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Viewing 15901 to 15930 of 15981
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270060
M. N. NICKOWITZ
MORE than 13,000,000 yd. of rubber-coated top-material was produced in this Country in 1926, and, in addition, approximately 6,000,000 yd. of other types of material, including pyroxylin and oil-coated fabrics, was used for automobile tops. Principal ingredients entering into the manufacture of rubber-coated top and deck material are base fabrics, crude and reclaimed rubber, naphtha, sulphur, accelerators, antioxidants, inert fillers, softeners, and varnishes. Methods of manufacture are much like those used in the production of cellulose-nitrate or pyroxylin-coated fabrics, and the types of fabric used and their preparation are similar. Processes of preparing the rubber compound, applying it to the fabric, varnishing the surface and embossing the material are described briefly.
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270059
E. H. NOLLAU
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270048
J. E. HALE
THE author compares tread-wear of front and rear tires. Considering wear of rear tires as normal wear he analyses the abnormal wear observed on front tires and traces it to its causes, which are found to be camber, toe-in and imperfect geometrical layout of steering-arms and linkages. A theory of the scuffing action is developed. It is due partly to various rolling diameters at different parts of the tire tread and partly to the setting of the two front wheels so they tend to roll in slightly different directions. Reducing the camber angle to ¾ deg. and the toe-in to 1/16 in., reduces both these errors and results in longer tire-wear. No definite theory for camber is found. Toe-in depends on camber, counteracting the tendency of cambered wheels to diverge. A method is described for testing accuracy of rolling action by means of paper on a greased floor. Service stations must be put in a position to test and correct toe-in and camber.
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270024
E. J. Lowry
CAST iron is purchased on a basis of price instead of quality, according to the author, who says that this has depreciated the qualities of the material generally and caused engineers to look askance at its application. Combined with such factors is the influence of misinformation about cast iron that has been widely broadcast. Questions regarding the design of patterns and cheaper raw-materials have involved the foundrymen in controversial discussion concerning the influence of various elements to the detriment of the economic condition of the iron industry as well as that of the consumer of castings. Due to the lessening of the consumption of cast iron, the foundry world has inaugurated research to better the quality of cast iron, not only through investigations of raw materials but also by improvement in melting practice.
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270026
J. W. SCHADE
ACTUAL production-equipment for making rubber goods by the anode process has not been installed and studied to yield accurate quantitative data, but laboratory work has been begun in Akron, Ohio, and although some of the facts learned cannot be discussed by the author at this time, enough general indications have been secured to lead to belief that widely varied and valuable applications of the process will be made. Factors that influence the commercial application of any process are enumerated and the properties of rubber that the technologist usually studies to determine its suitability for specific uses are listed. Thorough comparison of anode rubber with the milled product has not been made but confirmatory experimental evidence supports belief that the process must yield stronger and tougher material than do current methods of production. The reasons for this are explained.
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270025
S. E. SHEPPARD
AFTER giving a brief description of the nature of rubber latex and a review of investigations made in Europe of its physico-chemical properties, the author tells of experiments made in Rochester to develop a method for the electrodeposition of rubber particles. These proved that the process was possible but the problem of producing a coating containing all the ingredients requisite in a compound suitable for vulcanizing remained to be solved. The nature of the rubber particles and of rubber after coagulation of the particles is described and the method of rubber-plating as developed is explained. It is stated that the deposit can be built up almost indefinitely and at a very rapid rate; that the composition remains substantially unchanged during coating, and that the current efficiency is remarkably high.
