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Viewing 1 to 30 of 14931
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2351
Kotaro Tanaka, Kazuki Hiroki, Tomoki Kikuchi, Mitsuru Konno, Mitsuharu Oguma
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. However, a kind of lacquer is formed on the EGR valve or EGR cooler because of the particulate matters and other components present in diesel exhaust, which are serious problems. In this study, the mechanism of the lacquer deposition has been investigated using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer, which allows for in situ measurements of the surface of the depositing lacquer. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was also used to perform detail observation of the lacquer. Deposition of temperature-dependent lacquers was evaluated by varying the temperature of a diamond prism between 353 K and 393 K in ATR-FTIR that was set to a custom-built sample line, which branched off from the exhaust pipe of the diesel engine.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2143
Yury Zhuk
The EU REACH regulations set September 2017 as a “sunset date” for the use of toxic Hexavalent Chromium salts, and as this date is approaching the aerospace manufacturers are looking for alternative coatings to replace Hard Chrome plating (HCP). HCP is widely used in the aircraft industry to protect steel components against wear, corrosion and galling. Hardide-A CVD Tungsten/Tungsten Carbide coating has met the technical performance requirements as a potential alternative to HCP on some specific Airbus aircraft components. This newly-developed CVD coating is crystallized from the gas phase atom-by-atom, forming a uniform layer on both internal and external surfaces and complex shaped parts, which are impossible to coat by thermal spray coatings, considered to be the best available alternative to HCP. Hardide coating consists of Tungsten Carbide nano-particles dispersed in metal Tungsten matrix, combining hardness with toughness and crack-resistance.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2142
Pavel Lykov PhD, Artem Leyvi, Rustam M. Baytimerov, Aleksei Doikin, Evgeny Safonov
Nowadays the treatment of solid surface by powerful streams of charged particles accelerated with power density of ≥106 W/сm2 is widely used for modifications of different materials properties. Fast electron beam power entry into the target material causes intense thermal and deformation processes. The changing of the structure, the phase composition, the microrelief of the treated surface consequently happens. It is often accompanied by the hardening and increase of the wearing properties. Low-energy high-current electron beam usage is proposed as a finishing treatment of product obtained by selective laser melting of heat-resistant nickel alloy EP648. The subject of the research is the surface properties of the product.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2125
Henry Hameister
This paper presents an approach to how existing production systems can benefit from Industry 4.0 driven concepts. This attempt is based on a communication gateway and a cloud-based system, that hosts all algorithms and models to calculate a prediction of the tool wear. Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding is a sub-section of friction welding, where a rotating tool that consists out of three parts is used to heat up material to a dough-like state. Since Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding produces a selective dot-shaped connection of overlapping materials, the production requirements are similar to riveting or resistance spot welding. In contrast to other bonding techniques, Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding can be integrated within the production process without major interferences or changes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2129
Antonio Rubio, Luis Calleja, Javier Orive, Ángel Mújica, Asunción Rivero
Aluminum skin milling is a very challenging process due to the high quality requirements needed in the aeronautic and aerospace industries. Nowadays, on these markets, there are just two technological approaches able to face the manufacturing of this sort of wide thin blanks: chemical and mechanical milling by means of highly complex machines. Both solutions lead to a high investment requirement that affect directly on the application profitability on these industrial sectors. This paper presents a flexible machining system that allows milling skin shaped parts within required tolerances by means of an innovative universal holding fixture combined with an adaptive toolpath development. This flexible holding fixture can be adapted to the required shape and can hold uniformly the whole sheet surface. Besides, the solution includes an implementation that can adapt the machining toolpath by means of the skin thickness online measurement.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2126
Ali Mohamed Abdelhafeez, Sein Leung Soo, David Aspinwall, Anthony Dowson PhD, Dick Arnold
Despite the increasing use of carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites, titanium and aluminium alloys still constitute a significant proportion of modern civil aircraft structures, which are primarily assembled via mechanical joining techniques. Drilling of fastening holes is therefore a critical operation, which has to meet stringent geometric tolerance and integrity criteria. The paper details the development of a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model for drilling aerospace grade aluminium (AA7010-T7451 and AA2024-T351) and titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloys. The FE simulation employed a Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) technique. The cutting tool was modelled according to a Lagrangian formulation in which the mesh follows the material displacement while the workpiece was represented by a non-translating and material deformation independent Eulerian mesh.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8027
