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Viewing 1 to 30 of 15866
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0331
Qiuren Chen, Haiding Guo, Katherine Avery, Xuming Su, HongTae Kang
Fatigue crack growth tests have been carried out to investigate the mixed mode fatigue crack propagation behavior of an automotive structural adhesive BM4601. The tests were conducted a compound CMM (Compact Mixed Mode) specimen under load control with 0.1 R ratio and 3Hz frequency. A long distance moving microscope was employed during testing to monitor and record the real time length of the fatigue crack in the adhesive layer. The strain energy release rates of the crack under different loading angles, crack lengths and loads were calculated by finite element method. The pure mode I and mode II tests show that an equal value of mode I strain energy release rate results in over ten times higher FCGR (Fatigue Crack Growth Rate) than the mode II stain energy release rate does. The mixed mode tests results show that under a certain loading angle, the mixed mode FCGR is changed by changing the load, which is contrary to the find in pure mode I and mode II tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0371
Raju Gandikota, Amit Nair, Kurt Miller
Testing elastomeric materials that undergo large strains pose challenges especially when establishing failure criteria. The failure criterion for composites and polymers based on finite elasticity published byFeng (1) requires testing under uni-axial and bi-axial stretching modes. The classic inflation of a circular disk for bi-axial stretch mode poses stability and safety challenges. The test can also be sensitive to end constraints resulting in failure of materials at the constraints. Bi-axial stretching with a hemispherical punch is explored in this work. The bi-axial stretching allows controlled and repeatabletesting. It establishes clear and reliable failure mechanism of the material at the poles. Through a combination of testing and numerical methods, the stretch ratios and its relation to failure has been established.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0480
Mingde Ding
For structural application, composite parts structure is much more affected by load cases than steel part structure. Engine room bracket of EV, which is structural part and is used to bear Motor Controller, Charger and so on, has different load cases for different EV. Three commonest load cases that are Case 1: bearing 65kg (without suspension part), Case 2: bearing 68kg(including 3.5kg suspension part) and Case 3: bearing 70.1kg (including 5.6kg suspension part). According to topology optimization, structurel 1 was obtained, and then CAE analysis including (strength, stiffness and model) was carried out for abovement three load cases. For Case 1 and Case 2, the analysis result can meet the requirement. However, for Case 3, the stiffness and model analysis result can not satisfy the requirement. To meet the analysis result of Case 3, Structure 1 was optimized and structure 2 was obtained. The CAE analysis was conducted and the results can satisfy the requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0499
Mingde Ding
Recently, for automotive industry, weight reduction is increasingly needed to improve fuel efficiency and to meet emission requirement. Substituting heavy metallic materials with strong and light composites seems to be the most viable choice to achieve vehicle weight reduction. Because of a high level of styling flexibility and simple process, injection molding is the concern of OEMS. However, injection molding part especially for large part would have large deformation. Therefore, the deformation must be controlled within the requirement during development. According with topology optimization result, we get the structure of IP carrier. The result of moldflow analysis showed that the largest deformation in X direction is 19.4mm, in Y direction is 9.5mm, in Z direction is 13.7mm, which were not satisfy the deformation requirement that was the deformation of the core area must be less than 3mm. By structure optimization, the deformation reduction was obviously.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1704
D.J. Branagan, A.E. Frerichs, B.E. Meacham, S. Cheng, A.V. Sergueeva
Demand is growing for advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in the automotive industry driven by a desire for lightweighting solutions to meet increasingly stringent fuel economy standards. Formability is a critical factor for producing reduced gauge steel parts with the complex geometries required to maintain stiffness. Global formability represents the ability of a sheet material to be deformed under various stress conditions and to be formed into a part without failure. It can be estimated using forming-limit diagrams or ductility measurements from conventional uniaxial tensile tests. However, these tests cannot reliably assess the local formability at the edges or at the internal holes of the blanks during stamping. Numerous correlations have been previously developed to predict local formability such as yield strength to tensile ratio, true strain at fracture, and post uniform elongation but they are often inaccurate – particularly for AHSS grades.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1707
C. Matthew Enloe, Jason Coryell, Jeff Wang
Retained austenite stability to both mechanically induced transformation and athermal transformation is of great importance to the fabrication and in-vehicle performance of automotive advanced high strength steels. Selected cold-rolled advanced high strength steels containing retained austenite with minimum tensile strengths of 980 MPa and 1180 MPa were pre-strained to pre-determined levels under uniaxial tension in the rolling direction and subsequently cooled to temperatures as low as 77 K. Room temperature uniaxial tensile results of pre-strained and cooled steels indicate that retained austenite is stable to athermal transformation to martensite at all tested temperatures and pre-strain levels. To evaluate the combined effects of temperature and pre-strain on impact behavior, stacked Charpy impact testing was conducted on the same steels following similar pre-straining in uniaxial tension.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1269
