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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0447
Manfred Baecker, Axel Gallrein, Francesco Calabrese, Remco Mansvelders
A sudden pressure loss can lead to an instability of the car. This instability can lead - without aid of systems such as e.g. Electronic Stability Control (ESC) - to an emergency situation, possibly resulting in an accident. But also with an ESC system such a situation is an unusual application case, because the vehicle system (car+tires) properties change very rapidly, resulting in a highly dynamic response of the system and moreover to a fuzzy and unclear description of the vehicle system. From this point of view, a proper validation and verification of an ESC system for such an application seems to have a big safety relevance. The authors have set up a simulation case to simulate a sudden tire inflation pressure loss and its consequences to the car stability. Using this simulation setup enables a CAE engineer to pre-develop ESC systems and/or to validate and test these systems for a realistic and relevant use case.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0446
Chen liang, Guolin Wang, Zhou Zheng
A three-dimensional finite element model of radial tire 205/55R16,established by ABAQUS software,is used to simulate tire force and moment properties. Drum tests are designed to validate the simulation model’s reliability. To investigate the impacts of PCR contour design theory on tire force and moment, a modified string balance contour theory is presented, based on string balance contour theory, which simplifies the belts pressure share ratio as trapezium. And a program for calculating tire’s contour is compiled. Different tire contours are designed according to different belt pressure share ratios. One of the contours is selected according to the positive affect to cornering stiffness. Compare the selected newly designed tire with the original one, it is found that the newly designed tire’s contact area, longitudinal stiffness,lateral stiffness,camber stiffness and cornering stiffness increase while its radial stiffness decreases.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0397
Wenxin Qin, Sandip Datta, Weidong Zhang
In automotive chassis, body and powertrain finite element numerical analysis, more and more analysts and engineers like to adopt 3D complex FEA models along with improved computer hardware and software. The advantages of 3D FEA model are (1) looked like real model in vision; (2) simulation response is more vivid; (3) easily to discover the mistakes by watching simulation response. The drawbacks of 3D FEA model are (1) more pre/post process works and computation time; (2) numerical divergence is a challenging issue in nonlinear and contact situations and debug becomes difficulty; (3) sometimes accumulated numerical errors will cover the actual response. Therefore, it is necessary to explore what kinds of 3D FEA situations can be successfully converted by the simple 2D plan FEA models.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0395
Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou, Gunti R. Srinivas, Sanketh Gowda, Goutham kurnool
An attractive strategy for joining non-ferrous or non-metallic substrates is through adhesive bonding. This technique of joining also offers the functionality for joining dissimilar materials. However, doubts are often expressed on the ability of such joints to perform on par with other mechanical fastening methodologies such as welding, riveting, etc. In the current study, adhesively-bonded single lap shear (SLS) and double lap shear (DLS) joints are studied initially under quasi-static (at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min) tensile and flexural loading using steel and aluminum substrates, and an epoxy-based adhesive of a renowned make. The study includes usage of similar substrates made of only steel or aluminum, or a combination of steel and aluminum substrates. Load-displacements curves for bonded joints are presented for varying overlap lengths.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0436
Bolin Zhao, Chen Lv, Junzhi Zhang, Theo Hofman, Maarten Steinbuch
Distinguished from the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, most of the pure electric vehicles are equipped with only a fixed-ratio reduction gear, because of the wide speed range of the electric motor. For most of the vehicle’s speed and acceleration requirements, they can be satisfied through application of only a fixed-ratio reduction gear. However, within some speed range, the operation efficiency of the electric motor is relatively low, which affects the overall energy efficiency of the electric vehicle. Thus, application of a two-speed gearbox is able to remain the electric motor working within high-efficiency range during the whole operation conditions, which has a good potential to further improve the electric vehicle’s energy economy. Based on the above analysis, in this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0427
Chang Qi, XiaoLong Feng, Yu du, Shu Yang, Da-Zhi wang
Large rear-dump mining trucks often suffer from rock impacts which cause adverse vibration during loading operation, resulting in structural damage and deteriorated fatigue life of the body. To decrease the body vibration under heavy rocks’ impact loading, an innovative active suspension system concept was put forward for the rear-dump mining trucks in this work. The new system was developed using simulation methods in three steps. Firstly, a simplified multi-body system dynamic model of a 360t load capacity rear-dump mining truck under rock impact was built in ADAMS as a base model. Secondly, by using the joint simulation method, the base model was translated into a system function module in MATLAB, and an active PID control system to adjust the suspension force was designed base on the modules in SIMULINK. Finally, parameter optimization was conducted to guarantee the proposed control system a better damping performance during the loading process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0530
