Criteria

Text:
Topic:
Display:

Results

Viewing 151 to 180 of 15944
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1626
Tomas Poloni, Jianbo Lu
Abstract This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgment about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing on-board sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) for individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic means and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it can be safely driven before tire rotation or tire replacement are required. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainties such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1633
Eiji Kojima, Kazuhiko Kano, Hiroyuki Wado, Noriyuki Iwamori
Abstract In automotive applications, magnetic field sensors are widely used for detecting position and current. However, magnetic field sensors are required to be highly precise with good usability. To satisfy demand, we have developed a graphene Hall sensor that senses magnetic fields by the Hall effect. The sensitivity of a Hall sensor is proportional to the carrier mobility, and graphene has an extremely high carrier mobility compared with conventional materials like Si, GaAs and InSb. Thus, graphene Hall sensors are expected to give high sensitivity that will enable sensing of the Earth’s magnetic field. In addition, graphene has a low temperature dependence on carrier mobility due to its ballistic transport, so good usability in actual use is also anticipated. In this paper, we demonstrate a graphene Hall sensor made using conventional Si process technology.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1461
Sanketh Gowda, Anindya Deb, Goutham Kurnool, Clifford Chou
Abstract Adhesively bonded steel hat section components have been experimentally studied in the past as a potential alternative to traditional hat section components with spot-welded flanges. One of the concerns with such components has been their performance under axial impact loading as adhesive is far more brittle as compared to a spot weld. However, recent drop-weight impact tests have shown that the energy absorption capabilities of adhesively bonded steel hat sections are competitive with respect to geometrically similar spot-welded specimens. Although flange separation may take place in the case of a specimen employing a rubber toughened epoxy adhesive, the failure would have taken place post progressive buckling and absorption of impact energy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1444
Mitali Chakrabarti, Alfredo Perez Montiel, Israel Corrilo, Jing He, Angelo Patti, James Gebbie, Loren Lohmeyer, Bernd Dienhart, Klaus Schuermanns
CO2 is an alternative to replace the conventional refrigerant (R134a) for the air-conditioning system, due to the high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of R134a. There are concerns with the use of CO2 as a refrigerant due to health risks associated with exposure to CO2, if the concentration of CO2 is over the acceptable threshold. For applications with CO2 as the refrigerant, the risk of CO2 exposure is increased due to the possibility of CO2 leakage into the cabin through the duct system; this CO2 is in addition to the CO2 generated from the respiration of the occupants. The initiation of the leak could be due to a crash event or a malfunction of the refrigerant system. In an automobile, where the interior cabin is a closed volume (with minimal venting), the increase in concentration can be detrimental to the customer but is hard to detect.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1443
Lu ZiLin, Gangfeng Tan, Yuxin Pang, YU TANG, Keyu Qian
Abstract The development of the vehicle quantity and the transportation system accompanies the rise of traffic accidents. Statistics shows that nearly 35-45% traffic accidents are due to drivers’ fatigue. If the driver’s fatigue status could be judged in advance and reminded accurately, the driving safety could be further improved. In this research, the blink frequency and eyes movement information are monitored and the statistical method was used to assess the status of the driving fatigue. The main tasks include locating the edge of the human eyes, obtaining the distance between the upper and lower eyelids for calculating the frequency of the driver's blink. The velocity and position of eyes movement are calculated by detecting the pupils’ movement. The normal eyes movement model is established and the corresponding database is updated constantly by monitoring the driver blink frequency and eyes movement during a certain period of time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1495
Srinivas Kurna, Ruchik Tank, Krishna Srikanth Achanta
1. Abstract At the time of invention of road coaches, the vehicle consisted only of an axle with wheels and a body attached. Smooth roads were built for a better ride comfort however they were not consistent. The road coaches were too bumpy and uncomfortable for the passenger along with the driver who was not able to control the vehicle. That's why the engineers had to shift their attention to the suspension system for a better ride comfort and handling. The technology has advanced with time so as the suspension system. Rubber ended type leaf spring is one of the suspension system types available in the industry. The main function of a suspension in order of importance is as below: 1 Acts as a cushioning device ensuring the comfort of the driver and passengers;2 Maximizes the contact between the tires and the road surface to provide steering stability with good handling;3 Protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1503
Jared Johan Engelbrecht, Tony Russell Martin, Piyush M. Gulve, Nagarjun Chandrashekar, Amol Dwivedi, Peter Thomas Tkacik, Zachary Merrill
