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Viewing 1 to 30 of 14557
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1133
Liangxu Ma, Liangyao Yu, Jian Song, WenWei Xuan, Xuhui Liu
In recent years, Magneto-rheological (MR) fluid has received considerable attention for applications in a variety of torque transmission devices, such as brakes, clutches and soft starters for mechanical equipment. Compared with the conventional clutch of vehicle, the novel MR has the advantages of fast response, accuracy control with low energy consumption and simple structure without mechanical wear. In this paper, we carefully compares the traditional clutch with MR clutch to get the advantages in detailed. Magneto-rheological fluids (MRF) are suspensions of micron sized whose yield stress varies rapidly as the change of magnetic field applied. The use of MR in vehicles has been gaining popular recently due to its strong rheological effect, fast response, good stability and low energy consumption.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1740
Kelsie S. Richmond, Stephen Henry, Russell Richmond, David Belton
Gasket materials are utilized for various different types of high temperature testing to prevent leaking at bolted joints. In particular, the automotive test services field uses flanged-gasket bolted exhaust joints to provide a convenient method for installation & removal of exhaust components like catalytic converters for aging, performance testing, etc. Recent improvements in the catalyst aging methods require flanged-gasket joints that can withstand exhaust temperatures as high as 1200°C. Gasket materials previously used in these applications like the graphite based gasket materials have exhibited physical breakdowns, severe leakage, and general thermal failures under these extreme temperatures. In order to prevent these leaks, metal-reinforced gasket materials in a number of configurations were introduced to these extreme temperature environments to evaluate their robustness to these temperatures.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0526
Timo Faath, Lay Knoerr
In the new ThyssenKrupp InCar®plus project, numerous solutions were developed for body parts and systems that contribute to increased efficiency through the use of new materials and manufacturing technologies. They are superior to current production solutions in terms of weight, cost, performance and sustainability, while also meeting the demand for cost-effective weight reduction. One example is the front bumper: This part offers major weight reduction potential in the front end of the car. Both steel and aluminum versions are currently in serial production. In the ThyssenKrupp InCar®plus project, a highly efficient steel solution was developed that matches the weight level of current aluminum solutions at much lower cost. The hot-formed lightweight steel crash beam is around 20% lighter than conventional steel solutions. The latest safety requirements such as the new R-CAR barrier test and the IIHS Small Overlap Test were taken into account during development.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0459
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Hesham Ezzat, Anil Sachdev, James Quinn, Ronald Krupitzer, Xin Sun
This paper presents an overview of a four-year project on integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS) development. Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific focus of the individual tasks is on multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is illustrated using a 980 grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel with a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment as an example.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1102
Katsuhiko Ohishi, Toshihiro Uehara, Ichirou Kishigami
In recent years, fuel economy improvement of automobiles is required to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) which is a greenhouse gas and is well known as one of the factors of global warming. Therefore, continuously variable transmissions (CVT) have been used increasingly, because they are light, compact and contribute to better fuel consumption. Metal belt CVTs are the most popular system in use today. 18mass%Ni maraging steel is used for CVT belts because it has good weldability, good formability and high fatigue strength. Maraging steels strengthened by Ti have high fatigue strength, but TiN particles, which are the main non-metalic inclusions inside steels, might cause fatigue cracks in high cycle regions over 107 cycles. At present there is a special melting process to minimize TiN particle size, but we need further technological innovations to improve fatigue strength.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1304
G Karthik, K V Balaji, Rao Venkateshwara, Bagul Rahul
This paper describes about recycled polyethylene terephthalate(R-PET) material for canopy strip part in automotive application. This recycled PET is a compounded material which is made out of used PET bottles and it is compounded with glass fibre to meet the product functional requirements. Canopy strip is a structural exterior part which requires better mechanical and thermal properties. The major function of this part is to act like a structural frame to hold the canopy sheet which is present at the both sides of the vehicle. Generally, PET bottles are use and throw product. PET is inert and takes an extremely long time to degrade so the empty bottles would also take an enormous amount of space in landfills which will directly affect rain water percolation. This compounded material is one of the sustainable solution for the environment where the waste bottles get converted to useful automotive parts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1753
Mario Vila Millan, Stephen Samuel
