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Viewing 1 to 30 of 14301
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Simone Vezzù, Carlo Cavallini, Silvano Rech, Enrico Vedelago, Alessandro Giorgetti
The deposition of thick, pore-free and high performances copper alloy matrix composite coatings is a topic of interest for several industrial applications such as friction materials, high mechanical resistance electrical contacts, and welding electrodes. This study investigates the opportunity to use cold spray for the deposition of CuCrZr/Al2O3 cermet coatings on 6060 aluminium alloys. The project’s aim is to investigate the feasibility of producing integral coolers on mechanical parts. This will make it possible to the design of high performance hybrid motorcycles more compact. Fused and crushed alumina and gas-atomized CuCrZr powder blends have been used as initial feedstocks, with compositional weight ratio of 65/35 and 80/20 (ceramic/metal). The deposition process and coating growth have been studied as a function of carrier gas temperature, exploring the range between 200°C and 750°C. Pure CuCrZr alloy coatings have been also deposited for comparison. The coatings have been characterized in terms of microstructure and morphology, coating microindentation hardness, adhesion to the Al alloy substrate, and cohesion.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Akiko Tanaka, Ikue Sato
Southeast Asian Nations are large scale markets for motorcycles and the market size is still growing. Moreover, the volume of plastic parts used for those motorcycles is increasing with growing popularity of scooter-type motorcycles. Accordingly, decorative features applied for plastic coverings are increasingly important to enhance the attractiveness of exterior designs of those motorcycles. Under these circumstances, we had adopted the magnetically-formed decorative painting and applied to a mass-production motorcycle model sold in Thailand in 2008. The magnetically-formed decorative painting is the method in which the designed patterns are formed by painting the material that contains flakes movable along with the magnetic lines of force, while applying an auxiliary attachment to the backside of the parts for generating magnetic fields, such as magnetic sheet trimmed to fit the shape of ornamenting designs. The magnetically-formed decorative painting offers three-dimensional appearance even though its actual surface has no protuberances or dents.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Anil Kumar Cherukuri
Vehicle light-weighting of late has gained a lot of importance across the automotive industry. With the developed nations like the U.S. setting stringent fuel economy targets of 54.5 mpg by 2025, the car industry's R&D is taking light weighting to a whole new level, besides improving engine efficiency. The commercial vehicles on the other hand are also gradually catching up when it comes to using alternate material for weight reduction. This paper will discuss light-weighting in the context of buses though. Vehicle weight is directly related to fuel consumption, a lighter bus takes less energy to move which improves fuel consumption and lowers the operating cost of vehicles that do a huge number of miles over their lifetime. There are certainly many ways to achieve light weight within the strength and safety requirements, Common ones are to completely replace the existing structure material with higher yield strength material with a possible reduction in section thickness. The other is to selectively replace conventional steel at specific areas.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sivanandi Rajadurai, Guru Prasad Mani, Sundaravadivelu M, Kavin Raja
Simulation’s drive towards reality boundary conditions is a toughest challenge. Experience has shown that often the most significant source of error in thermal and dynamic analyses is associated within specified boundary conditions. Typically, validating the system by considering both thermal and dynamic loads with predefined assumptions is time consuming and inconclusive when confronted to reality boundary conditions. Thus, solution comes in unique way of combining thermal and dynamic loads with specified boundary conditions will convey computational results closer to real scenario. As a consequence, strain concentrated regions due to thermal expansion are aggregated more, when coupled with dynamic loading. The stress generated by the coupled analyses will proves to be critical in concerning the durability issue of the hot end system. These conditions were evaluated by a finite elements model through a linear and non-linear approach, which had its results summarized.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Sivanandi Rajadurai, Prakash Krishnan, Naveen Sridharan, Manimaran Sethuramasubramaniyam
Canning is the process of mounting the support mat & substrate into the shell. Canning is a very important aspect in the catalyst converter design, especially with the current trend of using thinner wall and ultra-thin wall substrates. Considering the reduced isostatic and shear strengths of thin and ultra thin wall substrates, conventional canning technique will reduce canning durability where the mat or the substrate or the shell may be damaged. This brings into requirement a controlled canning process which shall not disturb the canning durability. The paper shall explain an established controlled canning process developed at a very low investment yet with effective outputs using a DOE methodology for choosing the best suited practices for the respective parts for canning. The outputs were cross verified using push out test and GBD verification using destructive methodology and the results obtained were competitive.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Lars Wilkening, Hans-Guenther Paul, Georg Peter Ostermeyer
