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Viewing 1 to 30 of 13047
2017-10-13
Technical Paper
2017-01-5012
Harveer Singh Pali, Shashi Prakash Dwivedi
Abstract The present work deals with the fabrication and tribological testing of an aluminium/SiC composite. Fabrication was done using two techniques; mechanical stir casting and electromagnetic stir casting. Metal matrix composite (MMC) was fabricated using aluminium as a matrix and SiC as reinforcement in varying weight percentages. The wear and frictional properties of the MMC were studied by performing dry sliding wear test using a pin-on-disc wear tester for both types of samples. Wear rate retards with the increase the percentage of reinforcement whereas it improves with the addition of normal force. At same time frictional coefficient upsurges by increasing the normal force and percentage of reinforcement. Increasing percentage of reinforcement and using electromagnetic stir casting process obtained the higher frictional coefficient and lower wear rate.
2017-10-13
Technical Paper
2017-01-5013
G. Magendran
The input shafts are conventionally developed through Hot forging route. Considering upcoming new technologies the same part was developed through cold forging route which resulting in better Mechanical properties than existing hot forging process. It has added benefit of cost as well as environmental friendly. Generally, the part like Input shaft which having gear teeth, splines etc., will be manufactured through Hot forging process due to degree of deformation, availability of press capacity, diameter variations etc., This process consumes more energy in terms of electricity for heating the bar and also creates pollution to the atmosphere. Automotive input shaft design modified to accommodate cold forging process route to develop the shaft with press capacity of 2500T which gives considerable benefit in terms of mechanical and metallurgical Properties, close dimensional tolerances, less machining time, higher material yield when compared to hot forging and metal cutting operation.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2330
Leonardo Israel Farfan-Cabrera, Ezequiel Gallardo, José Pérez-González
Abstract Flouroelastomers and silicone rubbers are commonly employed in static and dynamic seals for automotive applications. In order to prevent premature failures and leakages caused by swelling and/or changes in their mechanical properties, materials for seals are selected according to their compatibility with the environment and fluids involved in the engine operation. Thus, in particular, the use of new fuels and additives in automotive engines requires the assessment of compatibility with common sealing elastomers to prevent failures. Currently, Jatropha oil is being used as a renewable source of fuel in diesel engines for electricity production, transport or agricultural mechanization in various countries. It is used either as biodiesel or as straight vegetable oil (SVO) since it has good heating power and provide exhaust gas with almost no sulfur or aromatic polycyclic compounds. However, the compatibility of elastomers with this SVO has not been investigated yet.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2357
Mark Devlin, Jeffrey Guevremont, Chip Hewette, Marc Ingram, Grant Pollard, William Wyatt
Abstract Different mechanical components in a vehicle can be made from different steel alloys with various surface treatments or coatings. Lubricant technology is needed to prevent wear and control friction on all of these different surfaces. Phosphorus compounds are the key additives that are used to control wear and they do this by forming tribofilms on surfaces. It has been shown that different operating conditions (pressures and sliding conditions) can influence the formation of tribofilms formed by different anti-wear additives. The effect of surface metallurgy and morphology on tribofilm formation is described in this paper. Our results show that additive technology can form proper tribofilms on various surfaces and the right combination of additives can be found for current and future surfaces.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2379
Qian Feng, Shu Shen, Mengliang Li, Zhijun Li, Kongjian Qin, Diming Lou, Jiguang Wang, Xiyu Fang
Abstract Recent toxicological and epidemiologic studies have shown that diesel emissions have been a significant toxic air contaminant. Catalyzed DPF (CDPF) not only significantly reduces the PM mass emissions (>90%), but also further promotes carrier self-regeneration and oxidize more harmful gaseous pollutants by the catalyst coated on the carrier. However, some ultrafine particles and potentially harmful gaseous pollutants, such as VOCs species, originally emitted in the vapor-phase at high plume temperature, may penetrate through the CDPF filter. Furthermore, the components and content of catalyst coated on the CDPF could influence the physicochemical properties and toxicity intensity of those escaping ultrafine particles and gaseous pollutants. In this work, (1) we investigated the influence of precious metal content as a variable parameter on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the small CDPF samples.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2406
Wu Yang, Xiuting Yin, Zhang Song Zhan, Huixian Shen, Huibin Qing, Qingqiang Zeng, Liyun Kang
