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Viewing 1 to 30 of 15678
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0052
Gopalakrishna Acharya, K.A. Subramanian, R K Malhotra
In India, there is a large population of heavy duty diesel engine powered vehicles such as trucks and buses. It is reported that more than 50% of the diesel sold in the country is consumed by these category of vehicles. Consumption of diesel fuel is ~ 4 times that of gasoline produced in the country. Besides, buses are operated under normal speed & load conditions whereas trucks are generally overloaded with high severity on engine oil and lugging operation is common. Soot loading in diesel engine oil is reported during the operation of engine at high load & torque in highway service. The engine oil keep the soot dispersed in order to meet the basic function of lubricating and also keep the engine components clean. Higher loading of soot in engine oil results in increase in viscosity of oil and also affects the friction properties and also wear in engine components.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0170
Pratik Pillai, Sivakumar Venugopal, Vijaysankar Gopalan
Crevice Corrosion is one of the most damaging forms of material degradation. Crevice corrosion occurs when a wetted metallic surface is in close proximity to another surface. Almost in any engineered layout there are many instances in which two or more materials are, by design, in close proximity. The primary means of preventing crevice corrosion is careful design. Unfortunately, in most engineering layouts complete avoidance of crevices is not practical. In this study, the corrosion analysis consisted of parts like cast aluminium nipple and a rubber hose clamped over it which were part of the coolant circuit joint of an automobile engine. There was coolant leakage from the joint and bulging of the rubber hose attached to it. A number of failed aluminium nipples were studied for various metallurgical aspects like chemistry, hardness and microstructure and the results were found to be within acceptable limits.
2016-12-21
Journal Article
2016-01-9082
Bradley Michael, Rani Sullivan, Dulip Samaratunga, Ratneshwar Jha
Abstract Polymer matrix composites are increasingly adopted in aerospace and automotive industries due to their many attributes, such as their high strength to weight ratio, tailorability, and high fatigue and durability performance. However, these materials also have complex damage and failure mechanisms, such as delaminations, which can severely degrade their strength and fatigue performance. To effectively and safely use composite materials in primary structures, it is essential to assess composite damage response for development of accurate predictive models. Therefore, this study focuses on determining the response of damaged and undamaged carbon epoxy beams subjected to vibration loadings at elevated temperatures. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) technique is used to analyze the beams’ modal response. The HHT shows potential in identifying the nonlinear damaged response of the beams.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0019
David Weiss
Abstract In the early 1980's, some promising research and development efforts focused on powder metallurgy revealed that aluminum alloys containing 4 wt% cerium exhibit high temperature mechanical properties exceeding those of the best commercial aluminum casting alloys currently in production. Cerium oxide is an abundant rare earth oxide that is often discarded during the refining of more valuable rare earths such as Nd and Dy. Therefore, the economics are compelling for cerium as an alloy additive. In this paper, we report select results obtained during an investigation of the castability of aluminum-cerium alloys and determine compositional modifications that may be required to ensure the compatibility of the alloy with near net shape casting methods such as advanced sand casting, die casting, permanent mold casting and squeeze casting. Al-Ce alloys were cast in binary composition of 6-16 wt% Ce. Commercially pure aluminum ingots were melted and held at approximately 785°C.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0020
Balasubramanian Thiruvallur Loganathan, Srivenkata Subramani Narasimhan, Lakshminarasimhan Varadha Iyengar, Ajith Kumar Sandur, Sudhagar Vediappan
Abstract Development of small air cooled motorcycles is ever challenging due to combination of customer expectation, regulatory requirements and cost factors. Achieving higher performance, emission standards means higher engine and parts operating temperature. Under these changes meeting durability targets at reasonable cost needs good understanding of material, surface treatment and tribological aspects. In this paper some of the surface and process improvements done to reduce wear in engine valves and interface systems is discussed in detail. Design of engine valves shall ensure meeting thermal, mechanical strength requirements, wear and durability targets. Surface treatments, coating, surface finish and also use of special materials in tip, valve stem, seat ensures higher durability; low wear in valve and interfacing parts. During new engine development process verification tests, wear observed in valve stem- guide, valve tip- screw interface.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0021