Friction materials for automotive brakes are known to exhibit a time-dependent tribological behavior. When examining these dynamic effects special demands are made on the measurement device: The influences of the brake system should be minimized and parameters like velocity, contact pressure and temperature should be controlled closely and independently. Furthermore special test procedures need to be designed. This can ideally be achieved using a scaled tribometer like the High-Load-Tribometer at the Institute of Dynamics and Vibrations in Braunschweig. Former investigations have shown that a kind of memory effect can occur for a low-met brake pad rubbing on a cast iron disk. A variation of the initial disk temperatures has revealed that a temporary increase of the coefficient of friction can occur at slightly elevated temperatures. This effect is memorized by the material as a certain procedure needs to be performed in order to achieve a regeneration. The scope of the current work is to extend this examination with respect to different materials and also include different load cases.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Kazuho Mizuta, Yukio Nishizawa, Koji Sugimoto, Katsuya Okayama, Alan Hase
Brake pads are composite materials made from dozens of ingredients intended to simultaneously satisfy various performances such as brake effectiveness, wear and NV. For this reason, the friction phenomena that occur during braking are complicated. This also makes it difficult to clarify the relationship between the ingredients and brake performances. In the meantime, regulations on the use of raw materials (such as Cu) are being strengthened, because those materials exert bad influences on the environment and health. Therefore, the search for alternative materials is necessary. Given this information, it is important to clarify the friction phenomena, but that is not easy because the friction phenomena are complicated as mentioned above. We looked to an acoustic emission (AE) as online evaluation method of friction phenomena. AE is a non-destructive testing method that measures elastic stress waves caused by the deformation and fracture of materials. Information like microscopic friction and wear phenomena that cannot be detected by changes in frictional force and vibration acceleration, can be detected by the AE method.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Meechai Sriwiboon, Nipon Tiempan, Kritsana Kaewlob, Seong Kwan Rhee
In developing low copper NAOs, the influence of formulation modification and process changes on brake friction, wear and squeal has been investigated. Formulation modifications, mixing conditions and press molding conditions all are found to influence disc wear and squeal occurrences. A correlation between disc wear rate and squeal occurrence will be discussed. Experimental pads will be compared with high copper OE NAO pads.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Veronika Mayer, Brian Richards
MIOX® AS - A cost efficient and high quality raw material for brake pads Raw materials do not only influence the technical performance of brake pads but also affect the cost effectiveness. Our times of fierce competition demand more and more consideration also in matters of price competitiveness. High and very often fluctuating raw material cost challenge that demand and complicate the calculation. Therefore there is a strong need for raw materials with high technical performance at lower and steady costs. For these reasons MIOX® AS is evaluated. These study analyses the substitution of the well-established materials Zirconium Silicate or Potassium Titanate by micaceous iron oxide MIOX® AS in disc brake pads. MIOX® AS is a mild abrasive. Its particles have a lamellar structure and the platelets provide a high aspect ratio. The study compares the addition of 3 wt-% and 6 wt-% of Zirconium Silicate, of Potassium Titanate and of MIOX® AS in a typical low-metallic formulation for disc brake pads.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
George Nicholas Bullen
Constant swirls of innovative ideas are starting to push composites and hybrid metal-composite components for use in an ever expanding circle of products. Recent discoveries of Graphene/Au composites have invigorated innovations for its application to aerospace and space products. Attributes such as a low CTE, stiffness, and light weight attract other manufacturers of smaller products to use composites for enhanced performance and durability. The uses and economics of composites is an enormously broad subject. Examples of composite materials will be described in this presentation and paper to provide samples of applications selected for their far reaching potential to enhance product performance. Examples will also be presented to explain the application of carbon based composites where the product performance or application would not be possible without special materials. This presentation and paper will also describe emerging materials such as graphene and some of its applications to enhance the performance of current technologies It is easy become enamored with the composite big parts built for trains, planes, automobiles, ships, and wind turbine blades.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
James Cunov, Charles J. Habermann
