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Viewing 15961 to 15990 of 16003
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200037
ARMIN ELMENDORF
For many years plywood has been used for such automobile parts as roofs and dash and instrument-boards, but it was not until the closing of the European war that the extent to which this material was used in automobile construction greatly increased. The sudden requirement of airplanes created a large demand for plywood which would withstand the severest weather conditions. Glues were perfected that enabled plywood to withstand 8 hr. of boiling or 10 days of soaking in water without separation of the plies. Plywood as an engineering material is discussed. It is then compared in considerable detail with ordinary boards and also with metals and pulp boards, statistics and illustrations being given. The molding of plywood is considered with especial reference to employing plywood for surfaces having compound curvatures, and the limiting factors in the use of plywood for this purpose are mentioned.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200068
ZAY JEFFRIES
Iron ranks first of all the metals; copper, lead and zinc come fairly close together in tonnage; tin ranks next; and aluminum is fifth of the non-ferrous metals. The place of aluminum in the automotive industry is shown in a diagram and another brings out the production of copper and aluminum, both receiving comment. The metallography of aluminum alloys is discussed in some detail, as well as the phenomena of growth and aging, charts and photomicrographs being shown and commented upon. The effect of alloying on physical properties is treated in a similar manner in considerable detail and a comparison of aluminum with other metals follows. Forging alloys are described and some miscellaneous aluminum-alloy forged parts are pictured. The advantages of forging alloys are enumerated and many of their present uses specified; other contemplated uses for the newest alloy are for cast disc-wheels for passenger cars, differential carriers and cast rear-axle housings.
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200040
W R SHIMER
1920-01-01
Technical Paper
200022
ARCHIBALD BLACK
A tendency exists in most shops to assume that brazed joints cannot be successfully heat-treated. As a consequence, many fittings used in aircraft work and assembled by brazing smaller parts together are finished and installed without being heat-treated after the brazing operation. This practice causes parts to be used that not only do not develop the available strength of the material, but which are in some cases, under internal stress due to the heating in the brazing operation. Recent experiments made at the Naval Aircraft Factory show that the assumption mentioned is entirely erroneous. The author considers this matter with a view to specifying the use of steels and brazing spelters which will permit the subsequent or perhaps the simultaneous heat-treatment of the parts.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190054
HAROLD F WOOD
The author discusses the different types of material used in the production of the Liberty engine, the physical properties of the finished parts and the heat-treatments used in making them, applying the information as set forth to the automobile, truck and tractor industries. Under their several heads the different engine pans are discussed with close attention to details. Chemical analyses are given for each part and approved heat-treating temperatures are indicated. Quenching, direct and indirect, water and oil cooling, hard spots, warpage, scaling and hair-line seams are treated. The advantages and disadvantages of the Izod impact test are stated briefly.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190047
EDWARD T BIRDSALL
Iron rust is caused by electrolytic action between the various constituents of iron or steel in the presence of moisture and impurities. It is a continuous process; a coating of rust does not protect the metal underneath. The principal requirements of a rust-prevention process as applied to automobiles, aircraft and other machined and hardened parts are that it (1) Prevent rusting under normal use (2) Prevent the spreading of rust (3) Make no change in dimensions or fits (4) Make no alterations in physical properties (5) Be permanent for the life of the part (6) Be easy and quick of application (7) Be commercially practicable as to cost Of the most familiar rust-proofing processes, the cold, the hot and the high-temperature, the last is eliminated by requirements (3) and (4), while the cold processes and also japanning are eliminated by (2), (3) and (5). There remain three hot processes, the Parker, the Coslett and the Guerini.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190046
P W KLINGER
In the past the majority of trucks have been equipped with wood wheels. These gave good service, but the results demanded under strenuous modern conditions seem, the author states, to make the substitution of steel wheels on medium and heavy-duty trucks imperative. Truck engineers and builders seem to recognize the fact, but to hesitate to make the change, chiefly because a metal wheel is somewhat higher in first cost and because some designs have not as yet rendered the service expected of them. The service return of metal wheels is given from the records and reports of the London General Omnibus Co. and the Fifth Avenue Coach Co., both of which use steel wheels exclusively. The added mileage is in excess of wood-wheel service and exceptional tire mileage is shown. The author states briefly the arguments for the hollow-spoke, hollow-rim, the hollow full-flaring spoke and the integral-hub metal wheels.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190005
Henry M. Crane
ABSTRACT
1918-01-01
Technical Paper
180017
C A SCHELL
1918-01-01
Technical Paper
180025
A W SCARRATT
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170029
C. E. SARGENT
After noting that the early development of the automobile industry took place at a time when gasoline was a drug on the market, this paper reviews the cycle of operations of a standard gasoline engine in order to point out its limitations and the possibilities of utilizing a less volatile fuel than gasoline and of securing lower consumptions of fuels of all kinds. Compression and expansion limitations and the reduction of mean effective pressures at light loads are considered. Disadvantages of throttling control are pointed out, citing as a parallel example the trend of steam engine design away from this means of control. The author then outlines the advantageous features of the improved Diesel engine design, and by means of curves shows the great fuel economy of this type as compared with gasoline engines. He concludes by defining “the ideal tractor engine.”