Stefan Steidel, Thomas Halfmann, Manfred Baecker, Axel Gallrein
Rolling resistance and tread wear of tires do particularly influence the maintenance costs of commercial vehicles. Although the tire labeling is established in Europe, it is meanwhile well-known that, due to the respective test procedures, these labels do not hold in realistic application scenarios in the field. This circumstance arises from the development phase of tires, where the respective performance properties are mainly evaluated in tire/wheel standalone scenarios in which the wide range of usage variability of commercial vehicles cannot be considered adequately. Within this article we address a method to predict indicators for rolling resistance and tread wear of tires in realistic application scenarios considering application-based factors of influence like specific customers, operation circumstances, regional dependencies, fleet specific characteristics etc. Moreover, the prescribed methodology may also be transferred to the prediction of fuel consumption and emission.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2084
Curtis Hayes
Successfully riveting aerospace fatigue-rated structure (for instance, wing panels) requires achieving rivet interference between a minimum and a maximum value in a number of locations along the shank of the rivet. In unbalanced structure, where the skin is much thicker than the stringer, this can be particularly challenging, as achieving minimum interference at D2 (the exit of the skin) can often be a problem without exceeding the maximum interference at D4 (exit of the stringer). Softer base materials and harder, higher-strength rivets can compound the problem. This paper presents a solution that has been successfully implemented on a production commercial aircraft. The application of a special coating on the tail side die dramatically reduces D4 interference, which in some instances resulted in a reduction of more than 30%. This allowed an increase in forming force to increase D2 interference and made for a much more robust process.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2112
Hilmar Apmann
As a new material FML made by aluminum foils and Glasfibre-Prepreg is a real alternative to common materials for fuselages of aircrafts. Since experiences within A380 this material has some really good advantages and becomes status as alternative to Aluminum and composite structures. Main goal for an industrial application for a higher production rates of aircrafts (like for single aisle) is the automation of production processes inside the process chain for FML-parts like skins and panels for fuselages. To reach these goals for high production rates first steps of automation inside this process chain have been developed in the last two years. Main steps is the automated lay-up of metallic foils and Glasfibre-Prepreg and also for integration of the bond film. Over this there are some more steps within positioning of i.e. stringers and doublers by automatic integration and shorter process chain to reduce process cost significantly.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2114
Matthias Meyer
Carbon composites have been on an odyssey within the past 15 years. Starting on the highest expectations regarding the performance, reality was hitting a lot of programs hard. Carbon composites were introduced on a very high technical level and industry has shown of being capable to handle those processes in general. In particular, production never sleeps and processes undergo a continuous change. Within these changes costs remain the most critical driver. As products are improving during their lifetime, they usually increase the degree of complexity, too. According to the normal cost improvement, this has drastic consequences for production. When setting up the first generation of composite production, the part being produced has been in the centre of attention.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2116
Peter Mueller-Hummel
ABSTRACT: Drilling holes into metal is a normal procedure, because the drill (metal drill) and the mal-leable capability of the metal compensate the insufficient cutting capability of a worn out drill. Drilling Composite by using the same drill (metal drill) is different procedure, because composite fibers are not mal-leable like metal at all. This fact is the reason why drills for metal are getting very hot by drilling Composite fibers. Even the diameter of the drilled holes in the carbon fiber parts are getting smaller than the drill them-selves afterwards. The hole in the metal part of the stack remains constant. This article explains the physical reason and characterizes the special features of a drill to realize a safe drilling Composite or CFRP/Aluminum stacks in H8 quality. Simplified theoretic models will show how CFRP/Aluminum stacks should be machined “Safe”, inside the cpk tolerance, without scratches even when the drill is worn.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2117
Rustam M. Baytimerov, Pavel Lykov PhD, Sergei Sapozhnikov, Dmitry Zherebtsov, Konstantin Bromer
The development of Additive technologies (SLS/SLM, EBM, DMD) suggests the increase of range expansion of materials used. One of the most promising directions is products manufacturing from composite materials. The technology of composite micro-powders production on the basis of heat-resistant nickel alloy EP648 and Al2O3 is proposed. The aim of this research is to develop a method of producing composite micropowders for additive technology application. This method is based on modification of the metal micro-powders surface as a second phase in a planetary mixer (mechanochemical synthesis). The obtained composite micropowders are compared with powders which are recommended for selective laser melting usage (produced by MTT Technology). The equipment used in the research: planetary mixer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical granulomorphometer Occhio 500nano.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2118
