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Viewing 211 to 240 of 15996
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0255
Malli Kartheek Yalamanchili, Nitin Sharma, Kevin Thomson
Abstract The crashworthiness of body-in-white (BIW) plays a vital role in full vehicle crash performance. The structural integrity of BIW is controlled via strength of the spot welds and adhesives that are the primary entities to join sheet metal. The number of welds and amount of adhesives in the entire BIW directly affects the cost and the cycle time of the BIW; which makes them a good candidate for optimization. However optimization of the welds and/or adhesives not only reduces the number of connections but also provides the opportunity to improve the structural performance and mass saving by placing them optimally for the structural responses. This paper discusses the optimization of full vehicle structural performance for the small overlap crash event using the length of adhesives in the BIW as parameters. Included in the study were length of the adhesives and gage variables, defined in the front-end structure of the vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0459
Salah H. R. Ali, Badr S. N. Azzam, T. A. Osman, A. M. Moustafa
Abstract The frictional composite is an important material in braking system for automotive, trucks or heavy-duty vehicles. In this paper, a proposed frictional composite material has been developed to achieve the ISO requirements for heavy-duty vehicle brakes. This new frictional material has been fabricated with various compositions. Tribological, chemical, mechanical, thermal conductivity and acoustic noise level tests have measure its performance compared to other two commercial samples under certain operating conditions. Surface characteristics of selected samples have been performed using white light optical microscopy (WLOM) in 2D images to insure the material homogeneity. Additionally, surface roughness analyses using atomic force microscopy (AFM) into 2D and 3D images before and after frictional operation have been investigated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0121
Zhijia Yang, Jesus PradoGonjal, Matthew Phillips, Song Lan, Anthony Powell, Paz Vaqueiro, Min Gao, Richard Stobart, Rui Chen
Abstract Thermoelectric generator (TEG) has received more and more attention in its application in the harvesting of waste thermal energy in automotive engines. Even though the commercial Bismuth Telluride thermoelectric material only have 5% efficiency and 250°C hot side temperature limit, it is possible to generate peak 1kW electrical energy from a heavy-duty engine. If being equipped with 500W TEG, a passenger car has potential to save more than 2% fuel consumption and hence CO2 emission reduction. TEG has advantages of compact and motionless parts over other thermal harvest technologies such as Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and Turbo-Compound (TC). Intense research works are being carried on improving the thermal efficiency of the thermoelectric materials and increasing the hot side temperature limit. Future thermoelectric modules are expected to have 10% to 20% efficiency and over 500°C hot side temperature limit.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0949
Makoto Ito, Mitsuru Sakimoto, Zhenzhou Su, Go Hayashita, Keiichiro Aoki
Abstract New 2A/F systems different from usual A/F-O2 systems are being developed to cope with strict regulation of exhaust gas. In the 2A/F systems, 2A/F sensors are equipped in front and rear of a three-way catalyst. The A/F-O2 systems are ideas which use a rear O2 to detect exhaust gas leaked from three-way catalyst early and feed back. On the other hand, the 2A/F systems are ideas which use a rear A/F sensor to detect nearly stoichiometric gas discharged from the three-way catalyst accurately, and to prevent leakage of exhaust gas from the three-way catalyst. Therefore, accurate detection of nearly stoichiometric gas by the rear A/F sensor is the most importrant for the 2A/F systems. In general, the A/F sensors can be classified into two types, so called, one-cell type and two-cell type. Because the one-cell type A/F sensors don’t have hysteresis, they have potential for higher accuracy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0873
Senthilkumar Masimalai, Jai Kumar Mayakrishnan, Natraj Ganesan
Abstract This paper presents a comprehensive study on using MO (Mahua oil) as fuel effectively in a diesel engine by adopting emulsification and TBC (Thermal Barrier Coating) techniques. A mono cylinder diesel engine was used for the study. Initially trials were made on the engine using neat diesel (ND), Neat Mahua oil (NMO) as fuels. In the second phase, NMO was converted into its stable emulsion (called as MOE) and tested in the engine. Finally thermal barrier coating of 0.2 mm was made on the piston, valves and cylinder head of the engine using the ceramic power of Al2O3 and the engine was tested using NMO and MOE as fuels in the TBC engine. Results indicated improvement in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) with MOE as compared to NMO mainly at high power outputs in the unmodified engine. The maximum BTE was found as 31.5% with ND, 27.2% with NMO and 30.4% with MOE at the peak power output.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0172
