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Viewing 181 to 210 of 15895
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0195
Sachin Kumar Jain, Manasi Joshi, Harshal Bankar, Prashant Kamble, Prasad Yadav, Nagesh Karanth
Abstract The paper discusses the methodology for measuring the sound absorption of sound package materials in a different sizes of reverberation chambers. The large reverberation chamber is based on test methods and requirements as per ASTM C423 and ISO 354 standards. Both the test standards are similar and recommend a reverberation chamber volume of at least 125 m3 and 200 m3 respectively for sound absorption measurements from 100 Hz to 5000 Hz. The test sample size requirements are from 5.5 to 6.7 m2 as per ASTM C423 and 10 to 12 m2 as per ISO 354. In the automotive sector passenger car, heavy truck, and commercial vehicle, the parts that are used are much smaller in size than the size prescribed in both the standards. The requirement is to study the critical parameters such as the chamber volume, sample size, reverberation time and cut-off frequency etc. which are affecting the sound absorption property of acoustic material.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0181
Manish Vyas, Mark Pratley
Abstract There is an increased use of elastomers in the automotive industry for sealing, noise isolation, load dampening, insulation, etc., because of their key properties of elasticity and resilience. Elastomers are used in supercharger application for dampening the torsional fluctuation from the engine, to reduce noise issues. Finite element modeling of elastomers is challenging because of its non-linear behavior in different loading directions. It also undergoes very large elemental deformation (~up to 200%), which results in additional complexities in getting numerical convergence. Finally, it also exhibits viscous and elastic behavior simultaneously (viscoelastic effect) and it undergoes softening with progressive cyclic loading (Mullins effect). The present study deals with the characterization of elastomers for its modeling in commercial finite element software packages and verification of some predicted design parameters with physical testing.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0175
Muhammad Ali Siddiqui, Hein Koelman, Prashant Sharad Shembekar
Abstract Composite manufacturing in the automotive industry is striving for short cycle times to be competitive with conventional manufacturing methods, while enabling significant weight reductions. High Pressure Resin Transfer Molding (HP-RTM) is becoming one of the processes of choice for composite applications due to its ability to enable high speed part production. In this regard, researchers need to offer differentiated ultra-fast curing resin systems for carbon fiber composites for automotive structural and nonstructural applications to enable Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to meet their large volume lightweight targets in concert with present day low-carbon footprint legislations. In order to expand applications for composites in the automotive industry it is necessary to optimize all aspects of the production cycle using predictive modeling.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0262
Neelakandan Kandasamy, Koundinya Narasimha Kota, Prasad Joshi
Abstract The structure of a vehicle is capable of absorbing a significant amount of heat when exposed to hot climate conditions. 50-70% of this heat penetrates through the glazing and raises both the internal cabin air temperature and the interior trim surface temperature. When driving away, the air conditioning system has to be capable of removing this heat in a timely manner, such that the occupant’s time to comfort will be achieved in an acceptable period [1]. When we reduce the amount of heat absorbed, the discomfort in the cabin can be reduced. A 1D/3D based integrated computational methodology is developed to evaluate the impact of vehicle orientation on cabin climate control system performance and human comfort in this paper. Additionally, effects of glazing material and blinds opening/closing are analyzed to access the occupant thermal comfort during initial and final time AC pull down test.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0052
Gopalakrishna Acharya, K.A. Subramanian, R K Malhotra
In India, there is a large population of heavy duty diesel engine powered vehicles such as trucks and buses. Buses are operated under normal speed & load conditions whereas trucks are generally overloaded with high severity on engine oil and lugging operation is common. Higher loading of soot in engine oil results in increase in viscosity of oil and also affects the friction properties and also wear in engine components. The engine oil keep the soot dispersed in order to meet the basic function of lubricating and also keep the engine components clean.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0123
