia, Xiang Li, Zhang Song ZHAN, Bin Liu, Tie Gang Hu, Jing Zhong
Abstract This research presents an experimental study of the laminar burning combustion and emission characteristics of premixed methane -dissociated methanol-air mixtures in a constant volume combustion chamber. All experiments were conducted at 3 bar initial pressure and 373K initial temperature. The dissociated methanol fractions were from 20% to 80% with 20% intervals, and the equivalence ratio varied from 0.6 to 1.8 with 0.2 intervals. The images of flame propagation were visualized by using a schlieren system. The combustion pressure data were measured and exhaust emissions were sampled with a portable exhaust gas analyzer. The results show that the unstretched laminar burning velocities increased significantly with dissociated methanol enrichment. The Markstein length decreased with increasing dissociated methanol fraction and decreasing equivalence ratio.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0014
Amnon Eyal, Leonid Tartakovsky
Abstract A computer model was built and a theoretical analysis was performed to predict the behavior of a system containing Homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine and a methanol reformer. The reformer utilizes the waste heat of the exhaust gases to sustain the two subsequent processes: dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) and water, and methanol steam reforming (SRM) where methanol and water react to mainly hydrogen, CO and CO2. Eventually, a gaseous mixture of DME, H2, CO, CO2, water (reused) and some other species is created in these processes. This mixture is used for the engine feeding. By adding water to the methanol and fixing the vaporized fuel's temperature, it is possible to manage the kinetics of chemical processes, and thus to control the products’ composition. This allows controlling the HCCI combustion.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1009
Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge, Chuanzhen Zhang, Jia Liu, Zihang Peng, Huiming Gong
Abstract Along with the booming expansion of private car preservation, many Chinese cities are now struggling with hazy weather and ground-level ozone contamination. Although central government has stepped up efforts to purify skies above China, counter-strategies to curb ground-level ozone is comparatively weak. By using maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method, this paper estimated the ozone forming potential for twenty-five Euro-3 to Euro-5 passenger cars burning conventional gasoline, methanol-gasoline, ethanol-gasoline, neat methanol and compressed natural gas (CNG). The results showed that, for all the fuel tested, VOC/NOx ratios and SR values decreased with the upgrading of emission standard. Except for Euro-3 M100 and Euro-4 M85, SR values for alternative fuel were to different degrees smaller than those for gasoline. When the emission standard was shifted from Euro-4 to Euro-5, OFP values estimated for gasoline vehicle decreased.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1281
Jatin Agarwal, Monis Alam, Ashish Jaiswal, Ketan Yadav, Naveen Kumar
Abstract The continued reliance on fossil fuel energy resources is not sufficient to cater to the current energy demands. The excessive and continuous use of crude oil is now recognized as unviable due to its depleting supplies and elevating environmental degradation by increased emissions from automobile exhaust. There is an urgent need for a renewable and cleaner source of energy to meet the stringent emission norms. Hythane is a mixture of 20% hydrogen and 80% methane. It has benefits of low capital and operating costs and is a cleaner alternative than crude oil. It significantly reduces tailpipe emissions and is the cheapest way to meet new emission standards that is BS-IV. Hythane produces low carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrocarbons (HC) on combustion than crude oil and helps in reduction of greenhouse gases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1276
Hanzhengnan Yu, Xingyu Liang, Ge-Qun Shu, Yuesen Wang, Hongsheng Zhang, Weijian Chen
Abstract Impingement of spray against the cylinder wall or piston bowl is an unavoidable physical process in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engines using early injection strategy. It directly affects fuel-air mixture formation, combustion and exhaust emission. In addition, the alcohol fuels such as methanol, ethanol and n-butanol are regarded as hopeful alternative fuels as well as fuel additive for HCCI and PCCI diesel engines to improve the emission level. The better understanding for the effect of alcohol-diesel blending fuel on the spray-wall impingement process is helpful for the improvement of HCCI and PCCI diesel engines. In this paper, the effects of three different alcohol-diesel blending fuels (methanol, ethanol and n-butanol) on the spray-wall impingement process were studied. Numerical investigation was performed in AVL FIRE code.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0887
Erik Svensson, Changle Li, Sam Shamun, Bengt Johansson, Martin Tuner, Cathleen Perlman, Harry Lehtiniemi, Fabian Mauss
Abstract Methanol is today considered a viable green fuel for combustion engines because of its low soot emissions and the possibility of it being produced in a CO2-neutral manner. Methanol as a fuel for combustion engines have attracted interest throughout history and much research was conducted during the oil crisis in the seventies. In the beginning of the eighties the oil prices began to decrease and interest in methanol declined. This paper presents the emission potential of methanol. T-Φ maps were constructed using a 0-D reactor with constant pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio to show the emission characteristics of methanol. These maps were compared with equivalent maps for diesel fuel. The maps were then complemented with engine simulations using a stochastic reactor model (SRM), which predicts end-gas emissions. The SRM was validated using experimental results from a truck engine running in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode at medium loads.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0679
