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Viewing 31 to 60 of 15981
2017-09-17
Technical Paper
2017-01-2503
Binyu Mei, Xuexun Guo, Bo Yang, Shengguang Xiong, Gangfeng Tan
Abstract In order to ensure driving safety, heavy vehicles are often equipped with hydraulic retarder, which provides sustained, stable braking torque and converts the vehicle kinetic energy into heat taken away by the cooling system when traveling on a long downhill. The conventional hydraulic retarder braking torque is modulated by adjusting the liquid filling rate, which leads to slow response and difficult control. In this paper, a new kind of magnetorheological (MR) fluid hydraulic retarder is designed by replacing the traditional transmission oil with MR fluid and arranging the excitation coils outside the working chamber. The braking torque can be controlled by the fluid viscosity of MR fluid with the variation of magnetic field. Compared with the traditional hydraulic retarder, the system has the advantages of fast response, easy control and high adjustment sensitivity.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2502
David B. Antanaitis, Matthew Robere
Abstract The purchase of a new automobile is unquestionably a significant investment for most customers, and with this recognition, comes a correspondingly significant expectation for quality and reliability. Amongst automotive systems -when it comes to considerations of reliability - the brakes (perhaps along with the tires) occupy a rarified position of being located in a harsh environment, subjected to continuous wear throughout their use, and are critical to the safe performance of the vehicle. Maintenance of the brake system is therefore a fact of life for most drivers - something that almost everyone must do, yet given the potentially considerable expense, it is something that of great benefit to minimize.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2501
ByeongUk Jeong, Hyong Tae Ryu, Kwang Ki Jung, Chang Jin Kim
Abstract Owing to the enhanced performance of engines these days, more heat should be dissipated in the braking system. Success of doing this properly causes more heat to the disc in the brake system which results in the deformation or scratches on the surface of it and a reduction in the appearance of the product. A study for detailed factors to aggravate this was done as a solution to prevent these from happening. In this paper, we present our work based on experiments to study MPU (Metal Pick Up) of the pad and the scoring(scratching) of the disc. MPU of which the main component is “Fe”, is formed through the process of fusing the separated materials from the disc by friction with the pad, and by local heat generation to the pad. [1,2,3,4,5] The occurrence of MPU and the possibility of the disc scoring resulting from this were studied by noting “Fe” which was transferred to the surface of the pad to different extent and degree of segregation according to the roughness of the disc.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2529
Jae Seol Cho, JongYun Jeong, Hyoung Woo Kim, Hwa Sun Lee, Yang Woo Park, Junghwan Lim, Yoonjae Kim, Jinwoo Kim, Byung Soo Joo, Ho Jang
Abstract A semi-empirical index to evaluate the noise propensity of brake friction materials is introduced. The noise propensity index (NPI) is based on the ratio of surface and matrix stiffness of the friction material, fraction of high-pressure contact plateaus on the sliding surface, and standard deviation of the surface stiffness of the friction material that affect the amplitude and frequency of the stick-slip oscillation. The correlation between noise occurrence and NPI was examined using various brake linings for commercial vehicles. The results obtained from reduced-scale noise dynamometer and vehicle tests indicated that NPI is well correlated with noise propensity. The analysis of the stick-slip profiles also indicated that the surface property affects the amplitude of friction oscillation, while the mechanical property of the friction material influences the propagation of friction oscillation after the onset of vibration.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2511
Toshikazu Okamura
Abstract The most fundamental function of an automobile brake system is assuring stable braking effectiveness under various conditions. In a previous paper (2004-01-2765), the author et al. confirmed that the friction behavior of disc brakes during running-in depends on both the friction materials and discs’ friction-surface textures. Various friction pairs were tested by combining discs finished with roller-burnishing and grinding and five friction materials including NAO and low-steel. Some NAO material exhibited large effects on the difference in friction behaviors between the discs’ surface textures. A disc finished with roller-burnishing needed a longer running-in period than that with grinding. In another paper (2011-01-2382), a further experiment was conducted by combining eight surface textures (finished under four turning conditions with and without additional roller-burnishing), two NAO materials, and two rotational directions.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2524
