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Viewing 211 to 240 of 15895
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0149
Edinilson Alves Costa
Abstract Mainly in the last 30 years so much research has been done on Fe-based calculation of seam welded thin-sheet structures fatigue life. However, available prediction methods have been developed for a limited range of geometries under ideal load conditions. Extrapolating to complex real world geometries and load conditions such those resultant from, for example, ground vehicles dislocation over rough surfaces, are least documented. One example of the application of seam welded thin-sheet structures in the ground vehicle industry is the powertrain installation bracketry. Such brackets are subject to variable amplitude loading sourced from powertrain and road surface irregularities and their fatigue strength is tightly dependent on the strength of their joints. In this paper, a FE-based force/moment method has been used for numerically predicting fatigue life of powertrain installation bracketry of a commercial truck submitted to variable amplitude loading.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0127
Gustavo Siebert, Amilton Sinatora
Abstract The growing use of tribotest has been helping the researches to understand the actuation mechanisms of additives on the friction and wear control of engine parts. But, it is common to observe differences between the tribofilms formed in real situation from that obtained using tribotests. Furthermore, the automakers have difficulty to correlate the results obtained using tribotests with that performed using engines in dynamometers. For the piston ring/cylinder bore tribosystem is almost impossible to reproduce its real tribosystem using tribotests. Therefore simplifications are necessary and they affect the tribochemical behavior of the tribosystem. To understand how these simplifications and the test parameters affect the tribochemical behavior of the simplified tribosystem is critical to design a tribotest that correlate well with the real situation.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0170
Moisés Krutzmann, Dimitrius Caloghero, Tiago Schmidt, Rogério Marczak
Abstract The knowledge of mechanical behaviour of material is vital for durability prediction and attending initial project requirements. Through the experimental evaluations is possible to measure this behaviour and use it as input in numerical simulations. Temperature changes considerably static and dynamic mechanical properties of materials, particularly in elastomers. This study was motivated to predict the durability under several working temperatures of center bearings rubber cushion of driveshafts that needs to achieve prespecified stiffness and durability parameters. Standardized specimens were tested in fatigue for experimental investigation of the rubber compound. Durability tests were performed in the final product sample and compared with tests performed in standardized specimens. It was concluded that this approach produces accurate results for fatigue predictions and provided useful equations for practical design applications and reducing product validation time.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0168
Lawrence Tack Wen Yan
Abstract This paper focus on some of the fatigue methodologies based on the frequency domain and how they can be used on the heavy vehicle industry. A calculation flow was developed which consist of two steps. At first the stresses on the desired frequency bandwidth are calculated using a finite element software and those are then used as inputs on a Matlab script that estimate the expected life using two different theories, Bendat’s narrow band and Dirlik. The proposed methodology is then compared with more established time domain calculations. At first a plain hand calculation with a simpler input is performed on both domains before evaluating the differences with a more complex random stress signal input. Finally, test data from a rig test is used to validate the frequency domain fatigue methods using real life data.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0325
Filipe Diniz, Caue Morais, André Luiz, Adriano Simplício, Lincoln Lima, Rogério Silvério
Abstract Based on automotive concerns related to global warming, CO2 emissions, safety and fuel efficiency, a trend to use High Strength Steels was stablished in order to meet these concerns and enhance the Body In White (BIW) performance. The usage of Press Hardened Steel (PHS) on the BIW is greatly broadcasted by the automotive industry, however OEMs should consider other important aspects for the vehicle lifecycle, such as repair and serviceability in the occasion of vehicle collision. This paper addresses a repair procedure that meets regular performance characteristics. The study was based on the conditions available on emergent markets dealers to perform an optimized repair. This procedure ensures the proper serviceability of PHS parts on BIW systems and supports the usage of High Strength Steels technology in today’s emergent market vehicles.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0393
Thales Sardinha Garcia Souza, Márcio Henrique Pereira, Roberto Martins de Souza
Abstract The cost of any forged product for the automotive industry is highly influenced by the cost involved during the design and manufacturing of the forging tools. Ideally, these tools shall withstand a significant number of cycles, in order to divide their manufacturing cost in many parts as possible. There are several parameters that affect the wear behavior, and forging companies have different approaches to address the tribological issues. Moreover, a misunderstanding of these parameters may lead to an undesirable premature tool wear. This work analyses the effect of roughness on the wear of cold forming tools. The adopted tribosystem is the second stage of a horizontal press and consists of a punch of M2 hardened steel in relative movement against a working piece of SAE 10B22 normalized steel. Fifteen punches were manufactured with three roughness levels and their wear was measured after 50.000 and 100.000 forging cycles.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0400