Patrick Land, Luis De Sousa, Svetan Ratchev, David Branson
With increased demand for composite materials in the aerospace sector, there is a requirement for the development of manufacturing processes that enable larger and more complex geometries, whilst ensuring that the functionality and specific properties of the component are maintained. To achieve this methods such as thermal roll forming are being considered. This method is relatively new to composite forming in the aerospace field, and as such there are currently issues with the formation of part defects during manufacture. Previous work has shown that precise control of the force applied to the composite surface during forming has the potential to prevent the formation of wrinkle defects. In this paper the development of various control strategies that can robustly adapt to different complex geometries are presented and compared within simulated and small scale experimental environments, on varying surface profiles.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2119
Gergis W. William, Samir N. Shoukry, Jacky C. Prucz, Mariana M. William
Air cargo containers are used to load freight on various types of aircrafts to expedite their handling. Fuel cost is the largest contributor to the total cost of ownership of an air cargo container. Therefore, a better fuel economy could be achieved by reducing the weight of such containers. This paper aims at developing innovative, lightweight design concepts for air cargo containers that would allow for weight reduction in the air cargo transportation industry. For this purpose, innovative design and assembly concepts of lightweight design configurations of air cargo containers have been developed through the applications of lightweight composites. A scaled model prototype of a typical air cargo container was built to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of creating such a container from fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2121
Pavel Lykov PhD, Rustam M. Baytimerov, Artem Leyvi, Dmitry Zherebtsov, Alexey Shultc
The Copper-Nickel alloys are widely used in various industries. The adding of nickel significantly enhances mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and thermoelectric properties of copper. The technology of producing Copper-Nickel composite micro-powders by gaseous deposition of Nickel on the surface of copper powder is proposed. The vaporization of nickel is implemented by using electric arc. The dependence between mode of processing and the ratio of phases in the powder is investigated. The possibility of the obtained composite powder application in additive technologies is investigated. The equipment used in the research: magnetron sprayer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical granulomorphometer Occhio 500 nano.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2144
Galina M. Susova, Rostislav Sirotkin
FMEA methodology is widely used today for solution of practical analysis problems, quality (reliability, risks) evaluation and assurance etc., owing to a clear and simple algorithm and the absence of restrictions on a subject of analysis (i.e., systems, processes, products). However, the efficiency of applying FMEA methodology for problems solution is determined by the choice of elements of analysis, completeness of identification of potential non-conformities, their causes, frequencies and effects. Quality of manufacture is determined by deviations from requirements of design and manufacturing documentation including drawings. In this article a task of ensuring a steady reduction of deviations from these requirements during manufacture through implementation of preventive actions combined with control of time and costs for correction of non-conformances is considered.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8138
Pranav Shinde, Ravi K, Nandhini Nehru, Sushant Pawar, Balaji Balakrishnan, Vinit Nair
Body in white forms a major structure in any automobile. It is responsible in providing structural rigidity to vehicle, safety, frame and a skeleton to support all body parts of vehicle. When it comes to judge the performance of vehicle, BIW is analyzed not only for its strength and shape but also weight. Light weight BIW structures have seen to be developed rapidly in order to fulfill requirement of best vehicle performance in dynamic conditions. Since then lot of efforts have been put into CAE, materials research, advanced manufacturing process and joining methods, each plays a critical role in BIW functionality. Constructional designing, development of light materials with improved strength and special manufacturing practices for BIW are few research areas with never ending questions. This paper attempts to review various factors studied for weight reduction and solutions provided so far. Some of the major findings are briefly discussed and suggestions are made for future research.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8066
Marco Maurizi, Daniel Hrdina
Total cost of ownership is requiring further improvements to piston friction reduction as well as additional gains in thermal efficiency. A piston compression height reduction in combination with carbon based piston pin coatings is enabling advancements in both demands. MAHLE implemented a new innovative metal joining technology by using laser welding to generate a cooling gallery. The MonoLite concept offers design flexibility which cannot be matched by any other welding process. Especially an optimum design and position of the cooling gallery as well as durability for very high peak cylinder pressures can be matched. This is particularly advantageous for complex combustion bowl geometries that are needed in modern diesel engines to meet fuel economy and emission requirements. The MonoLite steel piston technology offers a superior compression height reduction potential compared to typical friction welded designs.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8044