Suhas Venkatappa, Manfred Koberstein, Zhengyu Liu
Abstract The refrigerant transition from HFC-134a to HFO-1234yf has proven to be more challenging on controlling refrigerant flow-induced noises generated from automotive air-conditioning (A/C) systems than originally anticipated. The objectives of this paper are to describe the noise issues with HFO-1234yf, understand the mechanisms and key factors affecting HFO-1234yf refrigerant flow-induced noise. Finally, the countermeasures and guidelines for attenuating and suppressing the noise are presented.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0507
Christian K. Riener, Anna-Elisabeth Raab, Gerald Luckeneder, Martin Rosner
Abstract Zinc-coatings with a substantial Magnesium content have been in use for over 30 years by now. Unlike the well-established Zn-Al-Mg coatings originating from Japan which have significant higher alloying contents applied mainly for building applications, this Zinc Magnesium Aluminum coating (ZM) is also specifically designed to meet the requirements of car manufacturers. The ZM coating introduced by voestalpine, corrender, is in the upper range of ZM-alloying compositions, which was set by VDA (German Association of the Automotive Industry) and SAE to be within 1.0 to 2.0 wt. % Mg and 1.0 to 3.0 wt. % Al. The properties of these “European” Zinc-Magnesium coatings are well comparable within this range. Compared to GI and GA ZM coatings exhibit significant advantages in the press shops with its excellent formability and reduced galling and powdering respectively which is a significant advantage for the forming of outer panels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0491
Hyerin Choi, Jaeyong Ko, JunHo Song, SeungKeon Woo
Abstract Recently, it is one of a major problems in automotive industry that wrinkles on seat interior occur at detaching between seat covering and padding foam. The purpose of this research is the way to improve heat resistance and adhesion using polyurethane reactive (PUR) of thermosetting plastic material. We compose PUR that makes thin film and non-tacky characteristic on padding foam. We find optimum situation (method and amount) for leather and padding foam. Viscosity and melting temperature are adjusted to coat with amount. 25~30g/m2 are suitable on padding foam unlike traditional method to coat leather above 100g/ m2. We also verified performances of PUR lamination compared to others. As result, peel strength is strongest at 15.4N/30mm. Heat resistance is also excellent with various padding foams. Furthermore we advance an additional jig to match leather and padding foam by low tacky characteristic of PUR. This jig can increase productivity in seat manufacturing process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1190
Patrick Maguire, Hyung Baek, Stephen Liptak, Olivia Lomax, Rodolfo Palma, Yi Zhang
Abstract As electrified powertrains proliferate through original equipment manufacturer vehicle offerings, the focus on system cost and weight reduction intensifies. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a High Voltage (HV) battery system enclosure molded from High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) to deliver substantial cost and weight opportunities. While previous HV battery system enclosure alternatives to steel and aluminum focus on thermoset composites and glass filled polypropylene, this solution leverages select HDPE design techniques established for fuel tanks and applies them to an HV battery system. The result is a tough, energy absorbing structure, capable of hermetic sealing, which simplifies manufacturing by eliminating nearly all fasteners.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1707
C. Matthew Enloe, Jason Coryell, Jeff Wang
Abstract Retained austenite stability to both mechanically induced transformation and athermal transformation is of great importance to the fabrication and in-vehicle performance of automotive advanced high strength steels. Selected cold-rolled advanced high strength steels containing retained austenite with minimum tensile strengths of 980 MPa and 1180 MPa were pre-strained to pre-determined levels under uniaxial tension in the rolling direction and subsequently cooled to temperatures as low as 77 K. Room temperature uniaxial tensile results of pre-strained and cooled steels indicate that retained austenite is stable to athermal transformation to martensite at all tested temperatures and pre-strain levels. To evaluate the combined effects of temperature and pre-strain on impact behavior, stacked Charpy impact testing was conducted on the same 980 MPa minimum tensile strength steel following similar pre-straining in uniaxial tension.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0268