Carlos Abílio Passos Travaglia, Luiz Carlos Rolim Lopes
Abstract Great numbers of studies in sliding wear phenomena use the wear rate to quantify material losses. However, in more recent works, some authors have been tried to characterize the wear phenomena by means of the energy dissipation between the contact surfaces of the bodies. The aim of this work is to create an analytical model capable to relate the total energy dissipated by a friction material during a bench wear test and data collected directly in a vehicle brake, in order to predict the durability of this component in service life. To attain this aim, the concept of specific wear volume, SWV, is adopted. The specific wear volume is the relationship between the material wear volume and the energy dissipated during a sliding wear process. In addition, a method to calculate the energy dissipation on friction materials is presented.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0258
Ademar de Azevedo Cardoso, Ederson Claudio Andreatta
Abstract This study focuses on the Termomechanical Fatigue (TMF) analysis for an exhaust manifold. Bolt tension and temperature field has been applied in order to get variation on stresses, going from room load condition to a full load condition. The temperature field has been acquired from 1D simulation and adjusted to fit experimental values measured on the vehicle. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) has been considered to evaluate the exhaust manifold under the stress cycles produced by temperature fluctuation. Thermal and stress analysis have been performed by Abaqus package. An in-house code has been employed in the fatigue analysis. The bolt torque and the temperature field on the engine and exhaust manifold are the loads considered in the analysis.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0262
Edney Rejowski, Juliano Pallaoro de Souza, Rafael Bettini Rabello
Abstract Engine development activities are being driven forward primarily by the challenge of continuing to reduce CO2 and exhaust emissions. From the piston/liner system it is well known that Lube Oil Consumption (LOC) is affected by the bore distortion occurrences within Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) that usually demands a redesign on the piston ring pack not in favor to reduce friction losses. This article shows a potential solution to reduce bore distortion and oil evaporation through more efficient heat dissipation from combustion chamber to engine cooling system in a modern aluminum Spark Ignition (SI) block. Electroplated nickel coating applied to the external cast iron surface previous to the casting process enable a metallurgical diffusion layer with the aluminum block material and therefore improve heat conductivity in fired operation conditions compared to conventional cast iron liners.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0277
R.B. Obara, J.O.M.G. Faria, A. Sinatora
Abstract It is well known that machine lifetime, reliability and performance are strongly related to wear. The wear of cylinder bores can increase blow-by, oil consumption, power losses and emissions. Moreover, it can produce axial wear scratches that can harm hydrodynamic support of piston rings, increasing wear even further. The comprehension of the main factors responsible for wear in cylinder bores is, therefore, indispensable for the increase of the efficiency of engines. Despite the great work reported in literature regarding to the analysis of wear in engine cylinders, the study of the types of oxides and tribofilms formed in the surface of the cylinders remains poor. Therefore, the present work aims to correlate wear of cylinder bores from flex-fuel vehicles with engine operating conditions.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0457
Weber Ferreira Veloso, Marcela Rodrigues Machado Garcia, Sabrina Glicéria Firmino, Juliana Queiroga Gazaniga de Assis, Diego Palhares de Faria
Abstract Through a computing transient thermal analysis, the team evaluated the quality of the material and its resistance to thermal fatigue by a comparative method. With the steel used in 1020 failed in 2014, for the team Formula UFMG, the 1020 steel, 1045, 1070 and stainless steel 304 were compared, where the stainless steel was the parameter of better resistance to thermal cracking. The main calculated parameters were subjected to empiric validations and the best material has been applied and used in the 2015 season. The use of the disks in a competition and in a battery of tests superior to 2014, permitted the evaluation of the final result of applying the material.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0462
Cauê Morais, André Pereira, Carlos Ney Mendes, Filipe Diniz, Lincoln Lima, Luiz Gustavo Campos
Abstract Adhesive bonding has gained a lot of popularity on the automotive industry on recent years. The technology has helped OEMs to build lighter vehicles by enabling the joint of dissimilar, lighter materials as well as joints that otherwise could not be welded or bolted together due to the lack of machine and operator access. It has also seen widespread usage to enhance crash performance, due to its ability to distribute stress uniformly and absorb energy. Past test reports had shown that adhesive bonding may have a poor performance when used on Zn-Fe (Galvanneal - GA) coated steel sheets, as the superficial coating layer may delaminate from the base steel, not allowing the adhesive to perform properly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the performance of adhesive bonding on GA coated steels when utilized alongside weld spots.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0538