Xian Wu, Shuxian Zhang
Studies have shown that under in-plane impact loading, negative Poisson's ratio of honeycomb sandwich structure has a good energy absorption compared with the conventional cellular sandwich structure. So, it can be used to protect the key components and the crew from being hurt in the crash accidents. In the design of collision avoidance, both of the energy absorption and the deformation should be considered. In this paper, we designed a honeycomb structure with density gradient which had a good behavior in crashworthiness. Based on the honeycomb sandwich structure with negative Poisson's ratio, we changed the density gradient of the core and studied the energy absorption and the deformation of the structure under impact loading. First, we divided the core into three layers which had different densities. And each layer had the same thickness and the same kind of material. Then, we gave the different permutation and combination of the three layers.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0508
Gabor Kiss, Yuya Ando, Martin Schifko
After the e-coating the paint on the surface is like a sponge and carry liquid which slowly drains off. The retain water carries about 5-10 liter for 100mm² BIW surface area. When the retain water drains off, residual liquids may areas at areas nobody is expecting. These liquids are potential causers in the oven either to destroy the corrosion protection mainly caused by boiling or may lead to bake drips. The density of the residual liquid is changing during the heating process in the oven. Depending on the evaporation of residual puddles and density change the total volume may increase although the weight is getting less. This is the critical situation which may lead to bake drips. In this talk we would outline our technology which allows to predict retain water behavior and the arising of bake drips successfully
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1264
Edward John Vinarcik
6061-O temper extruded rod may be used as feed stock in forming processes for automotive pressure vessel applications. Key parameters for forming are the strength and hardness of the material. The purpose of this paper was to reduce variation in hardness to achieve a process capability index of 1.33 or greater. Among the process steps affecting hardness, annealing is the most critical. Initially, the process showed unacceptable hardness variation. Initial anneal recipes called for a 4-hour soak at 775°F. Initial process capability for hardness was a Cpk of 1.12, with tensile strength readings very close to the upper specification limit. Initial temperature uniformity surveys of the anneal oven showed a large variation in temperature distribution, with some areas of the oven staying below 650°F. Initial improvement efforts focused on soak time. While this did greatly improve the material, the improvement did not have enough of an effect on hardness to achieve a good capability.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1664
Yong Tak Kim, Yeongpyo Kim, Namyeul Ryu
Vehicle brake friction output is influenced by the performance of many brake corner system components. For the highest and most table friction output, each component needs to work properly. For each component of the brake corner system, there are many factors related to the final corner friction value. This paper focuses on the relationship between the chemical composition of a cast iron brake rotor chemical contents and the friction output value. Alloying elements have complex interaction effects. In this paper, a numerical analysis tool is applied to dyno bench test results to forecast braking friction values for specific cast rotor chemical compositions. To see why some rotors can achieve high friction values, the rotor microstructure is analyzed. An optimal rotor casting chemical composition recipe, based on set formula and DFSS method, is recommended.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0486
Daniel Frantz
In light of growing global awareness of environmental concerns, automotive manufacturers have received pressure from governmental regulations and consumer demand to incorporate more recycled materials into vehicle production. Polyamide 6 (nylon 6, PA6), a polymer used in many automotive components, is a prime target for the incorporation of recycled materials. PA6 is used and recovered by the carpet industry, and can be processed into a usable recycled polymer (RPA6). To evaluate the potential use of RPA6, injection molded samples comprised of RPA6, glass fiber, and one of three recycled fillers (rice husk ash, micronized rubber powder, and torrefied biomass) will be prepared and subjected to mechanical, thermal, morphological, and rheological testing. It is predicted that these materials will meet the requirements for automotive door handles, engine fan shrouds, and turn signal arms, which are typically made from glass-reinforced nylons.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0339
Sandip Datta, Neil Bishop, Karl Sweitzer, Alexander Atkins
For many automotive systems it is required to calculate both the durability of the part and to rule out the possibility of collision of individual components during severe base shake vibration conditions. Advanced frequency domain methods now exist to enable the durability assessment to be undertaken fully in the frequency domain and utilizing the most advanced and efficient analysis tools. In recent years new capabilities have been developed which allow hyper sized models to be processed onto which multiple correlated loading is applied. The most advanced stress processing (eg, complex von-Mises) and fatigue algorithms (eg, Strain-Life) are now included. Furthermore, the previously required assumptions that the loading be stationary, Gaussian and random have been somewhat relaxed. For example, mixed loading like sine on random can now be applied.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0502