Nanofluids and thermal management strategy for Automotive Application Mario Vila Millan, Stephen Samuel Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom Stringent emission norms introduced by the legislators over the decades have forced the automotive manufacturers to improve the fuel economy and emission levels of their engine continuously. This constant improvement leads to increased use of smart systems where components are controlled by the engine management systems to get a desired and optimized performance. Therefore, the emission levels of the modern engines are significantly lower than pre-1990 engines. However, the improvement in fuel economy is marginal when compared to that of the scale of improvement achieved for reducing emission levels. For example, approximately 30% of the total energy in the fuel is still being wasted through the cooling systems in the modern engines during normal operating conditions. This is even worse during the engine warm up.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0405
Carol Schutte
One of the goals for the Vehicles Technology Office in DOE is to reduce our dependency on oil and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Transportation is responsible usage of 2/3 of U.S. petroleum. With over 240M vehicles on the road, these vehicles are responsible for usage of 80% of transportation petroleum. Reducing our reliance on petroleum contributes to greater economic and energy security as well as providing responsible stewardship of the environment. DOE’s strategy for reducing the use of petroleum focuses on the displacement of petroleum with alternate fuels and electrification, and significantly improving the efficiency of vehicles. One aspect of increased efficiency is to cost effectively reduce the weight of the vehicle, while maintaining performance and safety requirements.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1122
Kengo Yabe, Toru Inagaki, Takashi Kondo
Seat vibration when the vehicle is idling and when it is in motion has been reduced by using a floating seat that controls the resonance frequencies. The resonance frequency is controlled by replacing the structures of the seat-mounting unit with floating structures using rubber bushings. Partly replacing the mounting unit with floating structures makes it possible to control the resonance frequencies of the entire seat. The issue of balancing vibration reduction with strength and durability and crash safety performance due to fitting rubber bushings to the seat-mounting unit was addressed using stopper structures optimized for each type of input. To adopt a floating seat into an actual vehicle, the floating structure and conventional foot bracket are combined. This combined foot bracket not only makes it easy to assemble floating structure into the seat, but also makes it possible to keep the seat weight almost the same as a conventional seat.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0725
Mohamed Eghfaier, Nassif E. Rayess
Cellular materials in general and metal foams in particular are becoming more accessible to the automotive industry as technologies get further developed and the supply chain expands. Among the recognized properties of metal foams are high plastic deformation energy and light weight, which is a combination that could be leveraged advantageously in impact and crash applications. In this study, cylindrical shells with aluminum foam cores were crushed in the longitudinal direction, an embodiment that approximates those found in vehicle crumple zones and roof pillars. The cores were made of Duocel®, which is an aluminum foam of the open cell variety. The foam is made of 6101 T6 aluminum and has a 10 % relative density (90% of the volume is air) and a linear pore density of 20 pores per inch. The materials investigated for the shell were aluminum and carbon fiber composite. The columns were tested with and without a core and with and without adhesive bonding between the core and shell.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0738
Joseph R. Kish, Zach Cano, Alexandra Kobylecky, Joseph McDermid, Timothy Skszek, John Kukalis
The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative corrosion assessment of alloys and coating schemes of interest for the fabrication of multi-material lightweight vehicle architectures. Alloys considered for this application included galvanized steel, aluminum alloy 6111 and magnesium alloy ZEK100. The coating scheme considered for corrosion protection included a typical paint scheme (clear coat over top base coat enamel) applied to the alloy surface pre-treated using a commercially available conversion coating and electrocoated prior to painting. The magnesium ZEK100 alloy was also tested with an alternative plasma electrodeposition pre-treatment process applied to the surface as part of the coating scheme. The corrosion assessment of the scribed coated alloys was conducted after 1000 h exposure in the ASTM B117 salt fog environment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0693
Tadashi Naito, Yuta Urushiyama, Michael Bruyneel
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite material has more strength and stiffness than steel. FEM analysis of coupon test specimens were performed which are accompanied by intra-ply fracture, applying damage model. This model considers the damage evaluation for different fracture modes, stiffness degradation due to the damage, and coupling between different damage modes. The intra-ply damage is divided into three modes; fiber direction damage which represents fiber fracture, and damages in transverse and shear direction with respect to fiber, which arise from resin fractures. Each damage mode is represented by function of thermodynamic force which has the same dimension as strain energy. Damages in transverse and shear directions are coupled by coupling factor and thermodynamic forces. Permanent deformation of resin and non-linearity of the fiber modulus are also considered.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0723