Fabien Ocampo, Naotaka Ohtake, Barry W. L. Southward
Abstract In order to achieve NOx tailpipe targets of current diesel regulation standards two main catalytic technologies have been employed, specifically NH3-SCR and LNT. However both of these technologies face challenges with the implementation of newer / colder test cycles such as “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE), combined with CO2 targets (95 g/km is 2020 target in Europe). These cycles will require higher NOx Storage Capacity (NSC) in the low temperature region (120-350°C). Conversely, lean-burn Gasoline vehicles, with their higher operational temperatures, will require improved NSC over a broader temperature range (200-500°C). Therefore, the development of NSC materials to meet these opposing requirements is an area of extensive study by Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), washcoaters, and raw materials suppliers. Today, ceria is a key component in the formulation of active NSC washcoats.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0312
Sagar Polisetti, Ganeshan Reddy
Abstract Twist beam is a type of suspension system that is based on an H or C shaped member typically used as a rear suspension system in small and medium sized cars. The front of the H member is connected to the body through rubber bushings and the rear portion carries the stub axle assembly. Suspension systems are usually subjected to multi-axial loads in service viz. vertical, longitudinal and lateral in the descending order of magnitude. Lab tests primarily include the roll durability of the twist beam wherein both the trailing arms are in out of phase and a lateral load test. Other tests involve testing the twist beam at the vehicle level either in multi-channel road simulators or driving the vehicle on the test tracks. This is highly time consuming and requires a full vehicle and longer product development time. Limited information is available in the fatigue life comparison of multi-axial loading vs pure roll or lateral load tests.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0310
Vyankatesh Madane, Sameer Shivalkar, Chandrakant Patil, Sanjeev Annigeri
Abstract In rubber industry, different techniques are used to enhance durability. This paper gives complete design, development and testing methodology of rubber bush in which pre-compression of rubber is used to enhance rubber bush life. In bogie suspension, axle to torque rod join is critical as it has to transfer lateral and longitudinal load with flexibility. This makes challenging to design joint which need to carry more than 6 ton load and having flexibility of more than 10 degree articulation. In this torque rod to axle joint called as End bush, compressed rubber is used to carry high load with flexibility. Other possible material for bush can be brass bush which able to carry high load however not able to give high flexibility Design and finite element calculations are done to design pre-compression and rubber volume to get desired strength and stiffness to carry required load with flexibility.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0279
Onkar P Bhise, S Ravishankar
Abstract Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is used extensively as the inner tube material in various Aerospace and Industrial hose constructs. The fluoropolymer exhibits various unique mechanical properties from other fluoropolymers including chemical inertness, non-adhesiveness and low friction coefficient making it an attractive solution for hose applications. PTFE material can be modeled using various material modeling approaches including linear-elastic, hyperelastic and viscoplastic depending on the level of accuracy required in predicting material response. Fluoropolymers, like PTFE, are considered viscoelastic-viscoplastic materials. In other words, the material exhibits both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation but also possesses behavior in which the deformation of the material also depends on the rate by which loads are applied.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0157
Hari Prasad Konka, Anand Kumar Ramachandran, Shireesh Pankaj, Prasath Ganesan, Parimal Maity