Guoyu FENG, Wenku Shi, Henghai Zhang, Qinghua Zu
In order to predict the fatigue life of heavy commercial vehicles thrust rod made of rubber material dumbbell specimens and uniaxial tensile fatigue tests. Based on the measured data samples to the maximum principal strain injury parameters established rubber uniaxial fatigue life prediction models. In the longitudinal tension and compression loading, fatigue life V rods were predicted, and by the uniaxial fatigue test verification, the results show that the maximum principal strain prediction model, the maximum error is less than 10% predicted better results. Show by dumbbell specimen data, the establishment of a spherical hinge rubber life prediction model method, it is possible to predict the fatigue life of the thrust rod.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2113
Raphael Reinhold
Resin transfer molding (RTM) is gaining importance as a particularly economical manufacturing method for composites needed in the automotive and aerospace industries. With this method, the component is first shaped with dry fiber reinforcements in a so-called “preforming process” before the mold is placed in a RTM tool, injected with resin and cured. In recent years, Brotje-Automation have been developing innovative product solutions that are specially designed for these preforming processes and suitable for industrial use. For the first time ever, Broetje’s Composite Preforming Cell (CPC) makes large-quantity serial production of complex and near-net-shape preforms for composite components using this RTM process possible. With the additional integration of the patented 3D Composite Handling System Broetje impressively demonstrates its service and product portfolio in the area of innovative composite manufacturing technology and its know-how as a complete system integrator.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2022
Ajay Rao, Vivek Karan, Pradeep Kumar
Turbulence is by far the number one concern of anxious passengers and a cause for airline injuries. Apart from causing discomfort to passengers, it also results in unplanned downtime of aircrafts. Currently the Air Traffic Control (ATC) and the meteorological weather charts aid the pilot in devising flight paths that avoid turbulent regions. Even with such tailored flight paths, pilots report constant encounters with turbulence. Turbulence avoidance can be made much more accurate by the use of predictive models that exploit patterns found in historical and transactional data. This paper proposes the use of such predictive analysis algorithms on meteorological data over the geographical area where the flight is intended to fly.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1930
Heewook Lee
Contamination protection of brake rotor has been a challenge for auto industry for a long time. As contamination of rotor causes corrosion and it in turn causes many issues like pulsation and short rotor and lining lives, splash shield became a common part for most vehicles. While rotor splash protection shield provides contamination protection for brake rotor, it makes brake cooling performance worse as it blocks air reaching brake rotor. Therefore, balancing between contamination protection and enabling brake cooling has become key critical factor when splash shield is designed. Although analytical capability of brake cooling performance has become quite reliable, due to lack of technology to predict contamination pattern the design of splash protection shield has relied on engineering judgment and vehicle test. Optimization opportunities were restricted by cost and time associated with vehicle test.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1940
Scott Lambert
Industry requirements to improve fuel economy now drive the automotive industry to continually find ways to reduce vehicle mass, particularly to components contributing to ‘un-sprung’ weight. One such component is the steel disc brake backing plate, with commercial vehicle applications weighing as much as 2 kg each; however until now there have been no lightweight alternatives offered. To address this growing requirement, NUCAP Global developed a composite disc plate design which consists of 2 thin-gauge steel facing plates integrally bonded to a phenolic core via mechanical attachment. While the composite design results in the immediate advantage of significant weight reduction, up to 40% on larger vehicle applications, it must also meet or exceed the same function and performance criteria required for solid steel plates by industry standard test methods. Additionally, manufacturability and cost must be factors.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1943
Tadayoshi Matsumori, Yoshitsugu Goto, Noboru Sugiura, Kenji Abe, Yoshihiro Osawa, Yosuke Akita, Satoshi Wakamatsu, Katsuya Okayama, Kyoko Kosaka
This paper deals with the friction coefficient COF variation in a disk brake system when the wear debris between the brake pad and the disc rotor contains water. In our previous study, it was experimentally found that little moisture content leads to high COF compared with COF under dry condition. Based on the results, we propose a hypothesis that agglomerates composed of the wet wear debris induce COF variation when the agglomerates stand at gaps between friction surfaces. In this paper, for supporting the hypothesis, firstly, testing the friction property of the wet wear debris, we confirm that capillary force affects COF variation. After that, using a particle-based simulation assuming firstly and secondary particles of wear debris, we simulate the wear debris behavior with or without the capillary force.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1915