The ever increasing use of composites for aircraft components presents opportunities for new ways to process these parts. There are myriad benefits for use of composites in achieving aircraft performance goals. However, composites come with unique challenges as well. Some of these challenges impact the ability to produce accurate parts. Traditionally, such parts have been trimmed only while clamped in dedicated rigid tools that secure the part in the nominal shape. This results in significant investment in tooling design, production, maintenance, storage, handling, etc. As an alternative, PaR has developed its Adaptive Manufacturing System that incorporates a Robotic Fixture and Precision Motion Machine with Integrated Process Head. The Robotic fixture allows the entire family of parts to be managed with one fixture that remains within the machine footprint. The fixture is programmed to command the 38 individual robots to assume appropriate poses and end effector configuration to accommodate each of the over 400 parts in the family that range in length from 0.5 to 20 meters.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Todd Rudberg, Justin Nielson, Mike Henscheid, Joshua Cemenska
In an effort to improve the floor-to-floor manufacturing rate of our Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) manufacturing cells, we analyzed data taken in an actual high production facility and categorized time consumed. Actual part program execution time is approximately 25-30% of total time for this cell. We found that huge improvements could be made by improving only a few basic items. This paper will describe the data taken and our recommendations for improving the throughput of AFP cells.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Julian Lonfier, Côme De Castelbajac
As aircraft programs currently ramp up, productivity of assembly processes needs to be improved while keeping quality, reliability and manufacturing cost requirements. Efficiency of the drilling process still remains an issue particularly in the case of CFRP/metal stacks: hot and long metallic chips are difficult to remove and often damage the surface of CFRP holes. Low frequency axial vibration drilling has been proposed to solve this issue. This innovative drilling process allows breaking up the metallic chips in such a way that jamming is avoided. This paper presents a case of CFRP/Ti6Al4V drilling on a CNC machine where productivity must be increased. A comparison is made between the current regular process and the MITIS drilling process. First the analysis and comparison method is presented. The current process is analyzed and its limits are highlighted. Then the vibration process is implemented and its performances are studied. Both processes are compared according to the following criteria: chip morphology, thrust force, power consumption, tool life, cycle time, holes quality and manufacturing costs.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Joshua Norman, Cesar Moreno, Zhiyu Wang, James Mann, Christopher Saldana
Vibration/modulation-assisted machining processes offer potential for enabling more efficient processing of aerospace alloys. While benefits of these processes have been well documented, sources for the improvements are not well understood. This study explores the nature of energy dissipation during conventional and modulation-assisted machining by characterizing effects of controllable process parameters on chip formation in aerospace alloys. Simultaneous force and tool position measurements are used to show that the processing response in modulation-assisted machining can be described by empirically derived process models. These models accurately predict plastic dissipation over a range of modulation conditions and configurations, including in cases where energy expenditure decreases with the application of modulation. These observations suggest that the underlying plastic response in modulation-assisted machining at low frequency is analogous to that of conventional machining with a time-varying component.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Samuel Baha II
Hybrid (bolted/bonded) joining is becoming one of the innovative joining processes for light weight structures in the transport industry, especially in the aerospace industry where weight reduction and high joining requirements are permanent challenges. Combining the adhesive bonding with the mechanical joining -riveting for instance- can lead to an enhancement of the properties of the joint compared to the wide established riveting, as a result of a synergistic load bearing interaction between the fastener and the adhesive bondline. The influence of the rivet installation process on a hybrid joint regarding the joint stress state, the change of the bondline thickness as well as its effects on the joint performance and load transfer are some of the factors that drive the users to a better understanding of the hybrid joining process. This paper deals therefore on one hand with the numerical simulation of the rivet installation process in an adhesively bonded joint to understand the phenomena occurring during the installation process and on the other hand with the investigation of the load transfer depending on the joint parameters.
Technical Paper
2014-09-01
Kai Chen
The synthetic paraffinic kerosine (SPK) produced via HEFAs is of great interest for civil aviation industry as it exhibits an excellent thermal oxidative stability with significantly lower particulate matter emission. However, due to its aromatic free characteristics, the widespread use of SPK is limited by its compatibility with non-metal materials such as fuel tank elastomers. In this research the compatibility of SPK and its blends with widely used aircraft fuel tank elastomers were systematically studied. Experimental results demonstrated the volume swellability of all selected materials showed a linear relationship with volume percentage of No.3 jet fuel in SPK blend. The increase of volume percentage of No.3 jet fuel in the SPK blend increased volume swellability for all materials except fluorosilicone gasket. The alkyl benzenes and naphthalenes in the blend acted as the hydrogen donors, which facilitated the formation of polymer matrix and led to the increase of the distance between polymer chains.