Abstract Most commercial heavy-duty truck trailers are equipped with either a two sensor, one modulator (2S1M) or four sensors, two modulator (4S2M) anti-lock braking system (ABS). Previous research has been performed comparing the performance of different ABS modules, in areas such as longitudinal and lateral stability, and stopping distance. This study focuses on relating ABS module type and wheel speed sensor placement to trailer wheel lock-up and subsequent impact to tire wear for tandem axle trailers with the Hendrickson air-ride suspension. Prior to tire wear inspection, functionality of the ABS system was testing using an ABS scan tool communicating with the SAE J1587 plug access port on the trailer. Observations were documented on trailers using the 2S1M system with the wheel speed sensor placed on either the front or rear axle of a tandem pair.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0960
Pankaj Kumar, Imad Makki
Abstract Traditionally, a three-way catalyst (TWC) is controlled to a set heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensor voltage (typically placed after the monitored catalyst) that corresponds to optimal catalyst efficiency. This limits the control action, as we rely on emissions breakthrough at the HEGO sensor to infer the state of catalyst. In order to robustly meet the super ultra-low emission regulations, a more precise TWC control around the oxidation level of catalyst is desirable. In this work, we developed a comprehensive set of models to predict the oxygen storage capacity using measured in-vehicle signals only. This is accomplished by developing three models; the first model is a linear in parameter regression model to predict the feed gas emissions from measured signals like engine speed and air-to-fuel ratio (A/F). The second model is a low-dimensional physics based model of the three-way catalyst to predict the exhaust emissions and oxidation state of the catalyst.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0949
Makoto Ito, Mitsuru Sakimoto, Zhenzhou Su, Go Hayashita, Keiichiro Aoki
Abstract New 2A/F systems different from usual A/F-O2 systems are being developed to cope with strict regulation of exhaust gas. In the 2A/F systems, 2A/F sensors are equipped in front and rear of a three-way catalyst. The A/F-O2 systems are ideas which use a rear O2 to detect exhaust gas leaked from three-way catalyst early and feed back. On the other hand, the 2A/F systems are ideas which use a rear A/F sensor to detect nearly stoichiometric gas discharged from the three-way catalyst accurately, and to prevent leakage of exhaust gas from the three-way catalyst. Therefore, accurate detection of nearly stoichiometric gas by the rear A/F sensor is the most importrant for the 2A/F systems. In general, the A/F sensors can be classified into two types, so called, one-cell type and two-cell type. Because the one-cell type A/F sensors don’t have hysteresis, they have potential for higher accuracy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0921
Bharadwaj Sathiamoorthy, Alex Graper, Andrew McIntosh, William Kaminski
Abstract The automotive aftermarket industry is an extremely cost competitive market to say the least. Aftermarket manufacturers are sought by customers primarily for their ability to replace an OES (Original Equipment Supplier) for a fraction of the cost. This forces the manufacturers to yield on performance abilities to get a share in the market place. The TWC system in gasoline vehicles not only acts as an emissions reduction device but is an integral part of the overall vehicle performance itself, especially since the introduction of OBD (On-Board Diagnostics) II systems in 1995. An inefficient catalyst not only leads to excessive tailpipe emissions but also acts detrimental to vehicle fueling and hence overall performance. The aftermarket catalyst industry which is regulated by EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) and CARB (California Air Resource Board) for gasoline engines is subject to meeting a mandatory performance standard for the same reason.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1218
XINCHEN ZHAO, Yalan Bi, Song-Yul Choe
Abstract We propose a reduced order model (ROM) for LFP/graphite cells derived from the electrochemical thermal principles that considers degradation effects and validated against experimental data obtained from a large format pouch type LFP/graphite cell whose nominal capacity is 20Ah. The characteristics of the two-phase transition and path dependence were taken into account in the ROM using a shrinking-core model with a moving interface that presents lithium rich and deficient phase. Different currents (0.1/1/3/4C) were applied to fresh cells at different ambient temperatures (25/35/45°C). Comparison between simulated results of the ROM and the collected experimental data shows a good match. The path dependence was also analyzed experimentally. For degradation model, side reaction is treated as the predominant cause of degradation of cells, which are affected by the operating conditions, such as temperature and SOC cycling range.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1221
Shingo Soma, Haruhiko shimizu, Eiji Shirado, Satoshi Fujishiro
Abstract As heavy rare earth elements are become less prevalent, because one-tenth as often in ore deposits as light rare earth elements. Future usage of need to be reduces heavy rare earth, because of resource risks and costs. As such, a method was developed to recover reductions in coercive force and prevent demagnetization temperature from reducing without adding any heavy rare earth elements. First, a heavy rare-earth-free magnet was developed by hot deformation, which limits growth of crystal grain size, and relationships were clarified between coercive force and optimal deforming temperatures, speed, and total rare earth amounts for heavy rare-earth-free magnets. Second, it was made clear that the permeance coefficient can be increased by reshaping the flux barriers, and that the developed hot deformed magnet can be adopted.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1230