Abstract This work addresses the problem of fatigue strength prediction of crankshaft fillet rolling processes to improve its accuracy. It is empirical to usually consider the effect of fillet rolling process on crankshaft fatigue performance. The fatigue performance of rolling process is mainly determined by induced compressive residual stresses, increased hardness and reduced roughness. Because the first two factors are difficult to measure the arc surface of fillet rolled cranks, it is difficult to predict the enhanced rate of crankshaft rolled performance to baseline unrolled’s. In this work a prediction method of fatigue strength for ductile cast iron crankshafts rolling process is presented. This method indirectly predicts the effect of the increased hardness on fatigue performance by the resonant bending fatigue test and modelling of crankshaft fillet rolling dynamic for the induced compressive residual stress.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2183
Xiangfeng Yu, Shengcheng Li, Zhishuang Ma, Wei Du, Fengxiang Huang, Weijun Huang, Beiping Jiang
Abstract A reciprocating piston expander model based on organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is built for engine waste heat recovery. The expander characterizes by variable expansion ratio through adjusting working fluid injection timing. This paper investigates the effect of working fluid evaporating pressure, expansion ratio and clearance volume on the expander performance which mainly includes output power, equivalent recovery efficiency, total output power, expander efficiency, and the weighted efficiency of the expander, weighted heat recovery efficiency of the expander. The results demonstrate that the total output power and the equivalent heat recovery efficiency increase with working fluid evaporating pressure under overall operating conditions, while the increment is negligible. The expander reaches maximum total output power up to 83.4kW under c100 engine condition and 1.1MPa working fluid evaporating pressure within the research operating conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2222
ZhenYang Liu, Xihui Wang
Abstract The ever increasing popularity of electric vehicles and higher requirement on safety and comfort has led heat pump air conditioning system indispensable in electric vehicle. Many studies have shown that the addition of nano particles contributes to great improvement on thermal conductivity than that of conventional refrigerants. Therefore, the application of the magnetic nanorefrigerant in heat pump air conditioning system has massive potential to heighten the heat transfer efficiency. This paper aims at studying the magnetic nanorefrigerant comprised of the magnetic nano powder Fe3O4 and refrigerant R134a. According to the relevant theoretical analyses and empirical formula, the heat transfer coefficient, density, viscosity, and other physical parameters are calculated approximately.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2219
Xihui Wang
Abstract The conventional cooling fluids in vehicle engine cooling water jacket have relatively poor heat transfer performance. The key to enhance heat transfer in cooling-jacket is to research a kind of new coolants. Nanofluids have heat transfer enhancement merits. In present study, the numerical simulation on Fe3O4 nanofluid flow in cooling water jacket of Gasoline direct injection engine was performed using computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) software FLUENT. The heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids was calculated and verified by experiment. Fe3O4 nano-particles were used in mixture of water/ethylene glycol as a base fluid. The thermal performance of the nanofluid was studied, also the thermal performance of a cooling-jacket was studied with CFD technology. The simulation was performed for different volumetric concentrations of(1%,2%,5%) nanofluids at different engine speeds. The results showed that heat transfer enhanced compared to the base fluid.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2366
Wenzheng Xia, Yi Zheng, Xiaokun He, Dongxia Yang, Huifang Shao, Joesph Remias, Joseph Roos, Yinhui Wang
Abstract Because of the increased use of gasoline direct engine (GDI) in the automobile industry, there is a significant need to control particulates from GDI engines based on emission regulations. One potential technical approach is the utilization of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). The successful adoption of this emission control technology needs to take many aspects into consideration and requires a system approach for optimization. This study conducted research to investigate the impact of vehicle driving cycles, fuel properties and catalyst coating on the performance of GPF. It was found that driving cycle has significant impact on particulate emission. Fuel quality still plays a role in particulate emissions, and can affect the GPF performance. Catalyzed GPF is preferred for soot regeneration, especially for the case that the vehicle operation is dominated by congested city driving condition, i.e. low operating temperatures.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2343
Nicolas Champagne, Nicolas Obrecht, Arup Gangopadhyay, Rob Zdrodowski, Z Liu
Abstract The oil and additive industry is challenged to meet future automotive legislations aimed at reducing worldwide CO2 emissions levels. The most efficient solution used to date has been to decrease oil viscosity leading to the introduction of new SAE grades. However this solution may soon reach its limit due to potential issues related to wear with lower engine oil viscosities. In this paper, an innovative solution is proposed that combines the use of a new tailor-made polyalkylene glycol (PAG) with specific anti-wear additives. Valvetrain wear measurements using radionuclide technique demonstrates the robustness of this solution. The wear performance was also confirmed in Sequence IVA test. An extensive tribological evaluation (film formation, wear and tribofilm surface analysis) of the interactions between the base oil and the anti-wear additives lead us to propose an underlying mechanism that can explain this performance benefit.