Sebastiano Rizzo, Stefano Pagliassotto
Abstract Wheel bearings are safety-critical automotive components. For this application, the steel rolling elements are subjected to fatigue failure and therefore play a key role in overall bearing fatigue life performance. This performance is influenced by metallurgical, mechanical, and physical properties obtained by precise manufacturing process parameters. These properties are continuously analyzed and are evolving at all bearing manufacturing companies. Last year, the Precision Bearing Components (PBC) Group of NN Inc., a global supplier of steel rolling elements for wheel bearings, developed a non-conventional heat treatment process for 100Cr6 (SAE 52100) rolling element steel for improved fatigue performance. The results of wheel bearing rolling contact fatigue (RCF) tests showed the importance of rolling element dimensional stability. As retained austenite transformed to the martensite phase, rolling element volume increase occurred, leading to fatigue failure.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0042
Ali Jannoun, Xavier Tauzia, Pascal Chesse, Alain Maiboom
Abstract Residual gas plays a crucial role in the combustion process of SI engines. It acts as a diluent and has a huge impact on pollutant emissions (NOx and CO emissions), engine efficiency and tendency to knock. Therefore, characterizing the residual gas fraction is an essential task for engine modelling and calibration purposes. Thus, an in-cylinder sampling technique has been developed on a spark ignition VVT engine to measure residual gas fraction. Two gas sampling valves were flush mounted to the combustion chamber walls; they are located between the 2 intake valves and between intake and exhaust valves respectively. In-cylinder gas was sampled during the compression stroke and stored in a sampling bag using a vacuum pump. The process was repeated during a large number of engine cycles in order to get a sufficient volume of gas which was then characterized with a standard gas analyzer.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0070
Stefano D'Ambrosio, Daniele Iemmolo, Alessandro Mancarella, Nicolò Salamone, Roberto Vitolo, Gilles Hardy
Abstract A precise estimation of the recirculated exhaust gas rate and oxygen concentration as well as a predictive evaluation of the possible EGR unbalance among cylinders are of paramount importance, especially if non-conventional combustion modes, which require high EGR flow-rates, are implemented. In the present paper, starting from the equation related to convergent nozzles, the EGR mass flow-rate is modeled considering the pressure and the temperature upstream of the EGR control valve, as well as the pressure downstream of it. The restricted flow-area at the valve-seat passage and the discharge coefficient are carefully assessed as functions of the valve lift. Other models were fitted using parameters describing the engine working conditions as inputs, following a semi-physical and a purely statistical approach. The resulting models are then applied to estimate EGR rates to both conventional and non-conventional combustion conditions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0129
Vladimir Merzlikin, Svetlana Parshina, Victoria Garnova, Andrey Bystrov, Alexander Makarov, Sergey Khudyakov
Abstract Running efficiency of LHR diesel has been confirmed by mean of well-known types of heat-insulating (HICs) or thermal barrier (TBCs) coatings. These materials are considered as a semitransparent media SHICs (STBCs) in the form of an ensemble of diffraction objects, forming own thermoradiative fields under the scattering theory laws. This problem is relevant for a diesel with combustion chamber (CC) in which intensive IR radiation reaches ~50% of total thermal flux. The authors indicate that predetermined selection of optical and thermoradiative parameters in the same spectrum for coatings (due to specific structural composition and porosity) can change their temperature fields inside its subsurface zone and hence in the CC gas volume. Previous author's research of optical parameters for ceramic semitransparent materials allowed offering SHIC (STBC) samples for rig testings.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0136
Kurtis James Irwin, Roy Douglas, Jonathan Stewart, Andrew Pedlow, Rose Mary Stalker, Andrew Woods