Jon Goering, Harun Bayraktar
Due to the presence of through-thickness reinforcement, 3D woven composites have superior fracture toughness, fatigue life, and damage tolerance when compared to conventional laminated composites. These materials also exhibit a progressive damage behavior which is more benign than the brittle failure typical of laminated composites, and have high specific energy absorption (SEA). These properties make 3D composites attractive for applications that require light-weighting without sacrificing crashworthiness. This paper summarizes a study that was conducted to compare the energy absorption performance of 3D woven composites to that of laminated composites.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0518
Choonsoo Han
Thermoplastic polyester elastomer (TPEE) has the properties of both rubber and engineering plastic. The most important characteristics of this material are its high elasticity and rigidity. So, those properties are enable to high durability against fatigue and large deformation cycles. In this study, the rebound bumper of suspension system in vehicle, using thermoplastic polyester elastomer was conducted. The plastic elastomer rebound bumper allows cost reduction and light weight on by integrating several components, such as coil spring, spring guides, blocker, stop rubber etc. In order to satisfy several component requirements such as specific compression set and Load-Displacement curve etc, we evaluated the performance change according to the design and material of the component. This study shows that how to modify the design of the rebound bumper to meet the requirments, and to choose the optimum material through the verification comparing several materials.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0492
Bokyung Kim
The downsizing technology of engines is increasingly applied to the automotive since it is more important to decrease the emission of CO2 and the energy consumption. The engine parts are requested to enhance heat-resistance to apply the high performance engine. This study presents new coating materials composed of nano-meter grains with CrN, Cr and Cu functioning low-friction, anti-wear and heat resistance. The coatings were synthesized by hybrid PVD including metal arc source, magentron sputter source and ion-gun source. Although Cu has low hardness (~0.3GPa), the hardness of Cr-Cu-N is not declined because it was composed of below 20nm sized grains (Cu, CrN, Cr) Cr-Cu-N had lower friction than CrN owing to Cu’s low shear strength. Cr-Cu-N films optimized using RSM showed the excellent tribological behavior and low COF compared with DLC. The tribological properties of the Cr-Cu-N demostrated superior wear resistance and low friction at normal and severe temperature conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0435
Lirong Wang
Speed bumps are a common traffic calming device that uses vertical deflection to slow motor-vehicle traffic in order to improve traffic safety conditions. Such vertical raising of road pavement had been studied and commonly used as a passive method to reduce the speed of vehicle. Speed bumps generally slow vehicle speed to 5–10 mph (8.0–16.1 km/h), and some to 10–20 mph (16–32 km/h). On one side, speed bumps/humps effectively calm traffic speed to protect pedestrians. On the other side, it may cause vehicle damage and passenger discomfort. In Sweden, an evaluation of spinal stress in bus drivers against ISO 2631-5 required that a driver shall encounter less than 150 bumps in a day at the maximum acceptable speed 10 km/h. When a vehicle touches a speed bump, the speed bump receives the energy transferred by the weight and velocity of the vehicle. Harvesting the vibration energy from speed bump becomes a valid solution in areas where grid electricity is economically available.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0512
Chae-Hwan Hong
A unique crystallization behavior of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA)/poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) stereocomplex(SC) was observed when a PLLA/PDLA blend was subjected to the specific melting conditions. We tried to blend PLLA and PDLA at overall compositions to form PLA stereocomplexes. Moreover, impact modifier and reinforcement materials such as talc and glass fiber were added to enhance the mechanical and thermal properties such as impact strength and HDT. As a result, we got one representative result, one composite recipe with HDT 115oC. For more economic technology, we tried to blend PLLA and Polypropylene at overall compositions and we got another representative result which could be applied to current PP/talc composites and ABS materials. The core technology of this might be the well dispersion of glass fibers into the matrix resin such as PP, PLLA and impact strength modifier. HDT value of this PP/PLA/GF composite increased over 150oC and impact strength also increased to 70 J/m.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0442
Xing Xu, Zou Nannan