Stephen Gurchinoff
Abstract This technical paper will provide supporting lubricated test data for the use of thermoplastics like polyamide-imide (PAI) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) in demanding wear applications at temperatures up to 285°C and pressure velocity exceeding one million psi·ft/min. Applications include needle bearing replacement in transmissions, journal bearings, pumps, marine lower units, continuous variable transmissions, and others. These materials have been used in automotive transmission applications for over 20 years and can be similarly used in small engine applications. By using a thermoplastic, applications benefit through reduced noise and vibration harshness, reduced space, and reduced weight. Mechanical property differences throughout operating temperatures will also be reviewed.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0022
David Weiss, Simon Beno, Chris Jordan, Pradeep Rohatgi
Abstract Cylinder liners exert a major influence on engine performance, reliability, durability and maintenance. Various combinations of nonmetallic reinforcements and coatings have been used to improve the tribological performance of sleeves or surfaces used in compressors and internal combustion engines in four stroke, two stroke and rotary configurations. In this paper we report the use of a hybrid composite containing silicon carbide and graphite in an aluminum alloy matrix to improve the performance of various small engines and compressors. Material properties of the base material, as well as comparative dynamometer testing, are presented.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0023
Shinji Kasatori, Yuji Marui, Hideto Oyama, Kosuke Ono
Abstract Amidst of the recent concerns on depletion of natural resources, a new heat resistant titanium alloy has been developed using the minimum amount of rare metals. Using Ti-811 as a basis and modifying the alloy composition to Ti-7Al-2Mo-0.2Si-0.15C-0.2Nb, the mechanical property, the creep resistance and the oxidation resistance at high temperatures are improved. At the same time, with the β transformation point shifted to a higher temperature, the hot formability is also improved. The newly developed alloy has made it possible to expand the application of titanium material to exhaust valves in reciprocating engines.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0024
Daisuke Sugio, Shinpei Okazaki, Mitsuo Kaneko
Abstract Glass fiber reinforced plastic of polyamide is applied as one of the materials used for the high strength exterior parts of a motorcycle, such as a rear grab rail or a carrier, to which both strength and good exterior appearance are required. However, Glass Fiber reinforced Polypropylene (PPGF), which is relatively inexpensive material, has a property that the contained glass fibers are prone to be exposed at the surface and, therefore, the requirements for good appearance are hardly met by using PPGF. In this study, Heat and Cool molding method (H&C molding) was employed to realize a cost reduction by using PPGF yet without applying painting process, and the established method was applied to mass production while fulfilling the requirements for a good exterior appearance. In H&C molding, the metal molds are heated up by steam and cooled down by water after molding.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0071
Koji Ueno, Hiroyuki Horimura, Akiko Iwasa, Yuji Kurasawa, Pascaline Tran, Ye Liu
Abstract We developed a copper catalyst using zero Platinum group metals (hereafter PGMs) to fit motorcycle specific emission gas environment. Though many research reports to develop catalyst without using PGMs that are precious and costly resources are available, no reports had proven Base Metal Catalyst development to meet actual emission regulation equivalent to PGM catalysts. Compared to conventional PGM catalysts, higher temperature is required to keep high catalytic conversion efficiency by utilizing properties of this Base Metal Catalyst. Thus, this Base Metal Catalyst is located in cross coupling position, though it is rare case in motorcycle. This catalyst location could cause negative impacts on engine knocking, engine performance and drivability. This time, to overcome such negative impacts we optimized whole exhaust system, including parts around catalyst.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2227
Nik Muhammad Hafiz, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, Masahiro Shioji