Abstract With emission legislations becoming ever more stringent there is an increased pressure on the after-treatment systems, and more specifically the three-way catalysts. With recent developments in emission legislations, there is requirement for more complex after-treatment systems and understanding of the aging process. With future legislation introducing independent inspection of emissions at any time under real world driving conditions throughout a vehicle life cycle this is going to increase the focus on understanding catalyst behavior during any likely conditions throughout its lifetime and not just at the beginning and end. In recent years it has become a popular approach to use accelerated aging of the automotive catalysts for the development of new catalytic formulations and for homologation of new vehicle emissions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0145
Marco Piumetti, Debora Fino, Nunzio Russo, Samir Bensaid, Melodj Dosa
Abstract In this work, several nanostructured ceria-based catalysts were prepared by the hydrothermal technique varying two synthesis parameters (namely, temperature and pH). Then, cerias with different shapes (i.e., cubes, rods, combination of them, other polyhedra) and structural properties were obtained. The prepared materials were tested for the CO oxidation and soot oxidation efficiency. The results have shown that, for the CO oxidation, activities depend on the surface properties of the catalysts. Conversely, for the soot oxidation, the most effective catalysts exhibit better soot-catalyst contact conditions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0156
Minh Khoi Le, Srinivas Padala, Atsushi Nishiyama, Yuji Ikeda
Abstract The Microwave Discharge Igniter (MDI) was developed to create microwave plasma for ignition improvement inside combustion engines. The MDI plasma discharge is generated using the principle of microwave resonance with microwave (MW) originating from a 2.45 GHz semiconductor oscillator; it is then further enhanced and sustained using MW from the same source. The flexibility in the control of semiconductors allows multiple variations of MW signal which in turn, affects the resonating plasma characteristics and subsequently the combustion performance. In this study, a wide range of different MW signal parameters that were used for the control of MDI were selected for a parametric study of the generated Microwave Plasma. Schlieren imaging of the MDI-ignited propane flame were carried out to assess the impact on combustion quality of different MW parameters combinations.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0179
Marco Tonetti, Giorgio Rustici, Massimo Buscema, Luca Ferraris
Abstract Final Euro6d emission legislation with the new homologation cycle and Real Driving Emission requirements has set a strong challenge for the ICE Passenger Car applications. Thanks to their well-known low fuel consumption characteristics, Diesel Engines can play a key role for the fulfillment of the European 2020 CO2 fleet target but need to confirm their capability to fully control noxious emissions even in extreme operating conditions, while restraining the overall engine costs and complexity. CO2 and NOx emissions reduction are considered the main drivers for diesel engine evolution. In this perspective, Exhaust Gas After-treatment and Combustion System have been identified as the two main technology aspects to be developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe the evolution paths of these two technologies and the results achieved so far in terms of noxious emissions reduction.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0116
Ekarong Sukjit, Pansa Liplap, Somkiat Maithomklang, Weerachai Arjharn
Abstract In this study, two oxygenated fuels consisting of butanol and diethyl ether (DEE), both possess same number of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atom but difference functional group, were blended with the waste plastic pyrolysis oil to use in a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any engine modification. In addition, the effect of castor oil addition to such fuel blends was also investigated. Four tested fuels with same oxygen content were prepared for engine test, comprising DEE16 (84% waste plastic oil blended with 16% DEE), BU16 (84% waste plastic oil blended with 16% butanol), DEE11.5BIO5 (83.5% waste plastic oil blended with 11.5% DEE and 5% castor oil) and BU11.5BIO5 (83.5% waste plastic oil blended with 11.5% butanol and 5% castor oil). The results found that the DEE addition to waste plastic oil increased more HC and smoke emissions than the butanol addition at low engine operating condition.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0161
Noboru Uchida, Hideaki Osada