Sebastian Bender, Raymond Khoo, Christoph Große, Felix M. Wunner, Heong Wah Ng, Markus Lienkamp
Upcoming stringent regulations on emissions and fuel efficiency are driving the automotive industry towards light-weight vehicle design. A higher share of carbon fiber composite materials in vehicle structures is expected. Current literature addresses development processes of composite components under a limited scope but the considerations of design parameters used in these studies are inadequate for the realistic development of a full vehicle structure, especially in a resource-constrained development project. In addition, existing vehicle structure design philosophies used for metallic structures cannot be directly ported over for composites design due to the differences in material properties, failure modes and design for manufacturing limitations.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0245
Markus Gaertner
The benefits of aluminum as a conductor material are the reduction of mass, to minimize CO2 consumption in combination with low material cost. The intermediate aluminum cable cross section 2.5mm² - 6.0mm² cover a good potential for car implementation to hit this goal. The presentation describes the technical solutions for an aluminum wiring harness equipped with aluminum cable in the cross section of 2.5mm² - 6.0mm². Next to the connection technologies ultra-sonic welding and crimp technology, the presentation informs about the new SMC - technology for corrosion protection. SMC is the abbreviation for selective metal coating. This technology based on a material optimization for the crimp design of the terminal. It offers for the designer a modular approach of corrosion protection specific to its used compartment within the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0718
G Karthik, K V Balaji, Bathiry Sivaraman, Deshpande Samar
This paper describes about Vinyl ester based SMC (Sheet molding composite) material for Oil Sump part in automotive application. This Sheet moulding composite is a ready to mould glass-fibre reinforced vinyl ester material primarily used in compression moulding process. This vinyl ester resin is compounded with glass fibre to meet the product functional requirements. This Oil sump part is the structural under bonnet component which main purpose is to form the bottommost part of the crankcase and to contain the engine oil before and after it has been circulated through the engine. Generally, metal are most preferable material for this application. Here, Fibre filled Vinyl ester based thermoset resin (SMC) material has been explored which has excellent characteristics in terms of Tensile strength, Modulus, Impact strength, Dimensional stability, Chemical Resistance & High/Low temperature resistance which is suitable for Oil sump application.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0705
Koichi Taniguchi, Hiroshi Matsuda, Rinsei Ikeda, Kenji Oi
High joint strength of resistance spot welds is necessary for high rigidity and reliability of car body using ultra high strength steel (UHSS) sheets with tensile strength over 980MPa. We developed “pulsed current pattern” consisting the combination of short cool time and short-time high-current post-heating. This new process can achieve high cross tension strength (CTS) with sufficient tensile shear strength (TSS) in shorter welding time than conventional temper pattern. This paper presents the heating pattern and the effect on the joint strength by pulsed current pattern. Finite element analysis (FEA) for post-heating patterns was conducted using SORPAS. Temperature dependent material properties of 1180MPa grade steel were taken into account. FEA shows that the short-time high-current post-heating leads to rapid heating in nugget and heat affected zone (HAZ) compared to conventional temper pattern consisting long-time low-current post-heating.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1483
Anindya Deb, N Shivakumar, Clifford Chou
Rigid polyurethane (PU) foam finds wide applications as a lightweight material in impact safety design such as improving occupant safety in vehicle crashes. The two principal reacting compounds for formulating such a foam are variants of polyol and isocyanate. In the present study, an alternative mechanical engineering-based approach for determining, with confidence, the desirable ratio of reacting compounds for formulation of a rigid/crushable PU foam for mechanical applications is demonstrated. According to the present approach, PU foam samples are prepared by varying the mixing ratio over a wide range. The desirable mixing ratio is shown to be the one that optimizes key mechanical properties under compression such as total absorbed energy, specific absorbed energy and energy absorption efficiency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0429
Na Xu, Chaochen Ma, Jianbing Gao, Zhiqiang Zhang, Xunzhi Qu
The low cycle fatigue experiment is extensively used to test the turbocharger reliability and durability. In the traditional low cycle fatigue test, a large air compressor is needed to drive the turbocharger under different operating conditions, which consume large amounts of electric power. This paper presents a new experiment device which has double chambers and double turbochargers. It can use the self-circulation manner to realize high and low speed switching as well as satisfy the temperature upper limit of turbine entry without the large air compressor. First, a detailed model is established in GT-Power and self-circulation test data can be used to validate the model. By utilizing the model, the relation between the valve opening and the flow distribution was obtained. Then, the dynamic simulation model is established in MATLAB/Simulink.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0410