Interconnected air suspension system can change vehicle’s operation characteristics by exchanging gas of air springs. In this paper, we analyze the structure and working principle of interconnected air suspension based on thermodynamics and vehicle dynamics. Then air suspension’s mathematical model including interconnected characteristics is established to study gas exchange principle of air suspension system. Interconnected pipeline parameters and excitation phase differences’ influence on characteristics of air suspension system in whole vehicle are calculated and analyzed. Simulation results show that the stiffness of air suspension is reduced when air springs of suspension system interconnected, as well as it decreases gradually with the increase of interconnected pipeline diameter; the stiffness of air springs is minimum if the excitation phase difference of both sides of air springs is 180 degree.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0403
Devendra M. Oza, Abhijit Londhe
Stiffness evaluation for the components made from natural rubber have been attempted here using Finite Element simulation technique. Conventional method for extraction of the stiffness with metallic parts like steel using linear approach is no more valid in rubber (elastomers). Unique properties of elastomers like sustaining strains up to 500% due to large deformation under loading (displacement unveils non-linear behavior with applied load), exhibiting significant damping property because of viscoelasticity and nearly incompressible in nature (no change in volume appreciably with stress) creates a need to seek for special material model and capture non-linear behavior. Stress vs strain behavior of elastomers under all possible loading conditions calls for physical sample test in uni-axial tension, uni-axial compression, bi-axial tension, planar shear and volumetric test. Two suspension rubber mounts and one engine mount have been analyzed with the current simulation technique.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0421
Bingxu Wang, Gary Barber, Minsheng He, Xichen Sun, Michael Shaw, Ben Slattery, Phil Seaton
Abstract: This research studies the transformation kinetics of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with and without nickel as the main alloying element. ADI has improved mechanical properties compared to ductile iron due to its ausferrite microstructure. Not only can austempered ductile iron be produced with high strength, high toughness and high wear resistance, the ductility of ADI can also be increased due to high carbon content austenite. Many factors influence the transformation of phases in ADI. In the present work, the addition of nickel was investigated based on transformation kinetics and metallography observation. The transformation fractions were determined by Rockwell hardness variations of ADI specimens. The calculation of transformation kinetics and activation energy using the “Avrami Equation” and “Arrhenius Equation” is done to describe effects of nickel alloy for phase reactions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0528
Anthony Padden
Driven by the need to reduce emissions, today’s automotive industry is strongly focused on improving vehicle efficiency by reducing weight through metal-to-plastic conversion. Around the globe, new and upcoming legislation is placing ever-tighter limits on vehicle emissions and carbon footprints during the manufacturing process. Weight reduction is a focus area to accomplish these targets. One such vehicle technology that is currently undergoing drastic weight reduction is the steering module. The shift from a conventional hydraulic power steering (HPS) system to electric power steering (EPS) is becoming more popular because it leads to improved fuel economy and lower CO2 emissions. Further weight reduction at the component level a serious challenge as the incremental costs outweigh the incremental benefits, when one sticks to conventional material choices.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0533
Harveer Singh Pali, Naveen Kumar, Kausambi singh
In the present investigation AA6082/ SiC MMC composite is fabricated using electromagnetic stir casting technique. Silicon carbide (SiC) of 40 μm size is used as reinforcement and is varied by weight percentage as 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% in alloy AA6082. The microstructure of the fabricated composite is studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which shows even distribution of the reinforcement. The mechanical properties improve with SiCp till 7.5%, after that the properties decreases which may be due to presence of porosity during the composite manufacturing. A comparative study of mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness and toughness has been done between the composite and base aluminium alloy. After the comparative study it was found that the composite having AA6082/SiC-92.5%/7.5% is best suited. So, it is used for optimization of Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process parameters using Taguchi’s design of experiment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1085
Ming Chen, Yanjun Wang, Wenrui Wu, Quan Cui, Kai Wang, Lingfang Wang
Thermal-mechanical Fatigue Prediction of Aluminum Cylinder Head with Integrated Exhaust Manifold of a Turbo Charged Gasoline Engine Abstract The present paper describes a CAE analysis approach to evaluate the design of cylinder head of a turbo charged GDI engine with integrated exhaust manifold. It allows design engineers to identify structural weakness at the early stage or to find the root cause of cylinder head TMF failures. At SAIC Motor, in test validation phase, a newly developed engine must pass a strict durability test under thermal cycling conditions so that the durability characteristics can be evaluated. The accelerated test is so designed that it gives equivalent cumulative damage as what would occur in the useful life of the vehicle. The duty cycle includes heat-up and cool-down phases with different engine speeds at full loads and motored conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1351
Simhachalam Bade