Venkatesh Babu, Richard Gerth
Abstract The aim of this analysis was to model the effect of adding stiffening ribs in structural aluminum components by friction stir processing (FSP) Nano material into the aluminum matrix. These stiffening ribs could dampen, redirect, or otherwise alter the transmission of energy waves created from automotive, ballistic, or blast shocks to improve noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) and structural integrity (reduced joint stress) response. Since the ribs are not created by geometry changes they can be space efficient and deflect blast / ballistic energy better than geometry ribbing, resulting in a lighter weight solution. The blast and ballistic performance of different FSP rib patterns in AL 5182 and AL 7075 were simulated and compared to the performance of an equivalent weight of RHA plate FSP helps to increase localized strength and stiffness of the base metal, while achieving light weighting of the base metal.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0390
Muhamamd Yasir, Helmut Wieser, Daniel Knoll, Simon Burger
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of material and design selection for future light weight exhaust systems. Material validation for new components usually requires various types of tests on different types of test coupons. There are varieties of corrosion test methods which are in practice since years now. Majority of these testing approaches are used to make relative ranking among different materials. In most of these tests a correlation between testing and field behavior is missing. There is also no test available in which both external as well as internal corrosion can be realized simultaneously. Additionally, none of these corrosion tests cover the design aspects of the components. To combat this challenge Faurecia has built and validated a corrosion test setup where complete exhaust silencer can be tested near to real conditions. A comparative study was performed between field parts and test parts to validate the test cycle.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0411
Yuming Yin, Subhash Rakheja, Jue Yang, P-E. Boileau
Abstract This study is aimed at characterizing the nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of a simple and low cost design of a hydro-pneumatic suspension (HPS) that permits entrapment of gas into the hydraulic fluid. The mixing of gas into the oil yields highly complex variations in the bulk modulus, density and viscosity of the hydraulic fluid, and the effective gas pressure, which are generally neglected. The pseudo-static and dynamic properties of the HPS strut were investigated experimentally and analytically. Laboratory tests were conducted to measure responses in terms of total force and fluid pressures within each chamber under harmonic excitations and nearly steady temperature. The measured data revealed gradual entrapment of gas in the hydraulic fluid until the mean pressure saturated at about 84% of the initial pressure, suggesting considerably reduced effective bulk modulus and density of the hydraulic fluid.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1669
Keiichiro Numakura, Kenta Emori, Akinori Okubo, Taku Shimomura, Tetsuya Hayashi
Abstract This paper presents the technologies incorporated in an electric vehicle (EV)/hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) inverter built with power semiconductors of silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) instead of conventional silicon (Si) insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). A SiC inverter prototype of 2.9 L in size for driving an 80-kW motor was fabricated and evaluated on a motor test bench. The SiC inverter prototype attained average efficiency of 98.5% in the Worldwide harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) driving mode. The two main technologies achieved with this SiC inverter prototype are described. The first one is a new direct-cooled power module with a thick copper (Cu) heat spreader located under the semiconductors that improves thermal resistance by 34% compared with a conventional direct-cooled power module.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1688
Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki
The usage of the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor to control the air-fuel ratio (AFR) in gasoline engines allowed to significantly improve the efficiency of the combustion process and reduce tailpipe emissions. The diagnostics of this sensor is very important to ensure proper operation and indicate the need for service when the sensor fails to accurately determine the AFR upstream of the catalyst. California air resources board (CARB) has imposed several legislations around the operation of the UEGO sensor and particularly when specific faults would cause tailpipe emissions to exceed certain limits. In this paper, the possible sensor faults are reviewed, and a non-intrusive diagnostics monitor is proposed to detect, identify and estimate the magnitude of the fault present. This paper extends the approach in [4] where technical details are emphasized and algorithm improvements are discussed.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1218