Mingde Ding
The IP carrier plays a very important structural and safety role in the vehicle. Functionally, it forms the skeleton of the cockpit, providing the base architecture off which IP components are attached and function. At present, the IP carrier is commenly used steel, and is welded by more than 20 parts. Its weight is usually 8-14kg. For the reason of fuel efficiency and enviromental friendly, lightweight of the IP carrier is very necessary. Various lightweight technologies have been applied to IP carrier: Magnesium alloy part, Alluminum alloy part, Hybrid composite part, Composite material injection part. For Magnesium alloy part, the IP carrier which have the equal performance compared to steel part can be integrated to one part, therefore the production process is simplified. Weight can be reduced 40%-60% However, the magnesium injection part have high process requirement and need postreatment which will add cost obviously. These disadvantages limited the mass production.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0461
R. Rajendran, Ravikumar N, S.S.M Abdul Majeed
Brake disc provides friction force with minimum weight loss on application of brake. The pad material only experiences more wear and friction. Disc and pad materials are selected to give a stable and high coefficient of friction (0.25-0.40). COF is directly proportional to braking force generated and inversely proportional to the stopping distance. Brake pad is mainly produced from asbestos materials. Asbestos is an excellent material for brake pad application.. Considering the environmental pollution and human health safety, the asbestos cannot be used and there is a need to find an alternate material. The aim of the study is to identify a new material for replacement of pad material in practice. In this study, wear, hardness and friction properties of E glass fibre with epoxy resin and cashew friction dust composite are studied and compared with brake pad material in practice.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0355
Edinilson Alves Costa, Neil Bishop, Valdir Cardoso
In most aspects of mechanical design related to a motor vehicle there are two ways to treat dynamic fatigue problems, that is: time domain vs. frequency domain approach. Time domain approaches are the most common and most widely used especially in the automotive industries and accordingly it is the method of choice for the fatigue calculation of welded structures. In previous paper frequency approach has been successful applied showing a good correlation with the life and damage estimated by the time one; in this paper the same comparative process has been applied but now extended specifically to welded structures. Both frequency domain approach and time domain approach are used for numerically predicting the fatigue life of the seam welds of a thin sheet powertrain installation bracketry of a commercial truck submitted to variable amplitude loading. Predictions results are then compared with bench tests results, and their accuracy are rated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0348
Mani Shankar, I V N Sri Harsha, K V Sunil, Ramsai Ramachandran
In an automobile, road loads due to tire-road interaction are transferred to vehicle body through suspension. This makes suspension a critical component from the body durability perspective. During vehicle design and development, optimization of suspension parameters to suit ride and handling performance is a continuous and iterative process. These changes on suspension can affect vehicle body durability performance. This paper tries to establish a process to evaluate the effect of changes in suspension parameters on body durability, thus helping in understanding the impact of these changes. The process starts with virtual model building in Multi Body Dynamics software. The base line model is co-related with testing using responses like spring displacement at suspension, acceleration and strain data at the vehicle body.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1663
Alan Druschitz, Christopher Williams, Erin Connelly, Bob Wood
Binder jetting of sand molds and cores for metal casting provides a scalable and efficient means of producing metal components with complex geometric features made possible only by Additive Manufacturing. Topology optimization software that can mathematically determine the optimum placement of material for a given set of design requirements has been available for quite some time. However, the optimized designs are often not manufacturable using standard metal casting processes due to undercuts, backdraft and other issues. With the advent of binder-based 3D printing technology, sand molds and cores can be produced to make these optimized designs as metal castings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0230
Louise A. Powell, William E. Luecke, Matthias Merzkirch, Katherine Avery, Tim Foecke
If carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are to be used as structural components in lightweight automotive bodies, a robust understanding of how these materials absorb and dissipate energy during crash events must be developed. CFRPs are characterized by highly variable modulii and strengths and low ductilities, and thus mechanical measurements can be difficult. In this presentation we will detail novel experiments and equipment developed at NCAL for characterizing the interlaminar Mode I and II fracture energy release rates, the fracture stresses normal to the interfaces, and the high rate stress-strain behavior of unidirectional and woven composites. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used with unique test geometries to observe the micromechanisms of failure in these configurations, and these results will be discussed in light of numerical simulations of CFRP materials in crash conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0350