Aluminum alloys are widely used in the transportation because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and outstanding capability in absorbing energy. In this paper, performance of bumper with crash tubes using aluminum alloy AA6061 and AA7003 materials is compared using numerical methods. Quasi-static test is simulated using the LS-DYNA implicit finite element program. Bumper and crash tubes are included in the finite element model. Symmetric Holes are provided in the crash tubes to initiate crushing. True stress-plastic strain curves from the tensile test are used in the static simulation. Displacement is applied to the bumper using Rigdwall geometric wall motion. The energy absorbed by bumper and crash tubes are compared. Dynamic simulation is done using LS-Dyna explicit program. True stress-true plastic strain curves at different strain rates from the literature is used in the dynamic simulation of AA7003 material to study the strain rate effects on impact behavior of tubes.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1372
Matthew W. Dickinson, Nathalie Renevier, John Calderbank
For the past 100 years the engine has been the main interest of many studies. A complex computer model has been developed to study the effects of compression rings under conditions where the ring is free to rotate around the piston groove and also fixed, with both coated and uncoated. By running a full computer simulation of a running-in procedure the effects of engine output torque have been of all conditions presented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0543
Takashi Hara, Masaki Kato, Kazuki Mizutani
Regarding smart handles that employ electrostatic-capacitance types of sensors, the radio-wave transmissibility/sensor properties and the design property could not be achieved simultaneously through all-surface-plated specifications. Therefore, these features have been facilitated with partial plating. However, there has been a market demand for all-surface-plated smart handles. Accordingly, through the use of Indium-vapor deposition we have developed an island-structure metal membrane having radio-wave transmissibility/sensor properties as well as the desired design properties. We have recently defined non-defective membrane, established the conditions for non-defective membrane and we achieved mass production. We will thus report the details.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0355
Takashi Iwama
Dent resistance and surface distortion were deteriorated by reduction of outer panel thickness. While aluminum or resin use for outer panel are increasing, it is not spread in the car of cost low price, steel is used. However, even in vehicles of lower price it has been required weight reduction of body, weight reduction has become necessary with steel using. Therefore, it becomes difficult to reduce automotive body weight. To investigate the weight reduction potential with steel using, effective factors on surface distortion and dent resistance properties were evaluated quantitatively with the aim of securing these properties. Materials used for experiment were tensile strength(TS) 340 MPa grade bake hardenable (BH) steel sheet, which is often used in the door outer and TS 440 MPa grade BH steel sheet for outer panel which developed by JFE Steel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0511
Na Qiu, Yunkai Gao, Jianguang fang, Shanshan Wang
As a potential material for lightweighting, PMMA has proven to perform well in optical behavior and weather resistance. However, the application in automotive glazing, especially rear window considering its large size has seldom been studied. This paper aims to investigate the defrost performance of PMMA rear window using both numerical and experimental methods. The finite element analysis results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated finite element model, we further optimized the defrost efficiency by changing the arrangement of heating line. The results demonstrated the frost layer on the version-related region of PMMA rear window can melt within 30 minutes, which meet the requirement of defrost efficiency.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0291
Chad W. Chichester, Aleksandra Nevskaya
When designing and employing lubricants, film thickness modeling techniques must be used as part of an overall design approach to insure mating components, in relative motion have proper lubricating films to separate surface asperities. Improper asperity separation will lead to increased friction and wear, and overall reduce system reliability, serviceability, and efficiency. Many of the tools to model tribofilms used today are rooted in empirical studies completed with hydrocarbon based fluids as the lubricating medium. Generally, these modeling techniques have also been applied to non-hydrocarbon based lubricants, and this may not be an accurate method to model such fluids. As demands for improved lubricant performance continue to rise, so too does the need for improved tribofilms modeling techniques. This paper will discuss a modeling techniques developed, in which, silicone based polymer molecular structures are designed with tribological film performance in mind.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0104
Khalil Maalouf, David Stull, Keith Nicholas
In copper wire, real time crimp monitoring has traditionally been based on force measurement during the crimp cycle. The force attributed to molding the copper wire into the terminal is a significant portion of the total force needed to form the crimp. Therefore, any wire deviations from the norm is translated into a force pattern aberration that can be detected using basic signal pattern analysis. As the industry is contemplating replacing copper wire with aluminum wire, in order to save on weight and material cost, the traditional force monitoring becomes ineffective in detecting wire faults in the crimp. The reason is that aluminum is a softer material than copper, and most of the force exerted during the crimp cycle is consumed by forming the copper terminal itself. The small force deviation due to aluminum wire fault becomes much more difficult to detect. Therefore, a new technique is needed to monitor crimped aluminum wires.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0508