2017-10-05
Journal Article
2017-01-9287
David Oh, Martin Brouillette, Jean-Sebastien Plante
Abstract In this second of two parts, the fundamentals of convective wall heat transfer losses are elucidated in the context of the desired objective toward its reduction in a direct-injected, hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine. A comparative, transient 2D CFD analysis evaluated at 4500 RPM between a combustion chamber design representing current practice and the here-introduced “vortex-stratified combustion” process finds an approximately 50% reduction in the peak convective flux with the latter.
2017-10-05
Journal Article
2017-01-9286
David Oh, Martin Brouillette, Jean-Sebastien Plante
Abstract A vortex-stratified combustion process for hydrogen-fueled reciprocating internal combustion engines is introduced to increase the thermal efficiency by reducing the convective heat transfer losses to the surrounding walls during combustion. The process imposes a highly ordered rotational field upon the charge in a separate, transverse, cylindrically shaped combustion chamber by means of channels that connect with the main chamber enclosed by the engine cylinder and piston. Gaseous hydrogen is injected directly during the compression stroke, while air enters into the combustion chamber tangentially and preferentially along the circumference due to the Coandă effect. The two streams entrain one another and develop into a vigorous vortex by virtue of the chamber and channel geometries.
2017-10-05
Journal Article
2017-01-9288
Stefania Falfari, Gian Marco Bianchi, Giacomo Micci, Augusto Della Torre, Gianluca Montenegro, Angelo Onorati, Sergio Negro
Abstract Metallic open-cell foams have proven to be valuable for many engineering applications. Their success is mainly related to mechanical strength, low density, high specific surface, good thermal exchange, low flow resistance and sound absorption properties. The present work aims to investigate three principal aspects of real foams: the geometrical characterization, the flow regime characterization, the effects of the pore size and the porosity on the pressure drop. The first aspect is very important, since the geometrical properties depend on other parameters, such as porosity, cell/pore size and specific surface. A statistical evaluation of the cell size of a foam sample is necessary to define both its geometrical characteristics and the flow pattern at a given input velocity. To this purpose, a procedure which statistically computes the number of cells and pores with a given size has been implemented in order to obtain the diameter distribution.
2017-09-30
Technical Paper
2017-01-5009
Li Fang, Henry Hu, Xueyuan Nie, Jimi Tjong, Xuezhi Zhang
Abstract In the present study, a design of experiment (DOE) technique, the Taguchi method, was used to develop as-cast high strength aluminum alloys with element additions of Si, Cu, Ni and Sr. The Taguchi method uses a special design of orthogonal arrays to study all the designed factors with a minimum of experiments at a relatively low cost. The element factors chosen for this study were Si, Cu, Ni and Sr content in the designed aluminum-based alloys. For each factor, three different levels of weight percentages were selected (Si: 6, 9, 12%, Cu: 3, 5, 7%, Ni: 0.5, 1, 1.5% and Sr: 0.01, 0.02, 0.03%). Tensile properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation at failure were selected as three individual responses to evaluate the engineering performance of the designed alloys. The results of the factor response analysis were used to derive the optimal level combinations.