Sanket Prakash Inamdar, Manoj R Ukhande, Prashant Date, Madan U Takale, Raj Kumar Prasad Singh
It is a necessity of modern forging industries to explore new materials for hot forging dies, which gives better quality of forging with extended fatigue life and less economic aspects. HiperDie Steel is one of the material for modern metal forming industries, which mollifies all the benchmarks and requirements. Pre-Mature fatigue failure of forging dies is always an unpredictable and economical damage for any metal forming industry. HiperDie Steel is a high strength material to avoid die cracking during complex phenomenon of hot forming process. HiperDie steel, which when subjected to load, will get softened and this is strain softening. In this paper, numerous experiments have been carried on HiperDie steel material to evaluate cyclic Stress - strain behavior of this material. This research leads us to evaluate and explain phenomenon regarding strain softening and its behavior during low cycle fatigue test.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1665
Qigui Wang, Peggy Jones, Yucong Wang, Dale Gerard
With the increasing use of aluminum shape castings in structural applications in the automotive and aerospace industries, assurance of cast product integrity and performance has become critical in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, the latest understanding of the relationship between casting quality and mechanical properties of aluminum castings is summarized. Newly developed technologies for alloy design, melting and melt treatment, casting and heat treatment processes in aluminum casting are reviewed. Robust design and development of high integrity aluminum castings through Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) approach is also discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0358
G Song
During the extensive testing under NATO and Commercial Standards, crack is observed in camshaft housing to initiate from the eccentric shaft bore and go toward the hold down bolt hole. Hence lab test proposal is originated to induce similar failure in a controlled method and then to compare new design alternatives. CAE analysis follows the same set up as the lab test to duplicate failure mode in stress analysis and fatigue analysis with duty cycle loads, and then figures out two strategies on how to improve the design, including geometry change and material change. In geometry wise, four new design iterations are evaluated for comparison. In material wise, one new materials for camshaft housing and five manufacturing effect parameters for pin and rocker arm are compared, including ground, machined, machined and decarburization, casting, as well as casting and nitride. With those comparisons, all manufacturing parameters are compared based on effectiveness to affect the fatigue life.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0354
Zhigang Wei, Ranjith Nayaki, Raghuram Mandapati, Jason Hamilton
A probabilistic distribution function roughly consists of two parts: the middle part and the tails. The fatigue life distribution at a stress/load level is often described with two-parameter lognormal or Weibull distribution functions, which are more suitable for modeling the mean (middle) behaviors. The domains of the conventional probabilistic distribution functions are often unbounded, either infinite small (0 for the two-parameter Weibull) or infinite large or both. For most materials in low- and medium-cycle fatigue regimes, the domains of fatigue lives are usually bounded, and the inclusion of the bounds in a probabilistic model is often critical in some applications, such as product validation and life management. In this paper, four- and five-parameter Weibull distribution functions for the probabilistic distributions with bounds are developed. Finally, the applications of these new models in fatigue data analysis and damage assessment are provided and discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0490
Rodrigo Polkowski, Alper Kiziltas PhD, Marcelo Ueki PhD
In recent years, a special attention has been given to the environment protection, as evidenced by an increased commitment of governments and industries for a better use of energy and for reducing the levels of vehicle emissions (CO2). The use of renewable and bio-based plastics in the automotive sector is being considered as alternative solution to the conventional petroleum-based polymeric materials. In the present work, biobased polymer blends were formulated using two polyamides made from biorenewable resources. Polyamide 10,10 (PA1010) and polyamide 6,10 (PA610) were melt mixed in different compositions and the mechanical properties of the blends were investigated by tensile evaluations. The mechanical properties of the blends show intermediate values compared to the pure polymers. Significant improvements on these properties could be observed with the incorporation of PA610 in the blends.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0498
Tomoya Yabu, Shigeto Yasuhara, Masakazu Kashiwagi
Regulation of automotive CO2 emission is becoming severe all over the world for a global warming counter measure. Car OEM needs not only an improvement of fuel economy of powertrain but also a reduction of automotive driving resistance. High expectation is held for thermoplastic fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) to automotive weight reduction at the point of productivity and recyclability. A thermoplastic FRP crash box has more energy absorption performance than the metal (steel, Aluminum, etc.) one. That is able to contribute to weight reduction and package improvement of automotive. However, stable load characteristic without regards to usage environment is required of automotive front bumper beam system . So it is necessary to consider the effect of temperature and resin degradation of thermoplastic. And in the case of discontinuous fiber FRP, a deviation of fiber orientation is generated in molding process.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0485
Sayak Mukherjee