Kai Morganti, Marwan Abdullah, Abdullah Alzubail, Yoann Viollet, Robert Head, Junseok Chang, Gautam Kalghatgi
Abstract This paper is the first of a two part study which investigates the use of advanced combustion modes as a means of improving the efficiency and environmental impact of conventional light-duty vehicles. This first study focuses on the application of so-called Octane-on-Demand combustion, whereby the fuel anti-knock quality is customized to match the real-time requirements of an otherwise conventional spark-ignition engine. Methanol is utilized as the high octane fuel, while three alternative petroleum-derived fuels with Research octane numbers (RONs) ranging from 61 to 90 are examined as candidates for the lower octane fuel. Experimental engine calibration maps are first developed to quantify the minimum amount of methanol that must be added to each lower octane fuel in order to reproduce the baseline engine performance attained on a market gasoline (RON 95). The properties of the lower octane fuel are shown to affect the engine performance significantly.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0777
Xian Zou, Hu Wang, Zunqing Zheng, Rolf Reitz, Mingfa Yao
Abstract In the current, numerical study RCCI combustion and emission characteristics using various fuel strategies are investigated, including methanol, ethanol, n-butanol and gasoline as the low reactivity fuel, and diesel fuel as the high reactivity fuel. A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF)-alcohol chemical kinetic mechanism was coupled with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to predict RCCI combustion under various operating conditions. The results show that a higher quantity of diesel was required to maintain the same combustion phasing with alcohol-diesel fuel blends, and the combustion durations and pressure rise rates of methanol-diesel (MD) and ethanol-diesel (ED) cases were much shorter and higher than those of gasoline-diesel (GD) and n-butanol-diesel (nBD) cases. The simulations also investigated the sensitivities of the direct injection strategies, intake temperature and premixed fuel ratio on RCCI combustion phasing control.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0712
Leonid Tartakovsky, Ran Amiel, V. Baibikov, R. Fleischman, M. Gutman, A. Poran, M. Veinblat
In this paper we describe conversion of the gen-set gasoline-fed carburetor single-cylinder SI engine to the direct-injection version operating with the gaseous hydrogen-rich methanol reforming products, and present the first experimental results. It was found that engine feeding by methanol steam reforming products has a great potential of pollutant emissions mitigation as compared with gasoline. NOx concentrations in the exhaust gas were reduced by a factor of 7 as a result of the lean combustion and lowering in-cylinder temperatures. Particle mass emissions were mitigated to zero-impact levels. Harmful emissions of the target pollutants THC, CO and the GHG gas CO2 were reduced by a factor of 6, 25 and 1.5, respectively.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1082
Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge, Linlin Liu, Huiming Gong
Abstract As a probable solution to both energy and environmental crisis, methanol and methanol gasoline have been used as gasoline surrogates in several provinces of China. Most recently, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China is drafting a special emission standard for methanol-fueled light-duty vehicles. Given the scarcity of available data, this paper evaluated regulated emissions, carbonyl compounds and particulate matter from a China-5 certificated gasoline/methanol dual-fuel vehicle over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The results elucidated that in context with gasoline mode, CO emitted in methanol mode decreased 11.2%, while no evident changes of THC and NOx emissions were noticed with different fueling regimes. The total carbonyls and formaldehyde have increased by 39.5% and 19.8% respectively after switching from gasoline to methanol. A remarkable decrease of 65.6% in particulate matter was observed in methanol mode.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1677
Amaya Kak, Naveen Kumar, Bharat Singh, Somendra Singh, Dhruv Gupta
Abstract Increased dependency on fossil fuels has led to its depletion as well as affected the environment adversely. Moreover, increasing crude oil prices is pressurizing vehicle manufacturers to invent new technology so as to increase fuel economy and at the same time to keep emissions under control. Hydrogen has gained popularity not just in terms of being an abundant alternative but also due to being a very clean propellant. In the present investigation, hydrogen boosting has been performed on an SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0853
Senthilkumar Masimalai, Arulselvan Subramanian