Cyrille Goldstein, Joel Hetrick
Abstract Mechanical losses in electric machines can contribute significantly to overall system losses in an electric drive [1]. With a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM), measuring mechanical losses is difficult without an un-magnetized rotor. Even with an un-magnetized rotor, physical testing can be time consuming and expensive. This paper presents a simple theoretical model of mechanical drag in an electric machine. The model was built using calculations for bearing, seal, and windage drag and was compared to experimental results from testing with un-magnetized motors. Based on this information, the model was modified to better represent the physical system. The goal of this work is to understand the contributors to mechanical drag, to be able to estimate mechanical losses without physical testing, and to be able to quickly evaluate design choices that could reduce mechanical losses.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1240
Koki Matsushita
Abstract For the purpose of improving vehicle fuel efficiency, it is necessary to reduce energy loss in the alternator. We have lowered the resistance of the rectifying device and connecting components, and control the rectifying device with an IC to reduce rectification loss. For the package design, we have changed the structure of the part on which the rectifying device is mounted into a high heat dissipation type. The new structure has enabled optimizing the size of the rectifying device, resulting in the reduction of size of the package. In addition, the rectifying device is mounted using a new soldering material and a new process, which has improved the reliability of the connection. Moreover, since the alternator has introduced a new system, the controller IC has a function for preventing malfunction of the rectifying device and a function for detecting abnormalities, in order to ensure safety.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1264
Gregory L. Talbert, Edward John Vinarcik
Abstract 6061-O temper extruded rod may be used as feed stock in forming processes for automotive pressure vessel applications. Key parameters for forming are the strength and hardness of the material. The purpose of this paper was to reduce variation in hardness to achieve a process capability index of 1.33 or greater. Among the process steps affecting hardness, annealing is the most critical. Initially, the process showed unacceptable hardness variation. Initial anneal recipes called for a 4-hour soak at 775°F (413°C). Initial process capability for hardness was a Cpk of 1.12, with tensile strength readings very close to the upper specification limit. Initial temperature uniformity surveys of the anneal oven showed a large variation in temperature distribution, with some areas of the oven staying below 650°F (343°C). Initial improvement efforts focused on soak time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1272
Nick Parson, Jerome Fourmann, Jean-Francois Beland
Abstract One of the main applications for aluminum extrusions in the automotive sector is crash structures including crash rails, crash cans, bumpers and structural body components. The objective is usually to optimize the energy absorption capability for a given structure weight. The ability to extrude thin wall multi-void extrusions contributes to this goal. However, the alloy used also plays a significant role in terms of the ability to produce the required geometry, strength - which to a large extent controls the energy absorption capability and the “ductility” or fracture behavior which controls the strain that can be applied locally during crush deformation before cracking. This paper describes results of a test program to examine the crush behavior of a range of alloys typically supplied for automotive applications as a function of processing parameters including artificial ageing and quench rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1265
Nia R. Harrison, S. George Luckey, Breana Cappuccilli, Ghassan Kridli
Abstract The typical paint bake cycle includes multiple ramps and dwells of temperature through e-coat, paint, and clear coat with exposure equivalent to approximately 190°C for up to 60 minutes. 7xxx-series aluminum alloys are heat treatable, additional thermal exposure such as a paint bake cycle could alter the material properties. Therefore, this study investigates the response of three 7xxx-series aluminum alloys with respect to conductivity, hardness, and yield strength when exposed to three oven curing cycles of a typical automotive paint operation. The results have indicated that alloy composition and artificial aging practice influence the material response to the various paint bake cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1301
Deepak A. Patil, Hrishikesh Buddhe
Abstract Frontal collisions account for majority of car accidents. Various measures have been taken by the automotive OEMs’ with regards to passive safety. Honeycomb meso-structural inserts in the front bumper have been suggested to enhance the energy absorption of the front structure which is favorable for passive safety. This paper presents the changes in energy absorption capacity of hexagonal honeycomb structures with varying cellular geometries; under frontal impact simulations. Honeycomb cellular metamaterial structure offers many distinct advantages over homogenous materials since their effective material properties depend on both, their constituent material properties and their cell geometric configurations. The effective static mechanical properties such as; the modulus of elasticity, modulus of rigidity and Poisson’s ratio of the honeycomb cellular meso-structures are controlled by variations in their cellular geometry.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1304