Technical Paper
2014-07-01
Mario Metzger, Marc Leidenfrost, Ewald Werner, Hermann Riedel, Thomas Seifert
This paper reports on the evolution of cracks in the cylinder heads of a large V8 Diesel engine during cyclic engine tests. The observations are compared with the predictions of a lifetime model for combined thermo-mechanical (TMF) and high cycle fatigue (HCF) loading, which is based on a fracture mechanics analysis of microcrack growth in viscoplastic solids and assumes that the crack advance per cycle is proportional to the cyclic crack tip opening displacement. Since the material of the cylinder heads, the cast iron EN-GJV450, exhibits the typical features of cast iron, namely pressure dependence of the yield stress, dilatancy and tension-compression asymmetry, the Gurson model is applied and combined with the viscoplastic Chaboche model. This constitutive model together with the lifetime model is implemented into a finite element code as a user defined material routine. Published model parameters for the considered cast iron are used to carry out the simulation of the engine test.
Technical Paper
2014-06-30
Jean-Francois Rondeau, Ludovic Dejaeger, Antoine Guellec, Arnaud Caillet, Lars Bischoff
Abstract Strategies for weight reduction have driven the noise treatment advanced developments with a great success considering the already mastered weight decreases observed in the last years in the automotive industry. This is typically the case for all soft trims parts. In the early 2010's a typical european B-segment car soft trims weights indeed 30 to 40% less than in the early 2000's years. The main driver behind such a gap has been to combine insulation and absorption properties on a single part while increasing the number of layers. This product-process evolution was conducted using a significant improvement in the simulation capacities. In that sense, several studies presenting very good correlation results between Transmission Loss measurements and finite elements simulations on dashboard or floor insulators were presented. One may consider that those kinds of parts have already achieved a considerable improvement in performance. But the challenge of weight reduction continues due to up-coming CO2 emissions regulations.
Technical Paper
2014-06-30
Giorgio Veronesi, Christopher Albert, Eugène Nijman, Jan Rejlek, Arnaud Bocquillet
Abstract In many application fields, such as automotive and aerospace, the full FE Biot model has been widely applied to vibro-acoustics problems involving poro-elastic materials in order to predict their structural and acoustic performance. The main drawback of this approach is however the large computational burden and the uncertainty of the input data (Biot parameters) that may lead to less accurate prediction. In order to overcome these disadvantages industry is asking for more efficient techniques. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of structures coupled with poroelastic trims and fluid cavities can be predicted by means of the Patch Transfer Function (PTF) approach. The PTF is a sub-structuring procedure that allows for coupling different sub-systems via impedance relations determined at their common interfaces. The coupling surfaces are discretised into elementary areas called patches. Since the patch impedances can be determined in either computational or experimental manner, the PTF approach offers full modularity.
Technical Paper
2014-06-30
Janko Slavic, Martin Cesnik, Miha Boltezar
Abstract Car components are exposed to the random/harmonic/impact excitation which can result in component failure due to vibration fatigue. The stress and strain loads do depend on local stress concentration effects and also on the global structural dynamics properties. Standardized fatigue testing is long-lasting, while the dynamic fatigue testing can be much faster; however, the dynamical changes due to fatigue are usually not taken into account and therefore the identified fatigue and structural parameters can be biased. In detail: damage accumulation results in structural changes (stiffness, damping) which are hard to measure in real time; further, structural changes change the dynamics of the loaded system and without taking this changes into account the fatigue load in the stress concentration zone can change significantly (even if the excitation remains the same). This research presents a new approach for accelerated vibration testing of real structures. The new approach bases on phase locked harmonic excitation and can be used for identification of natural frequencies and damping while the damage due to vibration is being accumulated.