XINCHEN ZHAO, Yalan Bi, Song-Yul Choe
Abstract We propose a reduced order model (ROM) for LFP/graphite cells derived from the electrochemical thermal principles that considers degradation effects and validated against experimental data obtained from a large format pouch type LFP/graphite cell whose nominal capacity is 20Ah. The characteristics of the two-phase transition and path dependence were taken into account in the ROM using a shrinking-core model with a moving interface that presents lithium rich and deficient phase. Different currents (0.1/1/3/4C) were applied to fresh cells at different ambient temperatures (25/35/45°C). Comparison between simulated results of the ROM and the collected experimental data shows a good match. The path dependence was also analyzed experimentally. For degradation model, side reaction is treated as the predominant cause of degradation of cells, which are affected by the operating conditions, such as temperature and SOC cycling range.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1221
Shingo Soma, Haruhiko shimizu, Eiji Shirado, Satoshi Fujishiro
Abstract As heavy rare earth elements are become less prevalent, because one-tenth as often in ore deposits as light rare earth elements. Future usage of need to be reduces heavy rare earth, because of resource risks and costs. As such, a method was developed to recover reductions in coercive force and prevent demagnetization temperature from reducing without adding any heavy rare earth elements. First, a heavy rare-earth-free magnet was developed by hot deformation, which limits growth of crystal grain size, and relationships were clarified between coercive force and optimal deforming temperatures, speed, and total rare earth amounts for heavy rare-earth-free magnets. Second, it was made clear that the permeance coefficient can be increased by reshaping the flux barriers, and that the developed hot deformed magnet can be adopted.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1306
Michael Ulizio, DeWitt Lampman, Mukesh Rustagi, Jason Skeen, Chester Walawender
Abstract Automotive manufacturers are requiring lightweight materials, including glazing materials to improve vehicle fuel economy mandates. Since windshields are one of the largest glazing surface areas, reducing the thickness of the glass in its construction can significantly provide weight savings opportunities. Automotive glazing design considerations must include overall glass strength, rigidity, acoustical, and solar performance, which are affected by changes of glass thicknesses. This paper will evaluate those design considerations in the lightweighting of windshield glazings. One important design consideration for the windshield position is the impact of debris from the environment. Lightweighting of glazings in this body position affects the way the construction reacts to an impact. Use of asymmetry in glass plies in a laminated construction can have a marked effect on the part’s impact performance and surface damage creation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0122
Gursaran D. Mathur
Water drainage characteristics are dependent on the design of the evaporator: specifically the design of the fins and plates along with hydrophilic coating. A part of the hydrophilic coating washes off with the moisture that condenses over the evaporator core from the air-stream. Hence, water drainage characteristics of an evaporator changes with the vehicle mileage or the age of the vehicle. Since a part of the hydrophilic coating washes away, more water is retained within the evaporator at this condition. Hence, the effectiveness of the evaporator drainage deteriorates with the age of the vehicles. At this condition, the contact angle measured at the plate increases. Author has conducted an experimental study to measure the effectiveness of hydrophilic coating from evaporators taken out from arid (9 cores) and humid areas (16 cores) as a function of vehicle mileage or vehicle age. Contact angles and water retention were measured for a number of evaporators from different OEMs.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0484
Harchetan Singh Aneja, Harmeet Singh, Aashish Parmar, Rohan Sharma