Alejandro Rosas Vazquez, Fernando Paisano, Diego Santillan Gutierrez
Abstract For many years, the use of in-mold fasteners has been avoided for various reasons including: not fully understanding the load cases in the part, the fear of quality issues occurring, the need for servicing, or the lack of understanding the complexity of all failure modes. The most common solution has been the use of secondary operations to provide attachments, such as, screws, metal clips, heat staking, sonic welding or other methods which are ultimately a waste in the process and an increase in manufacturing costs. The purpose of this paper is to take the reader through the design process followed to design an in-molded attachment clip on plastic parts. The paper explores the design process for in-molded attachment clips beginning with a design concept idea, followed by basic concept testing using a desktop 3D printer, optimizing the design with physical tests and CAE analysis, and finally producing high resolution 3D prototypes for validation and tuning.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1303
Nobuhisa Yasuda, Shinichi Nishizawa, Maiko Ikeda, Tadashi Sakai
Abstract The purpose of this study is to validate a reverse engineering based design method for automotive trunk lid torsion bars (TLTB) in order to determine a free, or unloaded, shape that meets a target closed shape as well as a specified torque. A TLTB is a trunk lid component that uses torsional restoring force to facilitate the lifting open of a trunk lid, as well as to maintain the open position. Bend points and torque of a TLTB at a closed trunk position are specified by a car maker. Conventionally, a TLTB supplier determines bend points of the free shape by rotating the given bend points from a closed position around a certain axis to satisfy the specified torque at the closed position. Bend points of a deformed TLTB shape in the closed position often do not match the target bend points given by a car maker when designed by the conventional method, which can potentially cause interference issues with surrounding components.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1298
Kamlesh Yadav, Abhishek Sinha, Rajdeep Singh Khurana
Abstract Vehicle Hood being the face of a passenger car poses the challenge to meet the regulatory and aesthetic requirements. Urge to make a saleable product makes aesthetics a primary condition. This eventually makes the role of structure optimization much more important. Pedestrian protection- a recent development in the Indian automotive industry, known for dynamics of cost competitive cars, has posed the challenge to make passenger cars meeting the regulation at minimal cost. The paper demonstrates structure optimization of hood and design of peripheral parts for meeting pedestrian protection performance keeping the focus on low cost of ownership. The paper discusses development of an in-house methodology for meeting Headform compliance of a flagship model of Maruti Suzuki India Ltd., providing detailed analysis of the procedure followed from introduction stage of regulatory requirement in the project to final validation of the engineering intent.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0468
Raj S. Roychoudhury
Abstract A new weld design to form plastic hollow articles is conceived. Its design is T-shaped such that the joint loading under pressure is no longer in peel but in tension, vertically to the weld surface. This weld design can be easily achieved, overcoming the limitation of die lock in injection molding and by the hot plate weld design adopted for this welding. Test samples were built to evaluate the new weld design concept and hot plates designed to help perform this weld joint. Pull test on the conventional L-shaped and the new T- shaped welded samples show an improvement of about 50% weld strength for the new T-shaped weld design. Hence a weld joint stronger than the parent material, in forming plastic hollow articles, is possible.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0470
Lunyu Zhang, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Xuming Su, Peter Friedman
Abstract Closed-form structural stress solutions are investigated for fatigue life estimations of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets with and without clearance hole based on three-dimensional finite element analyses. The closed-form structural stress solutions for rigid inclusions under counter bending, central bending, in-plane shear and in-plane tension are first presented. Three-dimensional finite element analyses of the lap-shear specimens with FDS joints without and with gap (with and without clearance hole) are then presented. The results of the finite element analyses indicate that the closed-form structural stress solutions are quite accurate at the critical locations near the FDS joints in lap-shear specimens without and with gap (with and without clearance hole) for fatigue life predictions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0465
HaiYan Yu, Siji Chen