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270065
J. A. ROCHÉ
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270066
R. D. WEYERBACHER
1927-01-01
Technical Paper
270058
W. A. Gibbons
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260063
ARTHUR NUTT
The marked advance that has been made in the last 10 years in constructional details and in performance of airplane engines and in airplane performance is reviewed, beginning with the year 1916 when the Curtiss OX-5 eight-cylinder water-cooled engine was brought to its final stage of development. The author describes briefly each type of engine produced successively by the company he represents and tells of the changes that were made to improve the performance. From the 8-cylinder V-type the constructors changed to the 6 and 12-cylinder water-cooled type and are now developing a 9-cylinder air-cooled radial engine that was built in 1925. An important field of usefulness is foreseen for the air-cooled engine.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260056
JOHN BETHUNE, W. G. HILDORF
Stating that the production of satisfactory gears is one of the most serious problems confronting the automobile builder, the authors give an outline of the practice of producing gears that is used by the company they represent and describe a new method for cutting the rear-axle drive-pinion by using two machines, each machine cutting one side of the teeth. Explanations are given of the various steps in the process and the reasons for stating that this method is not only cheaper but produces gears of higher quality. Numerous suggestions are made for improving gears and axles, and the claim is made that it is doubtful if the spiral-bevel gear has had a fair chance because axles usually have not been designed so that the main consideration was the requirements of the gears.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260054
H. K. CUMMINGS
The effectiveness and the advantages and disadvantages of various substances and compounds that are used or offered in the market for use in the radiators of automotive vehicles as anti-freeze materials are discussed. These include alcohols, glycerine, salts, oils, sugars, and glycols. Properties affecting the suitability of a material or compound, or solutions of them with water to afford protection against freezing at atmospheric temperatures that are likely to be encountered are their heat capacity, freezing-point, boiling-point, specific gravity, viscosity, volatility, solubility, tendency to decompose at the boiling-point, inflammability, corrosive action upon metals, tendency to attack rubber, general availability, and price. The freezing-points of solutions of different materials vary widely at the same concentrations, or proportions to water, and also with variation of their concentration.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260043
G. H. ACKER
Subsequent to a brief review of the development of the worm-gear drive for motor-trucks and the gear-ratios considered most desirable, the author discusses comparatively the worm-gear and the spiral-bevel gear with regard to their application for specific service, as well as with regard to their cost and length of life. It is brought out that the worm-gear is, after all, very similar in action to any sliding, or journal, bearing. A certain amount of involute rolling-action takes place in the action of the gearing, the magnitude of which increases with the gear-ratio; but the primary action is one of sliding of the worm-threads across the gear-teeth. Simple as this fact is, the prejudice fostered by many people against worm-gears can be traced to lack of appreciation of it. Due to the nature of the surfaces in contact, the best obtainable bearing takes the form of a narrow strip running across the gear-tooth, and the bearing pressures obtained are high.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260044
C. H. Calkins
After a brief historical review of the development of worm-gears, the author deals with worms and worm-wheels in detail, presenting the subjects of proper choice of materials, tooth-shapes, worm-gear efficiency, the stresses imposed on worm-gearing and worm-gear axles. Usually, he says, the worm is made of case-hardened steel of S.A.E. No. 1020 grade; however, when the worm-diameter is smaller and the stresses are greater, nickel-steels such as S.A.E. Nos. 2315 and 2320 grades are utilized. The worm should be properly heat-treated and carbonized to produce a glass-hard surface. Grinding of the worm-thread is necessary to remove distortions. Bronze is the only material of which the author knows that will enable the worm-wheel to withstand the high stresses imposed by motor-vehicle axles, and three typical bronze alloys are in common use.
1926-01-01
Technical Paper
260035
S. A. MCKEE
A report is made of the results of tests of the performance of oils diluted with kerosene in a journal-bearing friction-machine with regard to the so-called “oiliness” property of the lubricant, oiliness being defined as the property that causes a difference in the friction when two lubricants of the same viscosity at the temperature of the oil-film are used under identical conditions. A detailed description is given of the method of procedure and of the precautions taken to keep the speed, load, bearing temperature, and oil-pressure constant throughout the duration of a run. Four series of test-runs were made with the first test-bearing, the lubricant in the several runs being respectively a light mineral motor-oil, a blend of 35.75 per cent of kerosene with 64.25 per cent of cylinder stock, the light mineral motor-oil, as a check to see whether the conditions of the bearing had changed, and the light mineral motor-oil plus 2 per cent of oleic acid.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250052
H C MOUGEY
Public demand for more durability in automobile finishes has led to new developments in finishing materials and methods through cooperation of finishing materials manufacturers and automobile builders. By experimentation it has been found that certain cellulose nitrate materials, when applied over suitable under-coats, dry quickly in the air by evaporation of the solvents and leave a film that is hard and tough. Its durability is many times greater than that of the most durable finishing-varnish and, as it has been discovered that sufficient luster can be produced by rubbing and polishing the unprotected cellulose-nitrate surface, one of the large automobile production plants adopted, in July, 1923, as its standard method of finishing, the use of such a finishing coat over primer and surfacer coats, obtaining the luster by polishing the cellulose-nitrate top-coat. A number of companies have now adopted this process.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250045