Abstract Functionally graded materials enable structures to have distribution of different properties (physical, thermal, electrical, mechanical, etc.) across its volume; achievable via material/ design/ process engineering. These functionally graded materials can find an application in systems which demand localized variation or enhancement in properties in different regions of the same component. In this paper, we focus on the potential ways of designing functionally graded polymer composite structure by injection molding process. Advanced mold designs for injection molding process can be effectively used to manufacture the functionally graded structures. Innovative design approach has been explored to control the distribution of the filler content /orientation to impart distinctive properties across the cross section / geometry without affecting the bulk properties.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0180
Swaminathan Ramaswamy, Christophe Schorsch, Mario Kolar
Abstract Automotive OEMs are adapting various “green” technologies to meet the upcoming and anticipated regulations for reducing direct and indirect GHG emissions equivalent to CO2. Using compact devices and lightweight components on the aggregates, OEMs get the benefit of carbon credits towards their contribution in reducing CO2 emissions. With regards to the HVAC systems, enhancements such as ultra-low permeation hose assemblies and adoption of low GWP refrigerant have shown promising results in reducing the direct GHG emissions by controlling refrigerant permeation & indirect GHG emissions by using compact and high efficiency compressors, compact heat exchangers, and other technologies that contribute to weight reduction and ultimately impact CO2 emissions. Traditional AC lines are routed/installed in space that accommodates the relative movement between the engine and chassis by connecting the various parts.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0121
Grigorios C. Koltsakis, Ioannis Kandylas, Vaibhav Gulakhe
Abstract Modern ‘DOC-cDPF’ systems for diesel exhaust are employing Pt-, Pd- as well as Pt/Pd alloy- based coatings to ensure high conversion efficiency of CO, HC even at low temperatures. Depending on the target application, these coatings should be also optimized towards NO2 generation which is involved in low temperature soot oxidation as well as in SCR-based deNOx. Zeolite materials are also frequently used to control cold-start HC emissions. Considering the wide variety of vehicles, engines and emission targets, there is no single optimum coating technology. The main target is therefore to maximize synergies rather than to optimize single components. At the same time, the system designer has nowadays a wide range of technologies to choose from, including PGM alloyed combinations (Pt/Pd), multiple layers and zones applicable to both DOCs and DPFs.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0243
Atish Gawale, Abhijit Kulkarni, Mark Pratley
Abstract The demand for injection molded reinforced plastic products used in the automotive industry is growing due to the capability of the material for volume production, high strength to weight ratio, and its flexibility of geometry design. On the other hand, the application of fiber filled plastic composites has been challenging and subject of research during past decades due to the inability to accurately predict the mechanical strength and stiffness behavior owing to its anisotropic characteristics. This paper discusses a numerical simulation based technique using multiscale (2 scale Micro-Macro) modeling approach for short fiber reinforced plastic composites. Fiber orientation tensors and knit lines are predicted in microscale analysis using Autodesk Inc.’s Moldflow® software, and structural analysis is performed considering the homogenized structure in macroscale analysis using ANSYS® software tool.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0142
Zahra Nazarpoor, Steve Golden, Ru-Fen Liu
Abstract Stricter regulatory standards are continuously adopted worldwide to control heavy duty emissions, and at the same time, fuel economy requirements have significantly lowered exhaust temperatures. The net result is a significant increase in Precious Group Metal (PGM) usage with current Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) technology. Therefore, the design and development of advanced DOC with ultra-low PGM to achieve highly beneficial emission performance improvement is necessary. The advanced DOC is synergized PGM (SPGM) with Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO). The presence of MMO in SPGM is responsible for NO oxidation to NO2 which is critical for the passive regeneration of the downstream filter and SCR function. This paper outlines the development of MMO for application in modern DOCs and addresses some specific challenges underlying this application.