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170016
ROLAND CHILTON
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170044
RALPH H. SHERRY
The author states that the purpose of the paper is to outline that phase of metallurgical work pertaining to the connection between the laboratory and production in the automotive industry. Reasons are cited for selecting certain designs for parts to facilitate machining, complete or partial case-hardening, finishing and assembling. The next step is the choice of materials, a subject which is treated at some length. The author then takes up in turn the field for standardization in steel specifications, inspection of materials, physical testing of steels, uniformity of composition of metals, heat-treating operations, methods of carburizing, depths of case-hardening, treatment after carburization, errors in overspeeding hardening operations and drawing heat-treatment at low temperatures. Types of pyrometers, operations on hardened work, inspection for hardness and selection of hardening equipment are some of the other topics discussed.
1917-01-01
Technical Paper
170045
Albert Champion
Abstract The author first mentions hot-tube ignition, which preceded the spark-plug, then the low-tension type of make-and-break ignition, following with the development of spark-plugs. He compares the conical and petticoat types of porcelain and discusses at some length the insulating materials used in spark-plugs, such as porcelain, mica, steatite, glass and quartz. In this connection he covers the composition of the material, its dielectric strength, carbon-absorbing ability, heat-conductivity, mechanical characteristics, and the difficulties of glazing. Under the heading of general design of spark-plugs the author takes up such points as assembly of insulator and center electrode, electrodes, gaskets, and separable and integral plugs.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160015
LATHROP COLLINS
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160011
JAMES E. DIAMOND
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160008
MCCONNELL SHANK
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160001
J. S. UNGER
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160027
W. M. CORSE, G. F. COMSTOCK
The authors point out the need for more concrete data concerning the physical properties of bronze alloys and present an extensive chart covering the results of actual tests on a large range of cast bronze alloys. The influence of the method of making the test-specimen is discussed and it is hinted that new evidence concerning the proper interpreting of the true proportional limit is available. A very extensive set of microphotographs illustrates the variety of structures existing in the ordinary and in some unusual bronze alloys.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160026
Ralph H. Sherry
Abstract In this paper the author gives the results of an investigation of coarse crystallization. This investigation was carried out with commercial materials such as cold-drawn wire, hot and cold-rolled sheet, strip steel, cold-drawn tube and cold-pressings. The results of other investigations are briefly outlined. Coarse crystallization, or grain-growth, it is stated, is due to the action of a limited amount of strain, exceeding the elastic limit, followed by annealing within certain temperature ranges. The experimental work which led to this conclusion is explained in detail in the paper. The effect of forging, cold-drawing, cold-rolling and cold-pressing was determined with commercial materials. Some study was made of the effect of carbon on grain-growth and of the effect of coarse crystallization on the physical properties. In the discussion of commercial materials special reference is made to those used in motor car construction.
1915-01-01
Technical Paper
150012
H. JAY HAYES
1915-01-01
Technical Paper
150025
L. GREENWALD
1915-01-01
Technical Paper
150024
HENRY VAN RIPER SCHEEL
1915-01-01
Technical Paper
150027
C. W. STRATFORD
1915-01-01
Technical Paper
150029
Eugene Gruenewald
1915-01-01
Technical Paper
150032
P. W. LITCHFIELD
1915-01-01
Technical Paper
150036
ORREL A. PARKER
1914-01-01
Technical Paper
140031
J. E. Hale
1914-01-01
Technical Paper
140025
W. JONES
1914-01-01
Technical Paper
140027
MARCUS A. SMITH
Viewing 15961 to 15990 of 16003