Abstract The automotive industry, known for its competitiveness & innovations globally, researches for continuous improvement of part performances along with reduction of cost & weight. These are amongst the top priority goals across all OEMs. In the long list of automobile parts, pipe clamps have paved their way of design through generations from being of metal to plastic that has expanded its scope of application & performance. In an automobile, plastic clamps are widely used to hold single or multiple water, fuel or brake pipes of various diameters to vehicle body at various locations such as underbody (prone to stone chipping) or engine room (prone to high temperatures), etc. Plastic clamps are preferred over metallic clamps for their cost, weight, performance & productivity. Primarily, in all application areas, a clamp must be able to hold the pipes with consistent & sufficient performance that is quantified through parameters such as thrust force and pipe removal force.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0501
Sajiree Vaidya, Naga Sai Chakravart Velamakuri, Piyush Agarwal, Srikanth Pilla, David Schmueser
Abstract In modern passenger vehicles, A-pillar plays an important role in its passive safety by minimizing the deformation of passenger compartment during the crash. To meet various crash requirements, as well as sometimes due to demand of vehicle styling, A-pillar cross section of modern vehicles is generally wider. This wider cross section acts as an increased obstruction to the field of vision of the driver. It is considered detrimental for the safety of road users. The current work proposes an innovative design solution to reduce the obstruction angle due to an A-pillar. It also addresses the weight reduction objective. This is done by utilizing the noble properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP). Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) offer flexibility for complex design. Due to high specific strength and stiffness, CFRP's are suitable candidate for design considerations presented in this study.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1305
Yucheng Liu, Jeremy Batte, Zachary Collins, Jennifer Bateman, John Atkins, Madelyn Davis, David Salley, Cindy L. Bethel, John Ball, Christopher Archibald
Abstract A robot mining system was developed by the State Space Robotic undergraduate student design team from Mississippi State University (MSU) for the 2016 NASA Robotic Mining Competition. The mining robot was designed to traverse the Martian chaotic terrain, excavate a minimum of 10 kg of Martian regolith and deposit the regolith into a collector bin within 10 minutes as part of the competition. A Systems Engineering approach was followed in proceeding with this design project. The designed mining robot consisted of two major components: (1) mechanical system and (2) control system. This paper mainly focuses on the design and assessment process of the mechanical system but will also briefly mention the control system so as to evaluate the designed robotic system in its entirety. The final designed robot consisted of an aluminum frame driven by four motors and wheels. It utilized a scoop and lifting arm subsystem for collecting and depositing Martian regolith.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0225
Gabriela Guerra, Ulises Figueroa-López, Andrea Guevara-Morales
Abstract The rapid growth of the emerging markets has pushed the automotive original equipment manufacturers to relocalize production to reduce manufacturing and logistic costs. To ensure an efficient and flexible supply chain, local suppliers are appointed. However, the characteristics of materials available in each region may have minor differences, and when geometry and process design recommendations that were developed for certain materials are implemented for materials under a different regional standard, different results are obtained. Such is the case of the clutch disc spacer bolt, in which its compression during riveting has a direct effect in the noise and vibration isolation of the vehicle.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0228
Yang Li, Zhangxing Chen, Hongyi Xu, Jeffrey Dahl, Danielle Zeng, Mansour Mirdamadi, Xuming Su
Abstract Compression molded SMC composed of chopped carbon fiber and resin polymer which balances the mechanical performance and manufacturing cost presents a promising solution for vehicle lightweight strategy. However, the performance of the SMC molded parts highly depends on the compression molding process and local microstructure, which greatly increases the cost for the part level performance testing and elongates the design cycle. ICME (Integrated Computational Material Engineering) approaches are thus necessary tools to reduce the number of experiments required during part design and speed up the deployment of the SMC materials. As the fundamental stage of the ICME workflow, commercial software packages for SMC compression molding exist yet remain not fully validated especially for chopped fiber systems. In the present study, SMC plaques are prepared through compression molding process.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0223
Haolong Liu, Weidong Wen, Xuming Su, Carlos Engler-Pinto, HongTae Kang