Abstract Hydrogen fuel is a potential energy source for vehicles in the future. The emission of this fuel complies with the stringent policies issued by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Researchers have nominated the hydrogen compression ignition engine in an argon atmosphere as one of the ways to enhance power output and volumetric efficiency in the midst of pre-ignition and knock problems. Since this type of research is still in the initial stage, numerical studies have become the best method for researchers to obtain data on hydrogen fuel combustion in an argon-oxygen atmosphere. The purpose of this study was to validate the simulation results with the experimental data, investigate the combustion characteristics of hydrogen fuel in an argon-oxygen atmosphere, and to study the effects of the initial temperature and injection pressure on the combustion process. In this research, CONVERGE CFD software was used for the simulation process.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2238
Kazunari Kuwahara, Tadashi Matsuo, Yasuyuki Sakai, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Tsukasa Hori, Eriko Matsumura, Jiro Senda
Abstract n-Tridecane is a low boiling point component of gas oil, and has been used as a single-component fuel for diesel spray and combustion experiments. However, no reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-tridecane have been presented for three-dimensional modeling. A detailed mechanism developed by KUCRS (Knowledge-basing Utilities for Complex Reaction Systems), contains 1493 chemical species and 3641 reactions. Reaction paths during ignition process for n-tridecane in air computed using the detailed mechanism, were analyzed with the equivalence ratio of 0.75 and the initial temperatures of 650 K, 850 K, and 1100 K, which are located in the cool-flame dominant, negative-temperature coefficient, and blue-flame dominant regions, respectively.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2318
Wangkan Lin, Nancy Diggs, Catherine Frampton
Abstract One of the primary functions of modern heavy duty diesel (HDD) lubricants is to protect the engine against corrosion, which is typically accomplished by additives providing alkaline material, commonly represented as total base number (TBN). The majority of the TBN in HDD lubricants comes from ash-containing over-based detergents, with various metallic base and soap chemistries. In this publication, we discuss several overbased detergents and their efficacy in acid neutralization, as well as the resulting impact on corrosion protection. The performance differences are compared in a number of stationary API CJ-4 and CK-4 HDD engine screener tests. Furthermore, these results are confirmed with field trial data, including a comparison of CJ-4 oils with the upcoming API FA-4/CK-4 oils. The selection of overbased detergent type provides varying levels of acid neutralization and corrosion protection.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2315
Xiaobo Shen, Rajiv Taribagil, Stuart Briggs, Isabella Goldmints
Abstract An unprecedented global focus on the environment and greenhouse gases has driven recent government regulations on automotive emissions across the globe. To achieve this improvement, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have advocated a progressive move towards the use of low viscosity grade oils. However, the use of lower viscosity grades should not compromise engine durability or wear protection. Viscosity modifiers (VM) - polymeric additive components used to tailor the lubricant’s viscometric properties - have been viewed as a key enabler for achieving the desirable balance between fuel economy and engine durability performance. Self-assembling diblock copolymers represent a unique class of VMs, which deliver superior shear stability due to their tunable association/dissociation in the lubricating oil. Superior shear stability ensures that the oil viscosity and its ability to offer reliable engine protection from wear is retained over the life of the oil in the engine.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2161
Gangfeng Tan, Xuefeng Yang, Li Zhou, Kangping Ji, Mengying Yang
Abstract In this research, the Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric material is used in the exhaust temperature difference power-generating system, and the material's heat transfer characteristic and power-generating characteristic were analyzed. Firstly, steady heat transfer model from vehicle exhaust to cooling water was established. Then the impact of Sn/Si ratio to the thermoelectric characteristic parameter was analyzed. Finally, considering the influence of varying thermal conductivity to the heat transfer process along the material's heat transfer direction, when the cold end temperature of thermoelectric materials was controlled by cooling water respectively boiling at 343K and 373K, the thermoelectric conversion efficiency and power output of Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric materials with different x value were evaluated based on simulation calculation.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2214
Teuvo Maunula, Thomas Wolff