Technical Paper
2014-06-30
Rebecca Cowles, Andrew Shives, Daniel Rauchholz
Abstract To satisfy the increased expectations of customers, engineers are challenged to increase fuel economy while also improving noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance. In order to improve fuel economy, engine compartment designs have become more compact with reduced air flow. Elevated temperatures caused by these designs can degrade the durability and acoustic performance of the fibrous acoustic insulator material. A typical method for protecting insulators from elevated temperatures is to apply an aluminum foil patch to the surface. However, foil patches can restrict the insulator's ability to absorb sound and can be difficult to apply to complex part shapes. Foil patches can be perforated to allow the insulator to absorb sound, but there is a cost penalty as well as potential for long term performance degradation due to blocked perforations. Since NVH targets are also increasing, it's important to maximize the benefit of each part. Given these performance challenges, a heat reflective coating (HRC) has been developed as a cost effective alternative to perforated foils.
Technical Paper
2014-06-02
Jennifer Suggs, Benjamin Burns, Richard Martinez, Don Smith, Amelie Isin
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Enforcement Investigations Center (NEIC) has developed a test method for the analysis of washcoat material in small engine catalytic converters. Each small engine catalytic converter contains a metallic monolith. Each metallic monolith is removed from its outer casing, manually disassembled, and then separated into washcoat and substrate. The washcoat material is analyzed for platinum group metals (PGMs) using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. Results from the XRF analysis are used to calculate PGM ratios in the washcoat. During monolith disassembly, care is taken to minimize loss of washcoat or substrate, but some material is inevitably lost. The recovered washcoat mass does not necessarily equal the quantity of washcoat that was present in the intact catalytic converter. A maximum washcoat mass can be estimated by combining the masses of the recovered washcoat and the material loss during monolith disassembly.
Technical Paper
2014-05-07
Torbjörn Narström
Abstract The use of modern quenched and tempered steels in dumper bodies to reduce weight to increase the payload and reduce the fuel consumption is briefly discussed. Modern quenched and tempered steels in combination with adopted design concept will further increase weight savings of the dumper body. Use of these materials may lead to 4 times longer wear life than ordinary steels. One of the main load cases for a dumper body is impact of an object, i.e. boulders and rocks, into the body. A well-proven test setup is used to develop a model to predict failure and depth of the dent after the impact. A material model with damage mechanic was utilized to predict fracture. The developed model was used to study the effect of the geometry of the impacting object, thickness of the plate and unconstrained plate field. The model was also implemented in larger model and compared with a full scale test of dumper body. It was found that the most sensitive parameter is the geometry of the falling object.
Technical Paper
2014-05-07
Timo Björk, Ilkka Valkonen, Jukka Kömi, Hannu Indren
Abstract The development of weldable high-strength and wear-resistant steels have made modern structures such as booms and mobile equipment possible. These sorts of novel and effective designs could not be constructed with traditional mild steel. Unfortunately, the use of these novel steels requires proper design, and there is no practical design code for these novel steels. This paper addresses stability issues, which are important considerations for designs with high-strength steels, and the properties of the heat-affected zone, which may require special attention. Fatigue design is also discussed in this paper, and the importance of the weld quality is highlighted, along with discussions on which details in the weld are the most important. By comparing the test results with the classical load limit solution, it is determined that full plastic capacity is reached and that the samples display good strain properties. Additionally, the reliability of the classical formulas is shown by comparing them to a recently proposed, novel formula.
Technical Paper
2014-05-07
Fabio Augusto Schuh, Leandro Luís Corso, Leonardo Hoss
Abstract Applying knowledge available at technical literature for cycle counting, damage caused by each load cycle through S-N curve, and fatigue damage accumulation by Palmgren-Miner rule, durability prediction is performed for a leafspring of a commercial vehicle with 6×4 suspension system. Max principal tension is measured by means of strain gages in the most representative points for fatigue life of the leafspring, determined with FEA, while vehicle runs over off-road track in a proving ground. Load and tension are also measured in a laboratory bench test for this component. Correlation between off-road track and bench test is then performed. Finally, representative samples of the component are tested with dynamic loading until fatigue fracture in bench test, and using data from these tests, statistical analysis is performed with application of Weibull distribution, allowing life prediction in statistical terms.