ROBERTO TETSUO FUJIYAMA, CESAR TADEU NASSER MEDEIROS BRANCO, CARLINDO LINS PEREIRA FILHO, BERNARDO BORGES POMPEU NETO, PAULO SÉRGIO MAGALHÃES FERREIR DE SOUZA, DENILSON DA SILVA COSTA
Abstract Composite materials are alternative materials that come rising fast at last decades. With a view to the use of lighter and stronger materials that can replace ferrous materials, arise composites reinforced by synthetic fibers. Moreover, natural fibers emerge as an alternative reinforcement for the synthetic fibers because they are costly. Thus the present study aims to evaluate the behavior of particulate composite reinforced by sisal fibers in the size of 15 mm emerged in fluids such as water, salt water, and lubricating oil. The specimens were made according to ASTM D638M and aging it period of sixty days. After two months, the specimens were subjected to tensile tests, and determined the tensile strength results and deformation of the maximum load and the modulus of elasticity. In general, it was observed a reduction in tensile strength of the particulate sisal composite when immersed into the lubricant oil.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2227
Nik Muhammad Hafiz, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, Masahiro Shioji
Abstract Hydrogen fuel is a potential energy source for vehicles in the future. The emission of this fuel complies with the stringent policies issued by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Researchers have nominated the hydrogen compression ignition engine in an argon atmosphere as one of the ways to enhance power output and volumetric efficiency in the midst of pre-ignition and knock problems. Since this type of research is still in the initial stage, numerical studies have become the best method for researchers to obtain data on hydrogen fuel combustion in an argon-oxygen atmosphere. The purpose of this study was to validate the simulation results with the experimental data, investigate the combustion characteristics of hydrogen fuel in an argon-oxygen atmosphere, and to study the effects of the initial temperature and injection pressure on the combustion process. In this research, CONVERGE CFD software was used for the simulation process.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2238
Kazunari Kuwahara, Tadashi Matsuo, Yasuyuki Sakai, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Tsukasa Hori, Eriko Matsumura, Jiro Senda
Abstract n-Tridecane is a low boiling point component of gas oil, and has been used as a single-component fuel for diesel spray and combustion experiments. However, no reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-tridecane have been presented for three-dimensional modeling. A detailed mechanism developed by KUCRS (Knowledge-basing Utilities for Complex Reaction Systems), contains 1493 chemical species and 3641 reactions. Reaction paths during ignition process for n-tridecane in air computed using the detailed mechanism, were analyzed with the equivalence ratio of 0.75 and the initial temperatures of 650 K, 850 K, and 1100 K, which are located in the cool-flame dominant, negative-temperature coefficient, and blue-flame dominant regions, respectively.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2318
Wangkan Lin, Nancy Diggs, Catherine Frampton
Abstract One of the primary functions of modern heavy duty diesel (HDD) lubricants is to protect the engine against corrosion, which is typically accomplished by additives providing alkaline material, commonly represented as total base number (TBN). The majority of the TBN in HDD lubricants comes from ash-containing over-based detergents, with various metallic base and soap chemistries. In this publication, we discuss several overbased detergents and their efficacy in acid neutralization, as well as the resulting impact on corrosion protection. The performance differences are compared in a number of stationary API CJ-4 and CK-4 HDD engine screener tests. Furthermore, these results are confirmed with field trial data, including a comparison of CJ-4 oils with the upcoming API FA-4/CK-4 oils. The selection of overbased detergent type provides varying levels of acid neutralization and corrosion protection.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2161
Gangfeng Tan, Xuefeng Yang, Li Zhou, Kangping Ji, Mengying Yang
Abstract In this research, the Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric material is used in the exhaust temperature difference power-generating system, and the material's heat transfer characteristic and power-generating characteristic were analyzed. Firstly, steady heat transfer model from vehicle exhaust to cooling water was established. Then the impact of Sn/Si ratio to the thermoelectric characteristic parameter was analyzed. Finally, considering the influence of varying thermal conductivity to the heat transfer process along the material's heat transfer direction, when the cold end temperature of thermoelectric materials was controlled by cooling water respectively boiling at 343K and 373K, the thermoelectric conversion efficiency and power output of Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric materials with different x value were evaluated based on simulation calculation.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2214
Teuvo Maunula, Thomas Wolff