2016-12-21
Journal Article
2016-01-9082
Bradley Michael, Rani Sullivan, Dulip Samaratunga, Ratneshwar Jha
Abstract Polymer matrix composites are increasingly adopted in aerospace and automotive industries due to their many attributes, such as their high strength to weight ratio, tailorability, and high fatigue and durability performance. However, these materials also have complex damage and failure mechanisms, such as delaminations, which can severely degrade their strength and fatigue performance. To effectively and safely use composite materials in primary structures, it is essential to assess composite damage response for development of accurate predictive models. Therefore, this study focuses on determining the response of damaged and undamaged carbon epoxy beams subjected to vibration loadings at elevated temperatures. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) technique is used to analyze the beams’ modal response. The HHT shows potential in identifying the nonlinear damaged response of the beams.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0019
David Weiss
Abstract In the early 1980's, some promising research and development efforts focused on powder metallurgy revealed that aluminum alloys containing 4 wt% cerium exhibit high temperature mechanical properties exceeding those of the best commercial aluminum casting alloys currently in production. Cerium oxide is an abundant rare earth oxide that is often discarded during the refining of more valuable rare earths such as Nd and Dy. Therefore, the economics are compelling for cerium as an alloy additive. In this paper, we report select results obtained during an investigation of the castability of aluminum-cerium alloys and determine compositional modifications that may be required to ensure the compatibility of the alloy with near net shape casting methods such as advanced sand casting, die casting, permanent mold casting and squeeze casting. Al-Ce alloys were cast in binary composition of 6-16 wt% Ce. Commercially pure aluminum ingots were melted and held at approximately 785°C.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0020
Balasubramanian Thiruvallur Loganathan, Srivenkata Subramani Narasimhan, Lakshminarasimhan Varadha Iyengar, Ajith Kumar Sandur, Sudhagar Vediappan
Abstract Development of small air cooled motorcycles is ever challenging due to combination of customer expectation, regulatory requirements and cost factors. Achieving higher performance, emission standards means higher engine and parts operating temperature. Under these changes meeting durability targets at reasonable cost needs good understanding of material, surface treatment and tribological aspects. In this paper some of the surface and process improvements done to reduce wear in engine valves and interface systems is discussed in detail. Design of engine valves shall ensure meeting thermal, mechanical strength requirements, wear and durability targets. Surface treatments, coating, surface finish and also use of special materials in tip, valve stem, seat ensures higher durability; low wear in valve and interfacing parts. During new engine development process verification tests, wear observed in valve stem- guide, valve tip- screw interface.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0021
Stephen Gurchinoff
Abstract This technical paper will provide supporting lubricated test data for the use of thermoplastics like polyamide-imide (PAI) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) in demanding wear applications at temperatures up to 285°C and pressure velocity exceeding one million psi·ft/min. Applications include needle bearing replacement in transmissions, journal bearings, pumps, marine lower units, continuous variable transmissions, and others. These materials have been used in automotive transmission applications for over 20 years and can be similarly used in small engine applications. By using a thermoplastic, applications benefit through reduced noise and vibration harshness, reduced space, and reduced weight. Mechanical property differences throughout operating temperatures will also be reviewed.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0022
David Weiss, Simon Beno, Chris Jordan, Pradeep Rohatgi
Abstract Cylinder liners exert a major influence on engine performance, reliability, durability and maintenance. Various combinations of nonmetallic reinforcements and coatings have been used to improve the tribological performance of sleeves or surfaces used in compressors and internal combustion engines in four stroke, two stroke and rotary configurations. In this paper we report the use of a hybrid composite containing silicon carbide and graphite in an aluminum alloy matrix to improve the performance of various small engines and compressors. Material properties of the base material, as well as comparative dynamometer testing, are presented.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0071