Kevin Smith, Ying Zhang
MMLV Corrosion Mitigation Kevin D Smith1, Ying Zhang1 1 Magna International ABSTRACT Magna International, the U.S Department of Energy and Ford Motor Company initiated the Multi Materials Light Vehicle (MMLV) program in 2012, in an effort to reduce vehicle mass. A full-vehicle mass reduction of 23.5% was successfully achieved, and with it comes a host of new challenges in the form of overall vehicle corrosion protection and prevention in the use of multi lightweight materials. This paper will present the test results relative to two (2) corrosion mitigation strategies associated with a common multimaterial body-in-white (BIW) structure. The “conventional” corrosion mitigation strategy included a pretreated and E-coated fully assembled BIW structure. The “alternative” corrosion mitigation strategy included integration/assembly of seven (7) corrosion protected BIW module subassemblies, prior to integration of the modules in a BIW Framing Station.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1713
Manfred Klaus Kirschning, Frank Reußwig
In recent years, the automotive industry has taken many efforts to satisfy the market requirements of reducing fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. In consequence engines had to be compacted and many additional modules had to be integrated into the confines of tightly packed engine compartments. The narrow confines also limited the options for piping options, for instance with preformed rubber tubes or oil flow and return pipes. Many of these components are designed for a maximum permanent temperature of 140°C to 180°C only. Other components, for example oil pipes, cannot be applied in settings with temperatures higher than 140°C because of the cracking of the hydrocarbon molecules.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1239
Neal J. Corey, Mark Madin, Rick L. Williams
While weight reduction in automotive design and manufacturing have been on-going for several years, in the area of powertrain technology, light-weighting has been a difficult challenge to overcome due to functional requirements, as well as material and manufacturing constraints. Ford Motor Company, as part of the Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) project with Vehma International and the US Department of Energy, worked with its material supplier, BASF, to design and develop a carbon fiber Front Cover and Oil Pan, based off the current Fox I3 Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine. The effort produced a reduced weight Front Cover and Oil Pan, that were both structurally strong enough to support the engine attachment to the frame rail and as well as meeting all the powertrain bending stress targets that are seen in the current engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1237
Xiaoming Chen, Jeff L. Conklin, Mike Carpenter, Jeff Wallace, Cynthia Flanigan, David Wagner, Vijitha Kiridena, Stephane Betrancourt, Jason Logsdon
As part of the Ford and Vehma collaborative efforts on the DOE sponsored project on Multi Materials Lightweight Vehicle, several automotive chassis components were identified for development and evaluation on a lightweight passenger vehicle. The lightweight prototype chassis parts included composite and hollow steel coil springs, carbon fiber wheels, tires with a tall and narrow design, hollow steel stabilizer bars, and an aluminum front cradle. The lightweight chassis parts development included mixed and multi materials to investigate potential weight savings. The glass fiber reinforced composite front spring and hollow steel rear springs achieved 59% and 37% weight savings respectively. Both springs passed required component tests and survived proving ground durability test with no issues detected. For the lightweight tall narrow tires, evaluations were conducted on three distinct sets of tires with varying material constructions and final weight in the range of 17 pounds per tire.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0520
Takaaki Kitahara, Takuo Imai, Osamu Ishigo, Miodrag Perovic
In recent years, there has been a requirement for automotive bearings materials to be free of the toxic material lead, in accordance with ELV regulations and from the perspective of environmental problems. Currently, bismuth is often used as a replacement for lead in copper alloy based main bearings and connecting rod bearings for automotive engines. Previous bismuth-containing copper alloy bearing materials have shown satisfactory seizure resistance, but conformability has not been as good as for lead-containing bearing materials. As a result, they have been successfully applied to automotive diesel engines, but not for truck engines where improved conformability is required to better accommodate irregularities such as foreign particles. To improve the conformability, a softer bearing material is desirable. Furthermore, in recent years bearing materials containing hard particles have been widely used with the improvement of seizure resistance and wear resistance.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0527
Pierre-Olivier Santacreu, Guillaume Badinier, Jean-Benoit Moreau, Jean-Marc Herbelin
A new Ni-free martensitic stainless steel was developed for hot stamped automotive parts, especially in order to design lightweight chassis. After hot stamping simulation, the material exhibits 1.2 GPa ultimate tensile strength with 8% total elongation, in the as-quenched condition (without any tempering treatment). Moreover the material’s chemical composition was optimised to improve the ductility at low temperature and during high strain rate mechanical testing. As a result, no brittle fracture in impact testing at -40°C was observed, and a good behaviour in crash was recorded. To further assess the material’s performance, high cycle and low-cycle fatigue properties of the grade were characterized and the effects of machining and surface were studied. Results show that the fatigue limits at 2 million cycles for a stress ratio of -1 for rough bare surface and shot peened surface are quite high at 0.45 and 0.55 times the ultimate tensile strength (in the range of 540 MPa to 640 MPa).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0592