2017-09-22
Technical Paper
2017-01-5010
H.J. Liu, X.D. Zhang
Abstract In order to research the effect of process parameters (laser power, welding speed, wire-feed speed, spot diameter) on mechanical properties of Zn-coated Steel Laser Brazing Lap Joint for vehicle, the influence of welding parameters on energy input of brazing seam cross section was theoretically analyzed, and then a great number of laser brazing experiments of 0.7mm galvanized steel was carried out. After that, the tensile strength and micro-hardness tests were also done for well-formed joints of galvanized steel formed in the laser brazing. The results show that joints with good mechanical properties and surface morphology can be formed when laser power is in the range of 2500-3200W and the other parameters keep in a specified range. Joint performance significantly reduces when the value of wire-feed speed exceeds 3.0m/min for that a wider brazing seam cross section can’t be formed.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2528
Seongjoo Lee, JeSung Jeon, JooSeong Jeong, Byeongkyu Park, ShinWook Kim, ShinWan Kim, Seong Kwan Rhee, Wan Gyu Lee, Young sun Cho
It is widely believed or speculated that higher pad compressibility leads to reduced brake squeal and that caliper design can affect brake squeal. After encountering anecdotal contradictory cases, this investigation was undertaken to systematically generate basic data and clarify the beliefs or speculations. In order to adjust pad compressibility, it is common to modify pad molding temperatures, pressures and times, which in addition to changing the compressibility, changes friction coefficient and physical properties of the pad at the same time. In order to separate these two effects, NAO disc pads were prepared under the same molding conditions while using different thicknesses of the underlayer to achieve different compressibilities, thus changing the compressibility only without changing the friction coefficient and physical properties of the pad.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2495
Andrew M. Visser, Scott Severnak
Abstract California and Washington recently passed legislation to limit certain constituents in brake pad friction materials. As part of the California (CA) legislation enacted in 2010, brake pad manufacturers need to perform an alternative assessment to identify potentially safer environmental and toxicological choices for future friction material production. Copper, chromium VI-salts, lead, cadmium, mercury, and other compounds have been identified as potentially unsafe to the environment. This paper contains the methodology behind an objective and comprehensive alternative assessment to quantify the ecological impact of friction materials. Utilizing raw material specific Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers and their associated toxicological reference values (TRVs), this newly defined method estimates the total toxicological impact of finished friction materials on both the environment and on a human carcinogenic level to allow the manufacturer to screen greener alternatives.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2482
Meechai Sriwiboon, Nipon Tiempan, Kritsana Kaewlob, Seong K Rhee, Donald Yuhas
Abstract Disc pad physical properties are believed to be important in controlling brake friction, wear and squeal. Thus these properties are carefully measured during and after manufacturing for quality assurance. For a given formulation, disc pad porosity is reported to affect friction, wear and squeal. This investigation was undertaken to find out how porosity changes affect pad natural frequencies, dynamic modulus, hardness and compressibility for a low-copper formulation and a copper-free formulation, both without underlayer, without scorching and without noise shims. Pad natural frequencies, modulus and hardness all continuously decrease with increasing porosity. When pad compressibility is measured by compressing several times as recommended and practiced, the pad surface hardness is found to increase while pad natural frequencies and modulus remain essentially unchanged.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2481
Vishal Mahale, Jayashree Bijwe, Sujeet Sinha
Abstract Potassium titanate (KT) fibers/whiskers are used as a functional filler for partial replacement of asbestos in NAO friction materials (FMs). Based on little information reported in open literature; its exact role is not well defined since some papers claim it as the booster for resistance to fade (FR), or wear (WR) and sometimes as damper for friction fluctuations. Interestingly, KT fibers and whiskers (but not powder) are proved as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). However, hardly any efforts are reported on exploration of influence of KT powder and its optimum amount in NAO FMs (realistic composites) in the literature. Hence a series of five realistic multi-ingredient compositions in the form of brake-pads with similar parent composition but varying in the content of KT powder from 0 to 15 wt% (in the steps of 3) were developed. These composites were characterized for physical, mechanical, chemical and tribological performance.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2480