Koji Ueno, Hiroyuki Horimura, Akiko Iwasa, Yuji Kurasawa, Pascaline Tran, Ye Liu
Abstract We developed a copper catalyst using zero Platinum group metals (hereafter PGMs) to fit motorcycle specific emission gas environment. Though many research reports to develop catalyst without using PGMs that are precious and costly resources are available, no reports had proven Base Metal Catalyst development to meet actual emission regulation equivalent to PGM catalysts. Compared to conventional PGM catalysts, higher temperature is required to keep high catalytic conversion efficiency by utilizing properties of this Base Metal Catalyst. Thus, this Base Metal Catalyst is located in cross coupling position, though it is rare case in motorcycle. This catalyst location could cause negative impacts on engine knocking, engine performance and drivability. This time, to overcome such negative impacts we optimized whole exhaust system, including parts around catalyst.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0024
Daisuke Sugio, Shinpei Okazaki, Mitsuo Kaneko
Abstract Glass fiber reinforced plastic of polyamide is applied as one of the materials used for the high strength exterior parts of a motorcycle, such as a rear grab rail or a carrier, to which both strength and good exterior appearance are required. However, Glass Fiber reinforced Polypropylene (PPGF), which is relatively inexpensive material, has a property that the contained glass fibers are prone to be exposed at the surface and, therefore, the requirements for good appearance are hardly met by using PPGF. In this study, Heat and Cool molding method (H&C molding) was employed to realize a cost reduction by using PPGF yet without applying painting process, and the established method was applied to mass production while fulfilling the requirements for a good exterior appearance. In H&C molding, the metal molds are heated up by steam and cooled down by water after molding.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0023
Shinji Kasatori, Yuji Marui, Hideto Oyama, Kosuke Ono
Abstract Amidst of the recent concerns on depletion of natural resources, a new heat resistant titanium alloy has been developed using the minimum amount of rare metals. Using Ti-811 as a basis and modifying the alloy composition to Ti-7Al-2Mo-0.2Si-0.15C-0.2Nb, the mechanical property, the creep resistance and the oxidation resistance at high temperatures are improved. At the same time, with the β transformation point shifted to a higher temperature, the hot formability is also improved. The newly developed alloy has made it possible to expand the application of titanium material to exhaust valves in reciprocating engines.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0515
Ana Carolina Rodrigues Teixeira, José Ricardo Sodré, Lilian Lefol Nani Guarieiro, Erika Durão Vieira, Fabiano Ferreira de Medeiros, Carine Tondo Alves
Abstract In a scenario with growing population, increasing demand for energy and volatile prices of fossil fuel, there is a high incentive for the use of biofuels, especially those produced from waste material. In this context, second and third generation bioethanol (2G/3G) are interesting alternatives, as they can be produced from different raw material such as corn and rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, waste from pulp industry and microalgae. This paper presents an overview of the available technologies for both 2G and 3G bioethanol production, including lignocellulosic biomass feedstock, biocatalysts and cogeneration processes.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0533
Everaldo Afonso Fernandes, Mauro Quaresma Lobato, Washington Clodovil Rocha, Antonio Adelmo Freire Beserra, José Maria do Vale Quaresma
Abstract The search for new materials to automotive industry has been intensified in the last decade. Among these materials is the aluminum which is widely used in the construction of automotive parts, sheet and in the manufacture of cables used in line transmission and distribution of electricity. Aluminum and its alloys have high deformation rate which can be hardened by plastic deformation, and low specific weight and high coefficient of thermal conductivity. This work was carried out in order to study the effect of titanium elements (content of 0.050 wt%) and Nickel (content of 0.030 wt.%) in the alloy Al-0.05wt% Cu [0.24 to 0.28]wt% Fe-0.7wt% Si. The alloys in study have concentrations within the chemical composition limits of alloys series 1XXX with minimum purity of 99.0%. The solidification processes were carried out via the steel mold (format of "U").