Meechai Sriwiboon, Seong Rhee, Kritsana kaewlob, Nipon Tiempan, Rungrod Samankitesakul
Two formulations have been selected and tested for this investigation; Low-Copper NAO and Copper – Free NAO. Each formulation was processed to achieve 3 levels of porosity; 12, 17 and 22%. Each sample was tested for hardness (HRR, HRS, and HRL), natural frequencies and compressibility plus performance testing for friction, wear and brake squeal. This paper describes correlations or lack of them between all the measurements.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1910
Philippe Dufrenoy
A methodology to identify the bulk properties of friction material from their formulation V. Magnier; I. Serrano; AL. Cristol ; P. Dufrénoy* University of Lille Cité scientifique Avenue Paul Langevin F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex * Corresponding author : philippe.dufrenoy@univ-lille1.fr Friction materials for braking applications are made of a high number of components leading to bulk properties which guarantee the performances. Development are mainly made by a trial-error methodology due to the misunderstanding of the relationship between formulation and process and properties. In this work we propose to identify this relationship by an experimental methodology combined with microstructural analysis. The first step is the description of the microstructure obtained by tomographic analysis leading to quantitative information about the morphology of the components, their distribution in the volume, orientations, etc.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1914
Pavlina Peikertova, Miroslava Kuricova, Alena Kazimirova, Jana Tulinska, Magdalena Barancokova, Aurelia Liskova, Marta Staruchova, Mira Horvathova, Silvia Ilavska, Eva Jahnova, Michaela Szabova, Miroslav Vaculik, Jana Kukutschova, Karla Kucova, Maria Dusinska, Peter Filip
Particulate air pollution from road traffic currently represents significant environmental and health issue. Attention is also paid to the “non-exhaust pollution sources,” which includes brake wear debris. During each brake application, the airborne and nonairborne particles are emitted into the environment due to wear. High temperatures and pressures on the friction surfaces initiate chemical and morphological changes of the initial components of brake pads and rotating counterparts. Understanding of impact of matter released from brakes on health is vital. Numerous studies clearly demonstrated that particulate matter caused potential adverse effects related to cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, stimulation of proinflammatory factors, and mutagenicity on the cellular level. This paper compiles our main results in the field of genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and aquatic toxicity of airborne brake wear particles.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1916
Raffaele Gilardi, Davide Sarocchi, Loredana Bounous
A wide range of different carbon powders is available and currently used in friction materials like coke, graphite and carbon black. The effect of the type of carbon on braking performance has been extensively investigated in the past and it has been demonstrated that graphite can play an important role in copper-free brake pads. However, there are no studies about the influence of carbon powders on the processability of brake pads. Brake pads need to be painted in order to avoid corrosion. Usually electrostatic painting is used on industrial scale, which requires the brake pads to be conductive. NAO brake pads (and especially Cu-free NAO brake pads) are rather insulating, and therefore difficult to paint. In this presentation we’ll show how special carbon powders can increase the electrical conductivity and therefore allow easy painting of brake pads. Based on these investigations, a new copper-free NAO formulation has been developed.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1909
Diego Adolfo Santamaria Razo, Fernao Persoon
Environmental and financial factors are leading developments in the automotive industry, friction materials are not an exception. Different associations around the globe are increasing their attention in regards to fine dust emissions. End users are increasing their focus on comfort and cost due to global economic conditions. Two of these factors are directly related to each other: comfort and fine dust. They are the result of tribologic mechanisms deriving in pad and disc wear. Such mechanisms linked to friction performance are the consequence of the interaction between friction material surface and disc surface. The definition of what is being formed between the two surfaces is a continuously evolving layer called third body layer (transfer layer, tribologic film, among others) and it has been deeply studied in different papers. In order to be formed and to work properly, the third body layer needs to possess a strong chemical and mechanical stability.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1951
Björn Dingwerth
Brake components happen to operate under some of the harshest conditions a surface on a car may experience. Choosing the right surface finishing is crucial for the component’s overall quality. Selection of the right finish from a choice of alternatives to a large extend is driven by performance, available finishing quality and finally cost of the coating. The zinc-nickel alloy has shown to be an excellent coating for corrosion protection of cast iron hydraulic brake components while being cost competitive with other alternatives. But that corrosion protection is far from being the sole advantage over the other alternatives. There is many other beneficial properties in this zinc-nickel alloy that account for an even faster pace the share of components finished with zinc-nickel grows at in these days.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 14931