Roberto Dante, Andrea Sliepcevich, Marco Andreoni, Mario Cotilli
Abstract Tin sulfides (SnS and SnS2), represent a safer and greener alternative to other metal sulfides such as copper sulfides, and MoS2 etc. Their behavior is usually associated to that of solid lubricants such as graphite. A mixture of tin sulfides, with the 65 wt% of SnS2, has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). In order to investigate the effect of tin sulfides upon two crucial friction material ingredients, two mixtures were prepared: the former was made by mixing tin sulfides with a natural flake graphite and the latter was made mixing tin sulfides with a straight novolak. They were analyzed by TGA and differential thermal analysis (DTA) in both nitrogen and air. Some interferences were detected between tin sulfides and graphite in air.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2507
Matthias Hoch, Michal Kaczmarek, Markus Ahr
Abstract The demand for zinc-nickel coatings continuously increases in the automotive industry due to their high corrosion protection as well as superior wear and heat resistance compared to pure zinc platings. The state-of-the-art plating systems in the brake caliper industry are acid zinc-nickel electrolytes, as only they allow for direct plating on cast iron. Cast iron is the most common base material for the production of automotive brake components due to excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Well suited coatings will preserve the functional properties and provide additional advantages like improved corrosion protection and homogeneous and long lasting appearance. Consistently increasing quality demands, extended warranty periods and cost pressure lead to further developments and force the industry to look for new solutions.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2510
Shengguang Xiong, Gangfeng Tan, Bo Yang, Longjie Xiao, Yongbing Xu, Yishi Wang
Abstract Fluid auxiliary braking devices can provide braking torque through hydraulic damping, fluid auxiliary braking devices can also convert vehicular inertia energy into transmission fluid heat energy during the braking, which can effectively alleviate the work pressure of the main brake. Traditional hydraulic auxiliary braking devices use transmission fluids to transmit torque, however, there is a certain lag effect during the braking. The magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid) can also be used to transmit torque because it has the advantages of controlling braking torque linearly and responding fast to the magnetic field changed. The temperature of MR fluid will increase when the vehicle is engaged in continuous braking. MR fluid temperature changes will cause a bad influence on the efficiency stability of auxiliary braking.
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2503
Binyu Mei, Xuexun Guo, Bo Yang, Shengguang Xiong, Gangfeng Tan
Abstract In order to ensure driving safety, heavy vehicles are often equipped with hydraulic retarder, which provides sustained, stable braking torque and converts the vehicle kinetic energy into heat taken away by the cooling system when traveling on a long downhill. The conventional hydraulic retarder braking torque is modulated by adjusting the liquid filling rate, which leads to slow response and difficult control. In this paper, a new kind of magnetorheological (MR) fluid hydraulic retarder is designed by replacing the traditional transmission oil with MR fluid and arranging the excitation coils outside the working chamber. The braking torque can be controlled by the fluid viscosity of MR fluid with the variation of magnetic field. Compared with the traditional hydraulic retarder, the system has the advantages of fast response, easy control and high adjustment sensitivity.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2523
Seonho Lee, Yoongil Choi, Kyuntaek Cho, Hyounsoo Park
Abstract Raceway Brinell damage is one major cause of wheel bearing (hub unit) noise during driving. Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) customers have asked continuously for its improvement to the wheel bearing supply base. Generally, raceway Brinelling in a wheel hub unit is a consequence of metallic yielding from high external loading in a severe environment usually involving a side impact to the wheel and tire. Thus, increasing the yielding strength of steel can lead to higher resistance to Brinell damage. Both the outer ring and hub based on Generation 3 (Gen. 3) wheel unit are typically manufactured using by AISI 1055 bearing quality steel (BQS); these components undergo controlled cooling to establish the core properties then case hardening via induction hardening (IH). This paper presents a modified grade of steel and its IH design that targets longer life and improves Brinell resistance developed by ILJIN AMRC (Advanced Materials Research Center).