Abstract Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) tube is an important material for the lightweight design of automotive structures. Simulation method of CFRP thin-walled tubes subjected to axial compression using MAT54 in LS-DYNA was investigated. Based on the two-layer shell model combined with MAT54, failure strategy and the parameters sensitivity of the model were discussed in detail. Then the simulation model was verified by using duplicate specimens comprised of carbon fiber/epoxy unidirectional prepreg tape. Furthermore, the modeling methods of crush trigger and different types of loading speed were analyzed. In addition, based on the method of equal energy absorption, energy absorption performance of thin-walled circular and square tubes made from four materials including mild steel, high strength steel, aluminum alloy and CFRP were also compared.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0467
Wei Yuan, Brian Jordon, Bita Ghaffari, Harish Rao, Shengyi Li, Min Fan
Abstract Lightweight metals such as Al and Mg alloys have been increasingly used for reducing mass in both structural and non-structural applications in transportation industries. Joining these lightweight materials using traditional fusion welding techniques is a critical challenge for achieving optimum mechanical performance, due to degradation of the constituent materials properties during the process. Friction stir welding (FSW), a solid-state joining technique, has emerged as a promising method for joining these lightweight materials. In particular, high joining efficiency has been achieved for FSW of various Al alloys and Mg alloys separately. Recent work on FSW of dissimilar lightweight materials also show encouraging results based on quasi-static shear performance. However, coach-peel performance of such joints has not been sufficiently examined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0464
Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie, Jimi Tjong
Abstract Friction between the piston and cylinder accounts for large amount of the friction losses in an internal combustion (IC) engine. Therefore, any effort to minimize such a friction will also result in higher efficiency, lower fuel consumption and reduced emissions. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating is considered as a hard ceramic coating which can provide a dimpled surface for oil retention to bear the wear and reduce the friction from sliding piston rings. In this work, a high speed pin-on-disc tribometer was used to generate the boundary, mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication regimes. Five different lubricating oils and two different loads were applied to do the tribotests and the COFs of a PEO coating were studied. The results show that the PEO coating indeed had a lower COF in a lower viscosity lubricating oil, and a smaller load was beneficial to form the mixed and hydrodynamic lubricating regimes earlier.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0459
Salah H. R. Ali, Badr S. N. Azzam, T. A. Osman, A. M. Moustafa
Abstract The frictional composite is an important material in braking system for automotive, trucks or heavy-duty vehicles. In this paper, a proposed frictional composite material has been developed to achieve the ISO requirements for heavy-duty vehicle brakes. This new frictional material has been fabricated with various compositions. Tribological, chemical, mechanical, thermal conductivity and acoustic noise level tests have measure its performance compared to other two commercial samples under certain operating conditions. Surface characteristics of selected samples have been performed using white light optical microscopy (WLOM) in 2D images to insure the material homogeneity. Additionally, surface roughness analyses using atomic force microscopy (AFM) into 2D and 3D images before and after frictional operation have been investigated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0455
Harshad Hatekar, Baskar Anthonysamy, V. Saishanker, Lakshmi Pavuluri, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Abstract Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0457
Kenji Matsumoto, Hideharu Koga
Abstract Piston ring wear in gasoline engine induces deterioration of emissions performance due to leakage of blow-by gas, instability of idling caused by reduced compression in combustion chamber, and to generate early degeneration of engine oil. We examined anti-wear performance of DLC coating on piston ring, which had been recently reported as an effective method for improving the abrasion resistance. As a result, wear rate remained low under the condition of DLC existence on sliding surface, but once DLC was worn out completely, wear of the piston ring was accelerated and its life became shorter than piston ring without DLC. In this research, we designed reciprocating test apparatus that operates at much higher velocity range, and characterized the frictional materials of the piston ring and sleeve and the DLC as a protective film, a vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) was actively used as a means to form certain level of convex and concave shape on its surface.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0453
Zane Yang
Considered in this study by the use of finite element model is a unit of assembled stator and one-way clutch (OWC) housed in a test setup, where the inner chamber is maintained at a given elevated temperature while its exterior housing surfaces are exposed to the room temperature. The two key components of dissimilar metals are assembled through the conventional interference fitting at their interface surfaces to form a friction joint at the room temperature. Due to the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of two dissimilar materials, the outer component of aluminum from this joint tends to expand more than the inner component of steel when the temperature rises, thus leading to a possible relaxation in joining connection at their interface.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 15944