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0389
CESAR TADEU NASSER MEDEIROS BRANCO, DEIBSON SILVA DA COSTA, ROBERTO TETSUO FUJIYAMA, WASSIM RAJA EL BANNA, ELIAS FAGURY NETO, CARLINDO LINS PEREIRA FILHO
Abstract The use of natural materials from renewable sources has several advantages when compared with non-renewable materials. Among these, there are vegetable fibers and sisal fibers that highlight for its wide application. Natural fibers appear as an alternative reinforcement to synthetic fibers, reducing costs and showing results close to synthetic fibers. The use of fibers is still growing slowly, but is already used in internal components of popular cars, elevator aircraft and structural components of the shipbuilding industry. In this article were produced composites reinforced by sisal fibers under two conditions: in a form of chopped fiber at a random disposition, and long and aligned fibers. In the first condition, sisal fibers were chopped in a granulator mill with length varying between 5mm to 15mm and randomly arranged in the polymeric matrix. In the second condition, the sisal fibers were arranged in an orderly manner and aligned in one-way direction.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0121
Raphael Gonçalves, Rubens Pinati, Rodrigo Godoi
Abstract Distortion is an intrinsic and undesired effect of the welding process, inducing residual stresses and hence, reducing the fatigue life of the welded structure. This distortion however, does not occurs simultaneously among the entire structure; instead, it occurs gradually during the execution of the welding chord. Due to this, equal structures, but composed by weld chords executed in a different sequencing, presents different residual stresses and therefore, different fatigue performances. This study proposes a method, using finite elements model (CAE), to capture the non-linear distortions of distinct welding sequences and contrast the diverse impacts in fatigue life.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0126
W. L. Guesser, L. P. R. Martins
Abstract The trend to lightweight design of automotive engines has led to the development of new cast iron grades for cylinder blocks, with very high fatigue properties, resulting in engines in some cases even lighter than engines with cylinder blocks of aluminum. On the other hand, the selection of cast irons grades with high values of mechanical strength and high elastic modulus, for projects of thin-wall engine blocks, may result in decrease in vibration damping capacity, even still far superior to aluminum cylinder blocks. This paper deals with damping capacity and elastic modulus of high strength cast irons, considering how the microstructure affects these properties and how to optimize them.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0224
Carla Lima, Filipe Andrade, Cristina Kawakami, Cristiane Gonçalves, Walmir Peraro
Abstract The microcellular foam injection molding process is being widely applied by the thermoplastics industry. This process consists in a melted polymer injection mixed with a processing solvent, that is an inert gas in the supercritical state, usually CO2 or N2 producing a microcellular foam. This technique offers many advantages such as weight reduction, dimensional uniformization and less warpage. Besides that, it offers a satisfactory property like acoustic and thermal insulation. On the other hand, the parts from this process have an inferior mechanical property like ductility and toughness if compared with solid injection molded parts. Nevertheless, the main issue for this process is the poor appearance quality. This paper presents a review of some existing methods for surface quality improvement as Co-injection process, where a skin is injected over the microcellular part, and Heat & Cool that consists in a control of mold temperature.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0365
César T. N. M. B., Moacir K., Deibson S. da C., Wassim R. El B., Roberto T. F.
Abstract The rise in national industry occurred more frequently in the aircraft industry as stabilizers and rudders at the rear of the aircraft. The automotive industry is also using composite materials reinforced by synthetic fibers in various vehicle components, such as the bumper and trunk tray. Plies and laminates produced from the composite can be used in car interior trim. Much is made of sisal fibers as reinforcement in cars, this study aims to evaluate the influence of the addition of wood waste, angelim pedra (Hymenolobium petraeum Ducke), at composite polyester matrix reinforced by sisal and malva fibers. The fibers and the residue were purchased in local market and characterized physically, microstructurally and mechanically. The specimens of malva and residues were cut in three different sizes: 5, 10 and 15 mm, by the way the hybrid composites reinforced by sisal and the residues, the sisal fibers were cut at a randomly lengths.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0360
Lucas Pintol Nishikawa, André Caetano Melado, Hélio Goldenstein, Luiz Felipe Bauri, Dinecio dos Santos Filho, Eduardo Nunes
Abstract The Austempering heat treatment is a well-known solution to improve the mechanical properties of ductile cast irons, therefore being referred as 'ADI' (Austempered Ductile Iron). The improved mechanical properties of ADI's with respect to conventional ductile iron is attributed to its resulting microstructure, which contains mainly carbide-free bainite with stabilized retained austenite. More recently, ductile cast irons were submitted to another heat treatment, known as 'Quenching and Partitioning' (Q&P). In this case, the ductile cast iron is austenitized, quenched to a temperature between Mf and Ms temperatures and subsequently heated to a temperature above Ms in order to partition the carbon from the martensite to the remaining austenite. The resulting microstructure comprises mainly low carbon martensite, austenite (stabilized by the carbon partition) and carbide-free bainite. Such microstructure resulted in equal or better properties than ADI.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 15895