Due to increasing commercial pressure, a need arises to arrive at design solutions that lower in weight and as a result carry more pay load. In commercial vehicle segment almost all the functional components are manufactured of metals which add to the total vehicle weight. Thus, an attempt has been made to replace metal cargo body hinges to plastic. With this approach a target of 40% weight reduction was taken. The other benefits of this design will be functional integration of many child parts & removal of metal joining process like bolting & welding to single part resulting in ease of manufacturing, handling & assembly. The hinges made up of plastic will be inherently resistant to corrosion. The metal to plastic conversion has been studied carefully from a technical point of view which includes proper design, analysis under operating loads and manufacturability. Economic feasibility of the conversion has also been considered.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0503
Waqar Tehami, Kamran Asim
Fiber reinforced laminated materials are becoming popular in applications involving protection against impact loading. Laminates offer many advantages over metal plates in these applications. Laminates are normally non-ricochet, thus offering greater protection against projectiles. Laminates are also lighter in weight and less expensive as compared to the metal panels. In this study, laminated materials were fabricated from two different types of fibers which included short fibers and random chopped fibers. Epoxy and polyester were used as the resin materials in the production of different types of laminates. Test samples were tested according to the available standards to investigate the ballistic resistance and impact toughness of these laminates. Experimental results showed that random fibers and polyester resin absorbed more energy as compared to short fibers and epoxy resin, respectively.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0504
Anthony Berejka, Dan Montoney, Dan Dispenza, Len Poveromo, Rick Galloway, Mark Driscoll, Marshall Cleland
Having demonstrated the feasibility of using X-rays derived from high current industrial electron beam accelerators to cure the matrices of carbon fiber composites and then scaled this up to cure large sized, non-structural automobile components, performance car hoods, the New York State Vehicle Composites Program had a chassis designed, a cured epoxy mold made and then the chassis matrix cured using X-rays with a formulated radiation responsive matrix material. The feasibility study showed how X-rays could cure through materials embedded within the composite layers, such as metal inserts that could be used for mechanical fastening without fracturing the composite. In producing X-ray cured hoods, the power consumption for X-ray curing was found to be more than 20% lower than that needed for autoclave curing the same sized hoods using conventional thermosetting pre-pregs. More significant was the time-to-cure.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1272
Nick Parson, Jerome Fourmann, Jean-Francois Beland
One of the main applications for extrusions in the automotive sector is crash structures including crash rails, crash cans, bumpers, and structural body components. The objective is usually to optimize the energy absorption capability for a given structure weight. The ability to extrude thin wall multi-void extrusions contributes to this goal. However, the alloy used also plays a significant role in terms of the ability to produce the required geometry, strength which to a large extent controls the energy absorption capability, and the “ductility” or fracture behavior which controls the strain that can be applied locally during crush deformation before cracking. This paper describes results of a test program to examine the crush behavior of a range of alloys supplied by Rio Tinto Aluminium for automotive applications, as a function of processing parameters including artificial aging and quench rate.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1304
Alejandro Rosas Vazquez, Fernando Paisano, Diego Santillan Gutierrez
For many years the use of in-mold fasteners has been avoided for various reasons including: not fully understand the load cases in the part, the fear for quality issues to occur, the need for servicing, or the lack of understanding the complexity of all failure modes. The most common solution has been the use of secondary operations to provide attachments, such as, screws, metal clips, heat staking, sonic welding or other methods which are ultimately a waste in the process and increase manufacturing costs. The purpose of this paper is to take the reader through a design process which allows for the design of in-molded attachment clips on plastic parts. The paper explores the design process for in-molded attachment clips starting with a design concept idea, testing the basic concept using a personal 3D printer, optimizing the design with physical tests and CAE analysis, and finally producing high resolution 3D prototypes for validation and tuning.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0483
Ryan R. Vadori, Debbie Mielewski, Amar Mohanty, Manjusri Misra
Ryan Vadori,1,2,3 Alper Kiziltas1, Deborah Mielewski1, Manju Misra2,3, Amar K. Mohanty2,3 1 Materials Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, 2101 Village Road, Dearborn, Michigan 48124 2 College of Physical and Engineering Science, School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 3 Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Recent environmental concerns have caused manufacturers to consider the entire life cycle of their products. Recycling materials from end-of-life products is very beneficial for producers and the environment. It has been found that Nylon 6,6 (PA6,6) can be recycled from different sources such as carpet. At the same time, automotive manufacturers are attempting to use lightweight materials for various applications. This has led to replacement of metallic parts with high performance plastics.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 15866