Abstract The effect of methanol addition (by blending) and methanol induction (by carburetion) on performance of a vegetable oil (Madhuca Indica called as Mahua oil) based diesel engine was studied experimentally. A single cylinder, water cooled, DI, diesel engine was used. Baseline data was generated with neat diesel and neat Mahua oil as fuels. Subsequently methanol was blended with Mahua oil in different proportions such as 5, 10, 15 and 20% by mass and tested for engine's performance. Finally the engine was operated in dual fuel mode of operation with methanol induction and Mahua oil injection. Engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics of ND (neat diesel), NMO (neat Mahua oil), MOMB (Mahua oil+15% methanol blend by mass) and MOMDFE (Mahua oil dual fuel engine at 15% mass share) were compared and analyzed at 100% and 40% loads. NMO resulted in inferior performance and increased emissions at both power outputs as compared to ND.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1265
Yoann Viollet, Marwan Abdullah, Abdullah Alhajhouje, Junseok Chang
Abstract In a regulatory environment for spark ignition (SI) engines where the focus is continuously looking into improvements in fuel economy and reduction in noxious emissions, the challenges to achieve future requirements are utmost. To effectively reduce CO2 emissions on a well-to-wheel basis, future fuels enabling high efficiency SI engines will have to not only satisfy advanced engine requirements, i.e. high knock resistance, but also produce less CO2 emissions in the refinery. This paper describes how to characterize SI combustion's on-demand octane requirement with three different dual fuel configurations. Refinery naphtha was used for low octane component, and three oxygenates were used for high octane knock inhibiting component, such as, Methanol and Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Each low and high octane fuel was introduced via production gasoline direct injector (DI) and port fuel injector (PFI) in both configurations.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2764
Bhimrao Patil, Vighnesha Nayak, Mohanan Padmanabha
Abstract This work aims study on the method of NOx reduction and performance enhancement by analysis of MPFI multi-cylinder gasoline engine running on LPG using the gas injection system and vaporized water-methanol induction to the intake manifold. For the generation of vaporized water-methanol, heat from the exhaust gas has been used. Different percentages of water- methanol by mass basis were used with variable engine speed ranging from 2000 to 4500 RPM. The outcomes indicated that as the percentage water-methanol induction level of the engine increased, there is a slight increase in percentage of useful work, while the NOx decreased drastically about 47%. Additionally, the engine brake thermal efficiency gains. The mean gain in the brake thermal efficiency for a 20% water methanol with LPG is approximately 1.5% over the use of LPG without water-methanol induction.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2759
Shehan O. Haputhanthri
Abstract Ammonia and hydrocarbon fuel blends, similar to ethanol and gasoline fuel blends can be used to commercialize ammonia as an alternative fuel. Feasibility of developing ammonia gasoline liquid fuel blends and the use of ethanol and methanol as emulsifiers to enhance the solubility of ammonia in gasoline were studied using thermostated vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE) high pressure cells, in this research. Solubility test results prove that emulsifier free pure gasoline is capable of dissolving 23 g/l of ammonia on mass basis (4.5% of ammonia on volume basis) at 345 kPa pressure and 286.65 K temperature in liquid phase. Solubility level is increased with the use of ethanol and methanol. Gasoline with 10% ethanol can retain 51.4 g/l (11.0% on volume basis) of ammonia in the liquid phase at the same pressure and temperature. Methanol has better emulsifying capabilities. Solubility level of gasoline with 10% methanol is 61.8 g/l (11.0% on volume basis).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1315
Senthil Kumar Masimalai
Abstract Experimental work was carried out to evaluate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a dual fuel engine with diesel as pilot fuel and methanol as inducted primary fuel. A single cylinder water cooled direct injection diesel engine developing a power output of 3.7kW at 1500 rev/min. was modified to work in the dual fuel mode. Tests were conducted at fixed loads such as 100%, 80%, 60% and 40% of the maximum power output with varying methanol induction rates. Brake thermal efficiency in dual fuel operation was better than normal diesel operation with methanol induction mainly at high power outputs. It increased from 30.3% with neat diesel to a maximum of 32.7% when methanol contributed about 44% of energy share. Smoke was reduced significantly with all methanol induction rates at all power outputs in dual fuel operation with diesel as pilot fuel. It was reduced from 3.8 BSU to 1.8 BSU with diesel at the maximum efficiency point at 100% load.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1943
John R. Bucknell
Abstract Of all current proposals for sustainable transportation, the assumption is energy scarcity when there are economically favorable alternatives using existing technology. This paper explores the economics of a sustainable transportation energy pathway that provides carbon-neutral and carbon-negative synthetic fuel derived from seawater as the feedstock and power via Ocean Thermal Energy Cycle (OTEC). Seawater-based synthetic fuel is naturally carbon-neutral - different synthesis processes can yield hydrogen, methane, methanol and ethanol as well as gasoline, diesel or jet fuel - and is carbon-negative when combined with aquaculture. Methanol is favored as a fuel as it requires relatively lower capital investment; can be easily transported and stored; can be used as a feedstock to many chemical processes that currently rely on petrochemicals; and can be coproduced with or converted to dimethyl ether.
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