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2529
Jae Seol Cho, JongYun Jeong, Hyoung Woo Kim, Hwa Sun Lee, Yang Woo Park, Junghwan Lim, Yoonjae Kim, Jinwoo Kim, Byung Soo Joo, Ho Jang
Abstract A semi-empirical index to evaluate the noise propensity of brake friction materials is introduced. The noise propensity index (NPI) is based on the ratio of surface and matrix stiffness of the friction material, fraction of high-pressure contact plateaus on the sliding surface, and standard deviation of the surface stiffness of the friction material that affect the amplitude and frequency of the stick-slip oscillation. The correlation between noise occurrence and NPI was examined using various brake linings for commercial vehicles. The results obtained from reduced-scale noise dynamometer and vehicle tests indicated that NPI is well correlated with noise propensity. The analysis of the stick-slip profiles also indicated that the surface property affects the amplitude of friction oscillation, while the mechanical property of the friction material influences the propagation of friction oscillation after the onset of vibration.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2502
David B. Antanaitis, Matthew Robere
Abstract The purchase of a new automobile is unquestionably a significant investment for most customers, and with this recognition, comes a correspondingly significant expectation for quality and reliability. Amongst automotive systems -when it comes to considerations of reliability - the brakes (perhaps along with the tires) occupy a rarified position of being located in a harsh environment, subjected to continuous wear throughout their use, and are critical to the safe performance of the vehicle. Maintenance of the brake system is therefore a fact of life for most drivers - something that almost everyone must do, yet given the potentially considerable expense, it is something that of great benefit to minimize.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2511
Toshikazu Okamura
Abstract The most fundamental function of an automobile brake system is assuring stable braking effectiveness under various conditions. In a previous paper (2004-01-2765), the author et al. confirmed that the friction behavior of disc brakes during running-in depends on both the friction materials and discs’ friction-surface textures. Various friction pairs were tested by combining discs finished with roller-burnishing and grinding and five friction materials including NAO and low-steel. Some NAO material exhibited large effects on the difference in friction behaviors between the discs’ surface textures. A disc finished with roller-burnishing needed a longer running-in period than that with grinding. In another paper (2011-01-2382), a further experiment was conducted by combining eight surface textures (finished under four turning conditions with and without additional roller-burnishing), two NAO materials, and two rotational directions.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2501
ByeongUk Jeong, Hyong Tae Ryu, Kwang Ki Jung, Chang Jin Kim
Abstract Owing to the enhanced performance of engines these days, more heat should be dissipated in the braking system. Success of doing this properly causes more heat to the disc in the brake system which results in the deformation or scratches on the surface of it and a reduction in the appearance of the product. A study for detailed factors to aggravate this was done as a solution to prevent these from happening. In this paper, we present our work based on experiments to study MPU (Metal Pick Up) of the pad and the scoring(scratching) of the disc. MPU of which the main component is “Fe”, is formed through the process of fusing the separated materials from the disc by friction with the pad, and by local heat generation to the pad. [1,2,3,4,5] The occurrence of MPU and the possibility of the disc scoring resulting from this were studied by noting “Fe” which was transferred to the surface of the pad to different extent and degree of segregation according to the roughness of the disc.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2524
Sebastiano Rizzo, Stefano Pagliassotto
Abstract Wheel bearings are safety-critical automotive components. For this application, the steel rolling elements are subjected to fatigue failure and therefore play a key role in overall bearing fatigue life performance. This performance is influenced by metallurgical, mechanical, and physical properties obtained by precise manufacturing process parameters. These properties are continuously analyzed and are evolving at all bearing manufacturing companies. Last year, the Precision Bearing Components (PBC) Group of NN Inc., a global supplier of steel rolling elements for wheel bearings, developed a non-conventional heat treatment process for 100Cr6 (SAE 52100) rolling element steel for improved fatigue performance. The results of wheel bearing rolling contact fatigue (RCF) tests showed the importance of rolling element dimensional stability. As retained austenite transformed to the martensite phase, rolling element volume increase occurred, leading to fatigue failure.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 13047