Abstract To reduce heat transfer between hot gas and cavity wall, thin Zirconia (ZrO2) layer (0.5mm) on the cavity surface of a forged steel piston was firstly formed by thermal spray coating aiming higher surface temperature swing precisely synchronized with flame temperature near the wall resulting in the reduction of temperature difference. However, no apparent difference in the heat loss was analyzed. To find out the reason why the heat loss was not so improved, direct observation of flame impingement to the cavity wall was carried out with the top view visualization technique, for which one of the exhaust valves was modified to a sapphire window. Local flame behavior very close to the wall was compared by macrophotography. Numerical analysis by utilizing a three-dimensional simulation was also carried out to investigate the effect of several parameters on the heat transfer coefficient.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0178
Katarzyna E. Matusik, Daniel J. Duke, Alan L. Kastengren, Christopher F. Powell
Abstract The sparking behavior in an internal combustion engine affects the fuel efficiency, engine-out emissions, and general drivability of a vehicle. As emissions regulations become progressively stringent, combustion strategies, including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lean-burn, and turbocharging are receiving increasing attention as models of higher efficiency advanced combustion engines with reduced emissions levels. Because these new strategies affect the working environment of the spark plug, ongoing research strives to understand the influence of external factors on the spark ignition process. Due to the short time and length scales involved and the harsh environment, experimental quantification of the deposited energy from the sparking event is difficult to obtain. In this paper, we present the results of x-ray radiography measurements of spark ignition plasma generated by a conventional spark plug.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0021
Sabino Caputo, Federico Millo, Giancarlo Cifali, Francesco Concetto Pesce
Abstract One of the key technologies for the improvement of the diesel engine thermal efficiency is the reduction of the engine heat transfer through the thermal insulation of the combustion chamber. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the effects of the combustion chamber insulation on the heat transfer, thermal efficiency and exhaust temperatures of a 1.6 l passenger car, turbo-charged diesel engine. First, the complete insulation of the engine components, like pistons, liner, firedeck and valves, has been simulated. This analysis has showed that the piston is the component with the greatest potential for the in-cylinder heat transfer reduction and for Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) reduction, followed by firedeck, liner and valves. Afterwards, the study has been focused on the impact of different piston Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) on heat transfer, performance and wall temperatures.
2017-08-25
Technical Paper
2017-01-5005
Subhash Hanmant Bhosale, Ashish Kumar Sahu, Suhas Kangde, Abhijit Londhe
In today’s cost competitive environment, automotive companies are moving towards lightweight materials for reducing carbon footprints, increasing fuel economy and cost benefits. Fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) is one of the most attractive option considering high strength to weight ratio. The advantage of continuous fiber reinforced plastics is tailorability according to different performance requirements. This paper will focus on finite element analysis and optimization of automotive hood structure made up of continuous fiber reinforced composite with epoxy resin based matrix. Composite hood structure is analysed using detailed orthotropic composite laminate models and an appropriate composite material failure theory. Strength of FRPs is manoeuvred by orientations of the fiber plies in different direction. Considering this, stack-up sequence optimization is performed using mode-Frontier software.
2017-08-01
Journal Article
2017-01-9682
Mohsen Rahmani, Kamran Behdinan
Abstract Widely used in automotive industry, lightweight metallic structures are a key contributor to fuel efficiency and reduced emissions of vehicles. Lightweight structures are traditionally designed through employing the material distribution techniques sequentially. This approach often leads to non-optimal designs due to constricting the design space in each step of the design procedure. The current study presents a novel Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) framework developed to address this issue. Topology, topography, and gauge optimization techniques are employed in the development of design modules and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is linked to the MDO framework to ensure efficient searching in large design spaces often encountered in automotive applications. The developed framework is then further tailored to the design of an automotive Cross-Car Beam (CCB) assembly.