The latest emission regulations for mobile and stationary applications require the use of aftertreatment methods for NOx and diesel particulate filters (DPF) for particulate matter (PM). SCR catalysts were evaluated by laboratory experiments and the most promising SCR catalysts were also scaled up to full-size. Development with copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) on zeolitic materials (Beta, ZSM-5, SAPO, chabazite) has resulted in the new generation of thermally durable SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalysts, which have also an improved sulfur tolerance and a low N2O formation tendency. Opposite to Cu on Beta and ZSM-5, Cu on chabazite and SAPO showed clearly lower N2O formation. Cu-SCR catalysts had a low dependency on NO2/NOx but Fe-SCR catalysts required a higher NO2/NOx ratio (>0.3) to keep a high NOx efficiency.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2349
Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Ram Krishna Kumar Singh, Jham Tikoliya
Abstract To compete with the current market trends there is always a need to arrive at a cost effective and light weight designs. For commercial vehicles, an attempt is made to decrease weight of the current design without compromising its strength & stiffness, considering/bearing all the worst road/engine load cases and severe environmental conditions. The topic was chosen because of interest in higher payloads, lower weight, and higher efficiency. Automotive cylinder head must be lighter in weight, to meet increasingly demanding customer requirements. The design approach for cylinder head has made it difficult to achieve this target. A designer might make some judgment as to where ribs are required to provide stiffness, but this is based on engineering experience and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the stand-alone head.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2333
Akio Kawaguchi, Hiroki Iguma, Hideo Yamashita, Noriyuki Takada, Naoki Nishikawa, Chikanori Yamashita, Yoshifumi Wakisaka, Kenji Fukui
Abstract To improve fuel efficiency of engines, cooling heat loss is one of the most dominant losses among the various engine losses to reduce. The present work proposes a new heat insulation concept in combustion chamber, "TSWIN (Thermo-Swing Wall Insulation Technology)" that can reduce heat loss to the coolant without any sacrifice in other engine performances. Surface temperature of insulation coat on combustion chamber wall changes rapidly, according with the fluctuating temperature of in-cylinder gas. Reduced temperature differences between them lead to lower heat transfer. During the intake stroke, surface temperature of the insulation coat goes down rapidly, and prevents intake air heating. To realize the scheme mentioned above, a new insulation material with both low thermal conductivity and low volumetric heat capacity, "SiRPA (Silica Reinforced Porous Anodized Aluminum)" was developed and applied on the top surface of the piston.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2350
Zhien Liu, Jiangmi Chen, Sheng-hao Xiao
Abstract This paper combines fluid software STAR-CCM+ and finite element software ABAQUS to solve the temperature field of this Gasoline engine exhaust manifold based on loose coupling method. Through the simulation of car parking cooling - full load condition at full speed, we estimate thermal fatigue life of the exhaust manifold with the plastic strain increment as the evaluation parameters. It can guide the direction of optimal design of the exhaust manifold. Here we also revealed how the bolt force affects the manifold elastic and plastic behavior.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2272
Carl Bennett, Jason Bell, Jeffrey Guevremont
Abstract Elastomer compatibility is an important property of lubricants. When seals degrade oil leakages may occur, which is a cause of concern for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) because of warranty claims. Leakage is also a concern for environmental reasons. Most often, the mechanical properties and fitting of the oil seals is identified as the source of failure, but there are cases where the interaction between the lubricant and the seal material can be implicated. The performance of seal materials in tensile testing is a required method that must be passed in order to qualify lubricant additive packages. We conducted an extensive study of the interactions between these elastomeric materials and lubricant additive components, and their behavior over time. The physicochemical mechanisms that occur to cause seal failures will be discussed.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2204
Takafumi Mori, Masanori Suemitsu, Nobuharu Umamori, Takehisa Sato, Satoshi Ogano, Kenji Ueno, Oji Kuno, Kotaro Hiraga, Kazuhiko Yuasa, Shinichiro Shibata, Shinichiro Ishikawa