Hyung Seok KIM
This study provides a tire puncture sealant including NR latex and acrylic emenrseion, which has a reduced viscosity at -40℃, and is also exellent storage stability at -40℃ to 70℃, initial sealaing performance. Also, this study provides device for sealaing inflatable objects. 'One- Piece Tire Repair Kit' can reduced weight and operation steps.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0432
Xincheng Liang
Vibration energy may cause thermal failure of shock absorber when vehicles are driving on the terrible roads. If the energy can be regenerated, the thermal failure is eliminated entirely and the driving range is enhanced a lot for electric vehicles. Hence, a system of recycling vibration is proposed, and some curves, including force-displacement and rotating speed of the motor, are also got in the paper. In order to validate the credibility of simulations, a test bench is built and concerned data have been collected. In addition, some factors, which are closely related to the performance of riding comfort, are analyzed. Simulation and experiment results indicate bubbles in the oil are vital to the reliability of recycling system, and the damping resistance should be in the more appropriate scope. So the structure of recycling vibration system must be optimized, and the more excellent feature of recycling system is expected.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0422
Robert A. Smith, Christopher Rudzinskas
“Molecular Analysis of Automotive Electrical Components Contaminated with Engine and Powertrain Performance Fluids” Robert A. Smith and Christopher R. Rudzinskas, Advanced Materials Group, Delphi Electrical/Electronic Architecture, Warren, Ohio Increased government regulations for increased fuel efficiency to combat rising fuel costs and environmental concerns has led to marked reduction in the size of cars. Automobile downsizing has reduced engine compartment volumes - decreasing separation of polymeric electrical components from fluid accesses and reservoirs and increasing the risks of spillage onto the components. The spatial separation has been reduced even further with trends toward high performance turbo-charged engines with enhanced automotive performance. Once contaminated, the polymeric component is then exposed to heating, due to engine performance, which could exacerbate fluid contamination into the interior of the part through imbibition into amorphous regions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0382
Chao Shi, Kenji Sato, Takeru Hamakawa, Yoshimichi Ishihara, Shinichi Takahashi
Recently, in order to improve the fuel efficiency, engine weight reduction turns to be a major trend. However the deformations of Crankshaft and Cylinder Block are increased due to the weight saving, and that lead to a problem of fretting fatigue which occurred on the contact surfaces of the Bearing cap and Cylinder Block. Even though some researchers have found the mechanism of the fretting fatigue on the Cylinder Block, still don’t have an effectual method to fix the problem in the development stage .In this report, various influence factors are investigated using quality engineering on a unit equipment , the results showed a good correlation between unit and real engine test . In addition analysis approaches about get basic material data, predictive methods for fretting fatigue at the early design stage are also be presented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0496
Leonardo Farfan-Cabrera, Ezequiel A. Gallardo
Debris are progressively generated through wear occurred by the interaction of various mechanical elements into engines, steering gear boxes, transmissions, differentials, etc. Besides, they can interfere with the normal operation of such components even generating more damage in other parts due to three-body abrasion. Hence, dynamic seals are devices susceptible to interact with such very fine debris concentrated in the working lubes. Recently, owing to many testing advantages, the micro-scale abrasion test has been extensively used to study three-body abrasion of hard materials, coatings, polymers, etc., however, it has not been applied for elastomeric materials assessment. The paper presents a study of three-body abrasion of an elastomeric dynamic seal (samples extracted from an automotive commercial Acrylonitrile-butadiene NBR rotary seal) under lubricated conditions by using a TE66 Micro-Scale Abrasion Tester.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0398
Yuqing Zheng, Xichan Zhu, Xueqing Dong
Customer demand and safety regulatory requirements continue to drive automakers to develop vehicles with better fuel efficiency and structural performance. To overcome some drawbacks of using AHSS (Advanced High Strength Steel) in hard machining and part welding for vehicle weight reduction, such as brittleness, spot weld HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) softening and high cost. The strength distribution and energy absorption behavior of thin-walled box structures with higher strength in ridgelines under bending and axial compressive load were firstly studied in this paper by describing different collapse modes in the ridgeline and flat plate. And the corresponding energy absorption evaluations are theoretically derived. Furthermore, the CAE simulation models for above structures are developed to demonstrate the theoretical conclusions.