The latest emission regulations for mobile and stationary applications require the use of aftertreatment methods for NOx and diesel particulate filters (DPF) for particulate matter (PM). SCR catalysts were evaluated by laboratory experiments and the most promising SCR catalysts were also scaled up to full-size. Development with copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) on zeolitic materials (Beta, ZSM-5, SAPO, chabazite) has resulted in the new generation of thermally durable SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalysts, which have also an improved sulfur tolerance and a low N2O formation tendency. Opposite to Cu on Beta and ZSM-5, Cu on chabazite and SAPO showed clearly lower N2O formation. Cu-SCR catalysts had a low dependency on NO2/NOx but Fe-SCR catalysts required a higher NO2/NOx ratio (>0.3) to keep a high NOx efficiency.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2349
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Ram Krishna Kumar Singh, Jham Tikoliya
Abstract To compete with the current market trends there is always a need to arrive at a cost effective and light weight designs. For commercial vehicles, an attempt is made to decrease weight of the current design without compromising its strength & stiffness, considering/bearing all the worst road/engine load cases and severe environmental conditions. The topic was chosen because of interest in higher payloads, lower weight, and higher efficiency. Automotive cylinder head must be lighter in weight, to meet increasingly demanding customer requirements. The design approach for cylinder head has made it difficult to achieve this target. A designer might make some judgment as to where ribs are required to provide stiffness, but this is based on engineering experience and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the stand-alone head.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2333
Akio Kawaguchi, Hiroki Iguma, Hideo Yamashita, Noriyuki Takada, Naoki Nishikawa, Chikanori Yamashita, Yoshifumi Wakisaka, Kenji Fukui
Abstract To improve fuel efficiency of engines, cooling heat loss is one of the most dominant losses among the various engine losses to reduce. The present work proposes a new heat insulation concept in combustion chamber, "TSWIN (Thermo-Swing Wall Insulation Technology)" that can reduce heat loss to the coolant without any sacrifice in other engine performances. Surface temperature of insulation coat on combustion chamber wall changes rapidly, according with the fluctuating temperature of in-cylinder gas. Reduced temperature differences between them lead to lower heat transfer. During the intake stroke, surface temperature of the insulation coat goes down rapidly, and prevents intake air heating. To realize the scheme mentioned above, a new insulation material with both low thermal conductivity and low volumetric heat capacity, "SiRPA (Silica Reinforced Porous Anodized Aluminum)" was developed and applied on the top surface of the piston.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2350
Zhien Liu, Jiangmi Chen, Sheng-hao Xiao
Abstract This paper combines fluid software STAR-CCM+ and finite element software ABAQUS to solve the temperature field of this Gasoline engine exhaust manifold based on loose coupling method. Through the simulation of car parking cooling - full load condition at full speed, we estimate thermal fatigue life of the exhaust manifold with the plastic strain increment as the evaluation parameters. It can guide the direction of optimal design of the exhaust manifold. Here we also revealed how the bolt force affects the manifold elastic and plastic behavior.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2272
Carl Bennett, Jason Bell, Jeffrey Guevremont
Abstract Elastomer compatibility is an important property of lubricants. When seals degrade oil leakages may occur, which is a cause of concern for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) because of warranty claims. Leakage is also a concern for environmental reasons. Most often, the mechanical properties and fitting of the oil seals is identified as the source of failure, but there are cases where the interaction between the lubricant and the seal material can be implicated. The performance of seal materials in tensile testing is a required method that must be passed in order to qualify lubricant additive packages. We conducted an extensive study of the interactions between these elastomeric materials and lubricant additive components, and their behavior over time. The physicochemical mechanisms that occur to cause seal failures will be discussed.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2351
Kotaro Tanaka, Kazuki Hiroki, Tomoki Kikuchi, Mitsuru Konno, Mitsuharu Oguma
Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. However, a lacquer is formed on the EGR valve or EGR cooler due to particulate matter and other components present in diesel exhaust, causing serious problems. In this study, the mechanism of lacquer deposition is investigated using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Deposition of temperature-dependent lacquers was evaluated by varying the temperature of a diamond prism between 80 and 120 °C in an ATR-FTIR spectrometer integrated into a custom-built sample line, which branched off from the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine. Lacquers were deposited on the diamond prism at 100 °C or less, while no lacquer was deposited at 120 °C. Time-dependent ATR-FTIR spectra were obtained for approximately 2 h from the beginning of the experiment.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2315
Xiaobo Shen, Rajiv Taribagil, Stuart Briggs, Isabella Goldmints
Abstract An unprecedented global focus on the environment and greenhouse gases has driven recent government regulations on automotive emissions across the globe. To achieve this improvement, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have advocated a progressive move towards the use of low viscosity grade oils. However, the use of lower viscosity grades should not compromise engine durability or wear protection. Viscosity modifiers (VM) - polymeric additive components used to tailor the lubricant’s viscometric properties - have been viewed as a key enabler for achieving the desirable balance between fuel economy and engine durability performance. Self-assembling diblock copolymers represent a unique class of VMs, which deliver superior shear stability due to their tunable association/dissociation in the lubricating oil. Superior shear stability ensures that the oil viscosity and its ability to offer reliable engine protection from wear is retained over the life of the oil in the engine.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2204