H E MAYNARD
The principles of hydraulics have long been known and the use of a liquid for transmitting power has proved safe and reliable in many applications, notably in the operation of passenger elevators. Hence it was natural to make use of these principles in a device for controlling an automobile under traffic conditions that demand an efficient and dependable braking mechanism. The ideal of equalized braking-effort is sought but variation in the coefficient of friction between brake-bands and brake-drums and between tires and road introduces complications, so we must be content for the present with the nearest possible approach to equalized pressure at the brake-bands. In the hydraulic system, pressure is transmitted equally throughout the liquid and to the levers that actuate the brake-bands. These levers are also designed to transmit the pressure equally to the brake-bands on all four wheels.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250030
FRANK JARDINE
Corrosion in gasoline engines is generally believed to be due to sulphuric acid formed by the combination of sulphur carried in low-grade fuels and oils with water that enters or is generated in the engine. Much of this trouble occurs in winter and may be traced directly to the action of water that condenses on the inside of the cylinders and crankcase when a cold engine is started. The water destroys the oil-film and comes into direct contact with metal of the pistons, cylinders and other parts, causing them to rust. If this occurs and the lubricating system does not supply more oil to the surfaces immediately upon the restarting of the engine, scored cylinders and pistons are likely to result, or, if the engine is stopped before it is warmed up, condensation and rusting will be rapid and will result in excessive wear.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250031
M A THORNE
There is almost unanimous agreement that water in the crankcase is responsible for corrosion in internal-combustion engines. The quantity of water present in the products of combustion of the fuel is dependent upon the hydrogen content of the fuel, the mixture-ratio and the humidity of the air that enters the engine. The amount of water that may be condensed on the cylinder-walls or in the crankcase depends upon the effectiveness of the pistons and piston-rings in preventing gas leakage, the temperature of the cylinder-walls and crankcase and the extent of the breather action. The relative freedom of some engines from water accumulation is due to their higher operating-temperatures or to the better interchange of air by breather action which results in dilution of the gases in the crankcase and consequent reduction of the saturation temperature of the gases. Water alone will cause corrosion but the action may be accelerated by the formation of weak sulphurous or sulphuric acid.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250069
J J FEELY
Following a description of airplane structure, the author discusses structural requirements and outlines the main features of properly coordinating the engineering and the manufacturing activities. He says that each of the three subdivisions of airplane design has its own series of calculations, these being related to predictions of performance before the machine is built, to stability determinations and to the design of a self-contained structure of sufficient strength to withstand any stresses developed in flight or in landing. He states also that no inspection is worth the name or the money spent on it that does not include constructive work and a knowledge at all times that the intentions of the designers are being carried out in detail so that the safety of the craft is assured. Materials used in aircraft should be light and easily workable and should possess the desired physical and chemical properties; they must have the specified cross-section and be free from defects.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250021
GEORGE W KERR
Body construction, of a character such that the wooden framework is secured by suitably shaped steel joining-plates and bolts that separate the wooden members ⅛ in. at the joints, is illustrated and described. The outer surface of the body is completely covered with flexible textile fabric or leather-cloth. It is claimed that the effect is to impart to the finished body an easy deformability and to permit it to accommodate itself to distortions of the chassis frame, to which it is rigidly attached. A portion of the English patent specification is quoted, and details of the actual construction practised at the inventor's factory in Paris, Prance, are stated. Due to the absence of steel and to the extreme slenderness of the wooden parts, these bodies are very light. The required wood-working operations are few and simple. Only the minimum machine equipment is needed to fabricate the framework, and no great skill is demanded in its erection.
1925-01-01
Technical Paper
250022
EDWARD G BUDD, J LEDWINKA
All-steel automobile bodies are lighter, stronger, roomier, and cheaper than composite bodies having wood framing and metal panels. They are free from squeaks, afford better vision of the road and scenery, take a superior finish with less preliminary work, and permit marked economies in quantity production. Steel has 40 times the strength to resist breakage that wood has and, in bending, may be stressed 7 times as much as wood, hence the cross-sectional area of steel members may be only a small fraction of that of wood members having equal strength. This makes for lightness of construction and reduction of the size of frame members, thereby affording more space in the interior of the body for the passengers and reducing the amount of obstruction to vision.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240043
TOM W GREENE
In this investigation to determine strength and physical properties 12 motor-truck rear-wheels were tested, comprising two each of the following types: Class-B trucks, standard wood; Class-B truck, cast-steel; I-beam type; steel disc; aluminum; and rubber-cushion, each having a 34-in. diameter and a 12-in. tread. The wood, the I-beam and the cushion wheels each had 14 spokes; the aluminum and the steel-disc wheels had a solid web between the hub and the rim. All the wheels were tested without tires or brake-bands, were bushed to fit a 4-in. axle and the area of contact between the hub and the bushing was the same as that in service. Illustrations show the construction of the wheels. Requirements considered essential in a wheel were listed, and the tests were conducted to obtain data concerning them. One wheel of each type was subjected to a radial-compression test.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240020