Abstract Morphological features of voids were characterized for T300/924 12-ply and 16-ply composite laminates at different porosity levels through the implementation of a digital microscopy (DM) image analysis technique. The composite laminates were fabricated through compression molding. Compression pressures of 0.1MPa, 0.3MPa, and 0.5MPa were selected to obtain composite plaques at different porosity levels. Tension-tension fatigue tests at load ratio R=0.1 for composite laminates at different void levels were conducted, and the dynamic stiffness degradation during the tests was monitored. Fatigue mechanisms were then discussed based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fatigue fracture surfaces. The test results showed that the presence of voids in the matrix has detrimental effects on the fatigue resistance of the material, depending on the applied load level.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0229
Hongyi Xu, Yang Li, Danielle Zeng
Abstract Process integration and optimization is the key enabler of the Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) of carbon fiber composites. In this work, automated workflows are developed for two types of composites: Sheet Molding Compounds (SMC) short fiber composites, and multi-layer unidirectional (UD) composites. For SMC, the proposed workflow integrates material processing simulation, microstructure representation volume element (RVE) models, material property prediction and structure preformation simulation to enable multiscale, multidisciplinary analysis and design. Processing parameters, microstructure parameters and vehicle subframe geometry parameters are defined as the design variables; the stiffness and weight of the structure are defined as the responses. For multi-layer UD structure, this work focuses on the discussion of different design representation methods and their impacts on the optimization performance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0230
Louise A. Powell, William E. Luecke, Matthias Merzkirch, Katherine Avery, Tim Foecke
Abstract The introduction of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites to structural components in lightweight automotive structures necessitates an assessment to evaluate that their crashworthiness dynamic response provides similar or higher levels of safety compared to conventional metallic structures. In order to develop, integrate and implement predictive computational models for CFRP composites that link the materials design, molding process and final performance requirements to enable optimal design and manufacturing vehicle systems for this study, the dynamic mechanical response of unidirectional (UD) and 2x2 twill weave CRFP composites was characterized at deformation rates applicable to crashworthiness performance. Non-standardized specimen geometries were tested on a standard uniaxial frame and an intermediate-to-high speed dynamic testing frame, equipped with high speed cameras for 3D digital image correlation (DIC).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0451
Klaus-Peter Heinig, David A. Stephenson, Timothy G. Beyer
Abstract Thermally sprayed coatings have used in place of iron bore liners in recent aluminum engine blocks. The coatings are steel-based, and are sprayed on the bore wall in the liquid phase. The thermal response of the block structure determines how rapidly coatings can be applied and thus the investment and floor space required for the operation. It is critical not to overheat the block to prevent dimensional errors, metallurgical damage, and thermal stress cracks. This paper describes an innovative finite element procedure for estimating both the substrate temperature and residual stresses in the coating for the thermal spray process. Thin layers of metal at a specified temperature, corresponding to the layers deposited in successive thermal spray torch passes, are applied to the substrate model, generating a heat flux into the block. The thickness, temperature, and application speed of the layers can be varied to simulate different coating cycles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0477
Harish M. Rao, Jidong Kang, Garret Huff, Katherine Avery, Xuming Su
Abstract Tensile and fatigue properties of continuous braided carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite to AA6111 self-piercing riveted (SPR) lap shear joints are presented. Rivets were inserted at two target head heights separated by 0.3 mm. Even within the narrow range of head heights considered, the flushness of the rivet head was found to have a dominant effect on both the monotonic and fatigue properties of the lap shear SPR joints. Joints created with a flush head resulted in a greater degree of fiber breakage in the top ply of the CFRP laminate, which resulted in lower lap shear failure load as compared to SPR joints produced with a proud rivet head. Irrespective of the lap shear failure load, rivet pullout was the most common failure mode observed for both rivet head heights. In fatigue tests, the SPR joints produced with a proud head exhibited higher fatigue life compared to SPR joints produced with a flush head.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 15996