2017-07-24
Technical Paper
2017-01-5003
Igor V. Gritsuk, Valery Aleksandrov, Sergii Panchenko, Artur Kagramanian, Oksana Sobol, Aleksandr Sobolev, Roman Varbanets
Abstract Thermal control of a vehicle engine operation is a key aspect of the development of a vehicle warming-up systems. The use of heat accumulators and phase transition heat-accumulating materials is perspective. The given article describes the ways of improving thermal properties of phase transition heat-accumulating materials in the processes of their designing, the efficient ways of heat transfer from phase transition heat-accumulating materials to heat carrying agent of heat accumulators and then to vehicles. To create reliable phase transition heat-accumulating materials, different ways of their realization are suggested. One of them is the construction of the corresponding phase diagrams to determine an optimal composition of phase transition heat-accumulating materials with higher thermal properties to operate in a given temperature range.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1925
Asif Basha Shaik Mohammad, Ravindran Vijayakumar, Nageshwar Rao Panduranga
Abstract The automotive market has seen a steady increase in customer demands for quiet and more comfortable tractors. High noise at Operator Ear Level (OEL) of tractor is the major cause of fatigue to the operator. With growing competition, and upcoming legislative requirement there is ominous need for the agricultural tractor manufacturers to control noise levels. The objective of this study is noise reduction on agricultural tractor by stiffening sheet metal components. The design and analysis plays a major role for determining the root cause for the problem. Once the problem and its root cause were well defined, the solution for addressing the problem would be made clear. The engine excitation frequency and Sheet metal Components such as fender and platform natural frequency were coming closer and are leading to resonance.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1939
Maruti Patil, Penchaliah Ramkumar, Shankar Krishnapillai
Abstract Minimum weight and high-efficiency gearboxes with the maximum service life are the prime necessity of today’s high-performance power transmission systems such as automotive and aerospace. Therefore, the problem to optimize the gearboxes is subjected to a considerable amount of interest. To accomplish these objectives, in this paper, two generalized objective functions for two stage spur-gearbox are formulated; first objective function aims to minimize the volume of gearbox material, while the second aims to maximize the power transmitted by the gearbox. For the optimization purpose, regular mechanical and critical tribological constraints (scuffing and wear) are considered. These objective functions are optimized to obtain a Pareto front for the two-stage gearbox using a specially formulated discrete version of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) code written MATLAB. Two cases are considered, in the first with the regular mechanical constraints.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1954
Premkumarr Santhanamm, K. Sreejith, Avinash Anandan
A local and global environmental concern regarding automotive emissions has led to optimize the design and development of Power train systems for IC engines. Blow-by and Engine oil consumption is an important source of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions in modern IC engines. Great efforts have been made by automotive manufacturers to minimize the impact of oil consumption and blow-by on in-cylinder engine emissions. This paper describes a case study of how simulation played a supportive role in improving piston ringpak assembly. The engine taken up for study is a six cylinder, turbocharged, water cooled diesel engine with a peak firing pressure of 140 bar and developing a power output of 227 KW at 1500 rpm. This paper reveals the influence of stepped land, top groove angle, ring face profile, twist features with regard to tweaking of Blow-by & LOC. Relevant design inputs of engine parameters were provided by the customer to firm up the boundary conditions.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1964
Rajaganesh Ramamoorthy, T. Venkatesan, R. Rajendran
Abstract Machining of materials has received significant consideration due to the increasing use of machining processes in various industrial applications. In machining, the heat generated in the cutting zone during machining is critical in deciding the work piece quality. Lubricants are widely used to reduce the heat generation. Their usage poses threat to environment and health hazards. Hence, there is a need to identify eco-friendly and user-friendly alternatives to conventional cutting fluids. Modern tribology has facilitated the use of solid lubricants such as graphite, calcium fluoride, molybdenum disulphide, and boric acid as an alternative to cutting fluids in machining. Solid lubricant assisted machining is an environmental friendly clean technology for improving the surface quality of the machined work piece.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1962
Pervaz Ahmed Mouda, H Siddhi Jailani