Takafumi Mori, Masanori Suemitsu, Nobuharu Umamori, Takehisa Sato, Satoshi Ogano, Kenji Ueno, Oji Kuno, Kotaro Hiraga, Kazuhiko Yuasa, Shinichiro Shibata, Shinichiro Ishikawa
Abstract Torque loss reduction at differential gear unit is important to improve the fuel economy of automobiles. One effective way is to decrease the viscosity of lubricants as it results in less churning loss. However, this option creates a higher potential for thin oil films, which could damage the mechanical parts. At tapered roller bearings, in particular, wear at the large end face of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing bottom wear is one of major failure modes. To understand the wear mechanism, wear at the rolling contact surface of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing side wear, was also observed to confirm the wear impact on the tapered roller bearings. Because gear oils are also required to avoid seizure under extreme pressure, the combination of a phosphorus anti-wear agent and a sulfurous extreme pressure agent are formulated.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2205
Chris McFadden, Kevin Hughes, Lydia Raser, Timothy Newcomb
Abstract Hybrid drivetrain hardware combines an electric motor and a transmission, gear box, or hydraulic unit. With many hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) hardware designs the transmission fluid is in contact with the electric motor. Some OEMs and tier suppliers have concerns about the electrical properties of automatic transmission fluids (ATFs). Lubrizol has conducted a fundamental research project to better understand the electrical conductivity of ATFs. In this paper, we will present conductivity data as a function of temperature for a range of commercially available ATFs. All fluids had conductivities ranging from 0.9 to 8x10-9 S/cm at 100 °C and can be considered insulators with the ability to dissipate static charge. Next we will deconstruct one ATF to show the relative impact of the various classes of lubricant additives. We find that more polar additives have a larger effect on conductivity on a normalized (per weight %) basis.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8044
Guoyu Feng, Wenku Shi, Henghai Zhang, Qinghua Zu
Abstract In order to predict the fatigue life of thrust rod heavy duty commercial vehicle balanced suspension, based on the continuum mechanics theory, the fatigue life prediction model of rubber with equivalent effect as damage parameter is established. Based on the equivalent stress and fatigue cumulative damage theory, the fatigue damage evolution equation of rubber material expressed by stress is derived by using the strain energy function. The general fatigue life model is established by using the maximum logarithmic principal strain as the damage parameter. The finite element model of the thrust rod is established, and the stress distribution of the spherical hinge rubber layer and the easy damage area are analyzed. Based on the equivalent stress calculation results and the axial tension stress and strain data of the rubber material, the accuracy of the results of the finite element calculation is verified.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8138
Pranav Shinde, K Ravi, Nandhini Nehru, Sushant Pawar, Balaji Balakrishnan, Vinit Nair
Abstract Body in white (BIW) forms a major structure in any automobile. It is responsible for safety and structural rigidity of the vehicle. Also, this frame supports the power plant, auxiliary equipments and all body parts of the vehicle. When it comes to judging the performance of the vehicle, BIW is analyzed not only for its strength and shape but also the weight. Light weight BIW structures have grown rapidly in order to fulfill the requirements of the best vehicle performance in dynamic conditions. Since then lot of efforts have been put into computer-aided engineering (CAE), materials research, advanced manufacturing processes and joining methods. Each of them play a critical role in BIW functionality. Constructional designing, development of light materials with improved strength and special manufacturing practices for BIW are few research areas with scope of improvement. This paper attempts to review various factors studied for BIW weight reduction.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8082
Kaushik Saha, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Anita Ramirez, Sibendu Som, Munidhar Biruduganti, Michael Bima, Patrick Powell
Abstract The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2084
Curtis Hayes
Abstract Successfully riveting aerospace fatigue-rated structure (for instance, wing panels) requires achieving rivet interference between a minimum and a maximum value in a number of locations along the shank of the rivet. In unbalanced structure, where the skin is much thicker than the stringer, this can be particularly challenging, as achieving minimum interference at the exit of the skin (D2) can often be a problem without exceeding the maximum interference at the exit of the stringer (D4). Softer base materials and harder, higher-strength rivets can compound the problem, while standard manufacturing variations in hardness of part and rivet materials can cause repeatability issues in the process. This paper presents a solution that has been successfully implemented on a production commercial aircraft.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 15895