Edwin M Baker
The quality of plated steel may be tested by exposing the article to the action of a salt spray and noting the appearance at intervals. A numerical method of rating the appearance is presented, and the rust resistance of steel plated with nickel and copper is shown to be dependent on the thickness of the plating. The effect on the salt-spray resistance of some common variables in nickel-plating, such as boric acid, ferrous sulphate, current density and defective steel, is disclosed and charted. The need of close technical control of the plating process is indicated, and some of the advantages of controlled electroplating at high current-densities are set forth.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240021
A J LYON, SAMUEL DANIELS
The importance of the development of a light alloy for use in parts that are subjected to elevated temperatures has already been emphasized in many papers, among which that by S. D. Heron on Air-Cooled Cylinder Design and Development4 should be particularly mentioned. It was with this purpose in view that the foundry of the Engineering Division of the Air Service at McCook Field undertook a brief survey of the alloying, the casting, the heat-treatment, the physical properties and the metallography of an aluminum-copper-nickel-magnesium alloy of the Magnalite type as sand-cast under ordinary foundry conditions. It was found that the alloying involved no particular difficulty. The casting, however, showed the necessity for proper pouring temperatures, gating and placing of the chills and the risers. Several photographs are shown illustrating satisfactory and unsatisfactory methods of molding pistons and air-cooled cylinder-heads.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240022
ARTHUR T UPSON, LEYDEN N ERICKSEN
Shortage of the most desirable kinds of wood for automobile-body purposes has necessitated the substitution of second-choice woods having the essential required properties and the buying of stock for body parts in cut-up dimensions that conform in size with those now produced in the cutting-room. An investigation by the United States Forest Products Laboratory as to the species, kinds, grades, sizes and amounts used by the automotive industry shows that maple and elm comprise over one-half the total amount used and that ash and gum constitute one-half of the remainder. Although the quantity of ash used has not decreased, the increase in the production of medium and low-priced cars in the last few years bas caused a proportional increase in the demand for maple and elm.
1924-01-01
Technical Paper
240053
W H GRAVES
A practical method of nickel-plating is outlined and the various processes are described by which the Packard Motor Car Co. has been successful in producing a durable coating of nickel on automobile parts in general, and the radiator shells, the rim plates and the tire-carrier plates, in particular. These are the parts of greatest exposure, and for plating them a new system of moving-cathode tanks was installed. The three problems to which special attention was devoted were rusting, pitting and peeling. No effort was made to secure a coating of any designated depth but reliance was placed solely on the results indicated by a 24-hr. salt-spray test, which was considered to be the equivalent of 2 years' exposure to the usual weather conditions. Peeling was overcome by thoroughly cleaning the parts before plating. New equipment was purchased and laid out in accordance with the system decided upon, namely, copper-plating, buffing and nickel-plating.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230015
HUGH G BERSIE
The author states briefly the phenomenal growth of taxicab usage and consequent demand for this type of motor vehicle, mentioned the differences in body requirements for taxicabs as compared with those of passenger cars, and describes the methods used to secure durability in taxicab-body construction to discount the severe service to which the body is subjected. Tabular data are presented and comments made regarding the woods that are suitable for body framework, and the methods of joining frame members and reinforcing frame joints are outlined. The desirable types of roof and the factors that influence design are discussed at some length, illustrations being presented also, and minor considerations, such as types of hardware, dash and instrument-boards, are included. A brief summary states present conditions, and a bibliographical list is appended of informative publications relating to the subject.
1923-01-01
Technical Paper
230014
GEORGE J MERCER
The author quotes statistics relating to the proportion of closed to open bodies and outlines the changes that have taken place in body construction in recent years. He sketches the advances that have been made and states that the question to be answered now relates to what all this improvement in manufacturing methods has accomplished toward reducing the price of a closed-car body to the consumer. He compares the percentage of public benefit in 1922 with that of 1914, excluding the period of inflated prices immediately following the war, and states that it is 10 to 15 per cent, but says also that this is an unfair comparison because of the excessive increases in the cost of labor, lumber, sheet steel and trimming cloth. An unconventional type of body, covered entirely with fabric over a foundation of wire-mesh and buckram fastened to the conventional wood-framing, is illustrated and described in detail, together with a statement of its advantages.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220044
L H POMEROY
After pointing out that the general question of weight reduction is no exception to the fallacies that seem to have beset the development of the automobile from its earliest days, the author outlines briefly the problem confronting the automobile designer. The influence of the weight of the reciprocating parts on the chassis in general and the engine in particular is emphasized as being of greater importance than the actual saving in the weight of the parts themselves, it being brought out that the bearing loading due to inertia is really the factor that limits the maximum engine speed. Reference is made to the mathematical investigation by Lanchester in 1907 of the advantages of using materials of high specific-strength and the conclusions arrived at are quoted in full. A tabulation of the specific strengths of various materials used in automotive engineering practice is presented as showing the advantages of aluminum as compared with steel.
Viewing 15901 to 15930 of 15981