Mehdi Hajian
With growing incorporation of adhesively bonded joints in automotive industries, the need for fast and reliable nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for testing of adhesive joints has increased. Pulse-echo is considered to be the most suitable technique for NDT of adhesively bonded joints thanks to its relative simplicity, ease for industrial applications, and more importantly, not requiring access to both sides of the component. In a pulse-echo system, the pattern recognition of the ultrasonic backscattered echoes gives us important information about the interrogated object. These information can be size, geometric shape and orientation of the object. Furthermore, some information about the propagation path is obtained from these patterns. In some applications, such as automobile industry, this would not be straightforward to extract these information from the backscattered echoes due to the overlapping data and also presence of noise.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0594
Xin Xie, Changqing Du, Xiaona Li, Yi-Hsin Chen, Guobiao Yang, Yongjun Zhou, Dajun Zhou, Yaqian Zheng, Bernard Sia, Christina Phillips, Lianxiang Yang
This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens system are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that no edge thinning limit reduction observed in three levels’ pre-strain coupon tests and the pre-straining does not affect the edge thinning limit. Basic theory of DIC, experimental setup, test plan and experimental results are shown in detail in this article.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0598
Xiaona Li, Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou, Xin Xie, Xu Chen, Yaqian Zheng, Thomas Ankofski, Rodrigue Narainen, Cedric Xia, Thomas Stoughton, Lianxiang Yang
Accurate forming limit strain determination of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by the industry. Also, if the draw bead effects (enhanced forming limit behaviors) reported on steel sheet metals also happens on aluminum sheets metals is not fully understand. This paper introduce an experimental study on draw bead effect of aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0)of the sheet metal. Two kind of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material situations are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests are proceeded to create plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used to record and measures the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0427
Zhigang Wei, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin
In order to reduce time-to-market, fatigue design and validation of modern products are often based on accelerated testing results. This is especially true for the durability and reliability performance assessment of vehicle components and systems, based on the fact that the designed service lives with 10 years or greater for vehicle products are not very uncommon. However, fatigue test data often show intrinsic variations or noises due to the uncertainties involved in materials, testing and environment. Therefore, statistical data analysis, such as curve fitting and subsequent design curve construction, is a critical process for the accurate data interpretation and eventual product design and validation. Additionally, sample allocation and sample size can affect both the accuracy and the testing cost, therefore, testing should be properly planned and executed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0483
Zeynab Abbasi, Mary Cunningham, Didem Ozevin
Nonlinear ultrasonics is a powerful method for detecting microscopic damage and stress in materials. The method is based on introducing a perturbation signal at high frequency, and monitoring higher order harmonics for microscopic damage or quantifying the frequency shift for measuring stress. As the influence of microscopic damage and stress to the ultrasonic signal is weak, a highly precise measurement is needed. In this paper, errors in the measurement equipment, measurement methodology, surface roughness, couplant type, and painted surface are experimentally quantified. Random errors and unknown systematic errors inherent to the method and its tools are defined. The measurement uncertainty in nonlinear ultrasonics is quantified. Mitigation technique for recoupling error based on the combination of pulse/echo and through/transmission modes is proposed. Based on the limitation of the measurement accuracy, minimum detectable stress level is defined.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1347
Fiona Ruel, Pierre-Olivier Santacreu, Saghi Saedlou, Guillaume Badinier, Jean Herbelin
In order to meet new environmental regulations (i.e. mass of CO2 rejected in the atmosphere per km), car manufacturers are looking for new solutions to lighten chassis and structural parts in cars. High strength steels formed by hot stamping have proved to be good candidates for achieving better in-use performances together with a lighter structure. In particular, our martensitic stainless steel MaX fulfils the industrial targets for chassis parts in terms of mechanical and fatigue properties which could potentially lead to a 15% to 20% weight saving. However, those parts are often made of a complex assembly of different materials (high strength steels, aluminium and cast iron among others) which are subjected to aggressive environments in service. Therefore galvanic corrosion of those complex assemblies has to be evaluated.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 14557