Technical Paper
2014-05-05
Lindsay J. Miller, Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu, Edwin Tam
Polyurethane (PU) foam is used for many automotive applications with the benefits of being lightweight, durable, and resistant to heat and noise. Applications of PU foams are increasing to include non-traditional purposes targeting consumer comfort. An example of this is the use of PU foam between the engine and engine cover of a vehicle for the purpose of noise abatement. This addition will provide a quieter ride for the consumer, however will have associated environmental impacts. The additional weight will cause an increase in fuel consumption and related emissions. More significant impacts may be realized at the end-of-life stage. Recycling PU foams presents several challenges; a lack of market for the recyclate, contamination of the foams, and lack of accessibility for removal of the material. PU foam pieces are likely to end up being landfilled after the vehicle is shredded, negating the benefit of choosing this material for its recyclability over another non-recyclable material.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Y. S. Thipse
Abstract Hyperelastic material simulations are commonly performed in commercial FE codes due to availability of sophisticated algorithms facilitating virtual characterization of such materials in FEA easily. However, the solution time required is longer in FEA. Especially when excitation frequencies do not interfere with structural modes, flexible multibody simulation offers a lucrative and computationally inexpensive alternative. However, it is difficult to directly characterize hyperelastic materials in commercial MBS simulation codes, so the reduced solution time comes at the cost of decreased simulation accuracy, especially if the designer is provided with crude stress - strain test data. Hence, the need is to overcome the drawbacks in FEA and multibody codes, as well as to leverage best of both these codes simultaneously. A methodology is presented where non-linear stiffness properties of the hyperelastic materials are expressed as an analytical function in terms of constants of hyperelastic constitutive material models.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Lars Elek, Christian Fischer, Tobias Melz, Rainer Wagener, Vera Wirths, Wolfgang Bleck
Abstract Lightweight design in the automotive industry is not always combined with the usage of alternative materials like composites. Even high strength steels have high potential for reducing the weight for lightweight design. For the forging industry a new steel is developed, which enables the TRIP-effect (Transformation Induced Plasticity) for forging parts. This material effect is already well known and used for steel sheet structures. The TRIP-effect is based on the structure of the TRIP-material containing retained austenite, which has the possibility to form residual stresses due to the austenite-martensite transformation under cyclic loading. Beside static properties, the dynamic and cyclic material behaviour has a high importance for parts in the automotive industry. So, for lightweight design, a focus has to be on fatigue behaviour under service loads including overloads for an optimal weight reduction. The traditional forging steels are the precipitation hardening ferritic-pearlitic steels (PHFP steel) and the martensitic quenched and tempered (Q&T) steels.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Saurabh Shaha, Kedar Hendre
Abstract Progress in material research is the driving force behind innovative ideas and characterising the newly invented material accurately is need of the hour. Increased use of polymers in automobile industry has led to the need for accurately capturing polymer material properties. In case of polymers, we generally observe negative slope in true stress strain curves due to inherent material behaviour. It is mainly because of polymer chains which realign/untangle in the direction of load. This is a challenge when we characterise polymers material properties to be used in LS_DYNA software, which is widely used in automotive applications to solve dynamic crash events. This software does not allow negative slope in stress strain curves in the plastic region and that causes model instabilities. This paper explains the methodology to avoid negative slope and still characterise the polymers without significantly loosing on the accuracy and correlation to physical tests. *MAT24 (PIECEWISE LINEAR ELASTICITY) is the most common and simple material model used to represent the polymer in LS DYNA.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Shital M. Kalikate, Satyajit R. Patil, Suresh M. Sawant
Abstract Magneto-rheological (MR) fluid is a type of smart material which has ability to change its flow resistance on the application of magnetic field. This property of changing viscosity of the fluid due to application of magnetic field is utilized in the MR brake. MR brake typically consists of multiple rotating disks immersed in MR fluid and an enclosed electromagnet. The controllable yield stress produces shear friction on the rotating disks, generating the braking torque. Of late MR brakes have been explored for automotive applications. Literature review reveals that the torque output of MR brake is not sufficient for braking of mid-sized car. Hence, it is worthwhile to investigate its application for a two-wheeler where the braking torque requirement is low. This paper presents design and simulation of MR brake performance for its torque output. Design of MR brake involves deciding the configuration of MR brake in terms of number and sizing of disks, selection of MR fluid and design of magnetic circuit.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 14301