Abstract Cryogenic treatment is an ultra low temperature treatment technique. Effect of cryogenic treatment on properties of ferrous materials and alloys is well understood. Due to which, cryogenic treated materials are being used in various applications. One among them is Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM). In EDM, the replica of electrode is obtained on the work piece, during the process tool also worn out to certain extent. In order to reduce the tool wear rate cryogenic treatment can be applied to the tool material. In this paper, the effect of cryogenic treatment on electrode wear rate of electro-discharge machining for varied pulse ON time (EDM) was studied. The cryogenic treatment was applied to the copper electrode and the microstructure analysis was carried out using optical microscope. EDM experiment was conducted using untreated and cryogenic treated copper as electrode and High Speed Steel (HSS) as work piece. Electrical resistivity was also measured.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1975
ANIL P M, K Nantha Gopal, B. Ashok
Abstract The present research deals with study of pongamia oil methyl ester as a lubricant by blending with anti-wear additive ZDDP. The experimental work carried in this work aims to investigates the friction and wear characteristics by blending zinc diakyldithio phosphates (ZDDP) with pongamia oil methyl ester as lubricant under various loading conditions and temperatures. The coefficient of friction and wear scar depth were determined using pongamia biodiesel blended with 0.3%, 0.6% and 1 % ZDDP by concentration through high frequency reciprocating wear testing machine for 2 h duration. The reciprocating wear tests were performed on an engine liner-piston ring contact under the loads of 40 N, 60 N and 80 N for 2 h duration at temperatures of 100°C, 125°C 150° C with 10 Hz oscillation frequency. The addition of ZDDP with pongamia biodiesel showed marginal reduction in friction coefficient and wear scar depth under all loads and temperatures.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1978
Stanley M Jerome, Senthilkumar Sundararaj
Abstract The process of building the engine and its subsequent systems involves usage of metals & its compounds. The current technique is in which the fuel is burned in a combustion chamber wherein the actual combustion progression and its subsequent gases are surrounded by metallic compounds. The part of the heat energy generated in the system is forced to be removed by means of cooling to protect the structural integrity of the engine; nearly 30% of the energy is lost due to cooling. However limitation in structural behavior of metallic materials and limited resource for the production of metals and alloys with superior high temperature structural causes the search for new alternate materials like ceramics, organic synthetic plastic, etc. Thermal Barrier Coating is an attractive and promising method in providing thermal insulation for the engine components due to its good thermo-mechanical properties.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1969
Senthil Ram Nagapillai Durairaj, Thulasirajan Ganesan, Praveen Chakrapani Rao
Abstract Magnesium alloy current being used for automotive sector and are being significantly used for manufacturing engine block as offering higher power to weight ratio to the vehicle. In this context, the magnesium alloy has been used in the replacement of aluminium alloy for the starter housing which in turn increase the power to weight ratio of the motor. Considering the operation condition of starter motor in the engine of the vehicles, the starter motor is being exposed to the harsh environment, where its system is being tested for Noise, Vibration and Harshness. In this paper, the magnesium alloy housing is used to study the vibration and noise developed in the starter motor and the same is compared with the noise and vibration of the motor when it being used with Aluminium alloy Housing. First, the vibration study is carried out for the housing part alone to capture the resonant frequency of the both housing alloy say, Aluminium and Magnesium.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1967
Senthil Ram Nagapillai Durairaj, Thulasirajan Ganesan, Praveen Chakrapani Rao
Abstract Global Automotive Industry is mandated with the task of emission reduction and mileage improvements. One of the key areas being looked at from mileage standpoint is light weighting. While Aluminum body is replacing Steel is many vehicular applications, in Starter Motor Aluminum is the key component. Therefore, any attempt at light weighting must consider Aluminum. A Starter motor fits directly on to the engine. Aluminum being the housing material provides structural stability. It also performs the role of heat dissipation being a good thermal conductor and source of electrical ground path. Aluminum constitutes 20 - 25% of Starter motor weight. Any significant weight reduction cannot be achieved unless we look at the components made of Aluminum, namely die cast Housing and End plate. The alternatives considered in this study include engineered plastics, magnesium alloy and composites.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1973
Sakthivel Balasubramaniyan, Sridhar Ramachandran, Srinivasan Bashyam, Suresh Kumar
Abstract Solenoids are type of inductive actuators extensively used in mobility industries as flow control valves. Now a day, the conventional mechanical actuators are replaced by solenoids, because the solenoids have high precision control and faster response within a controlled magnetic field. Solenoids are classified into two types based on the mode of operation. Solenoid is operated either in ON/OFF mode for switching applications or in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) for high frequency applications. A solenoid consists of two critical parts, one is the reciprocating plunger and another is the static valve case. During higher number of repeated operations, the solenoid plunger hits the valve case and induces wear on the seating surface. The solenoids are also exposed to the corrosive environment in some applications.
Viewing 31 to 60 of 15981