Abstract Torque loss reduction at differential gear unit is important to improve the fuel economy of automobiles. One effective way is to decrease the viscosity of lubricants as it results in less churning loss. However, this option creates a higher potential for thin oil films, which could damage the mechanical parts. At tapered roller bearings, in particular, wear at the large end face of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing bottom wear is one of major failure modes. To understand the wear mechanism, wear at the rolling contact surface of rollers and its counterpart, known as bearing side wear, was also observed to confirm the wear impact on the tapered roller bearings. Because gear oils are also required to avoid seizure under extreme pressure, the combination of a phosphorus anti-wear agent and a sulfurous extreme pressure agent are formulated.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2205
Chris McFadden, Kevin Hughes, Lydia Raser, Timothy Newcomb
Abstract Hybrid drivetrain hardware combines an electric motor and a transmission, gear box, or hydraulic unit. With many hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) hardware designs the transmission fluid is in contact with the electric motor. Some OEMs and tier suppliers have concerns about the electrical properties of automatic transmission fluids (ATFs). Lubrizol has conducted a fundamental research project to better understand the electrical conductivity of ATFs. In this paper, we will present conductivity data as a function of temperature for a range of commercially available ATFs. All fluids had conductivities ranging from 0.9 to 8x10-9 S/cm at 100 °C and can be considered insulators with the ability to dissipate static charge. Next we will deconstruct one ATF to show the relative impact of the various classes of lubricant additives. We find that more polar additives have a larger effect on conductivity on a normalized (per weight %) basis.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2351
Kotaro Tanaka, Kazuki Hiroki, Tomoki Kikuchi, Mitsuru Konno, Mitsuharu Oguma
Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. However, a lacquer is formed on the EGR valve or EGR cooler due to particulate matter and other components present in diesel exhaust, causing serious problems. In this study, the mechanism of lacquer deposition is investigated using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Deposition of temperature-dependent lacquers was evaluated by varying the temperature of a diamond prism between 80 and 120 °C in an ATR-FTIR spectrometer integrated into a custom-built sample line, which branched off from the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine. Lacquers were deposited on the diamond prism at 100 °C or less, while no lacquer was deposited at 120 °C. Time-dependent ATR-FTIR spectra were obtained for approximately 2 h from the beginning of the experiment.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8044
Guoyu Feng, Wenku Shi, Henghai Zhang, Qinghua Zu
Abstract In order to predict the fatigue life of thrust rod heavy duty commercial vehicle balanced suspension, based on the continuum mechanics theory, the fatigue life prediction model of rubber with equivalent effect as damage parameter is established. Based on the equivalent stress and fatigue cumulative damage theory, the fatigue damage evolution equation of rubber material expressed by stress is derived by using the strain energy function. The general fatigue life model is established by using the maximum logarithmic principal strain as the damage parameter. The finite element model of the thrust rod is established, and the stress distribution of the spherical hinge rubber layer and the easy damage area are analyzed. Based on the equivalent stress calculation results and the axial tension stress and strain data of the rubber material, the accuracy of the results of the finite element calculation is verified.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8027
Stefan Steidel, Thomas Halfmann, Manfred Baecker, Axel Gallrein
Abstract Rolling resistance and tread wear of tires do particularly influence the maintenance costs of commercial vehicles. Although tire labeling is established in Europe, it is meanwhile well-known that, due to the respective test procedures, these labels do not hold in realistic application scenarios in the field. This circumstance arises from the development phase of tires, where the respective performance properties are mainly evaluated in tire/wheel standalone scenarios in which the wide range of usage variability of commercial vehicles cannot be considered adequately. Within this article we address a method to predict indicators for rolling resistance and tread wear of tires in realistic application scenarios considering application-based factors of influence like specific customers, operation circumstances, regional dependencies, fleet specific characteristics etc.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8138
Pranav Shinde, K Ravi, Nandhini Nehru, Sushant Pawar, Balaji Balakrishnan, Vinit Nair
Abstract Body in white (BIW) forms a major structure in any automobile. It is responsible for safety and structural rigidity of the vehicle. Also, this frame supports the power plant, auxiliary equipments and all body parts of the vehicle. When it comes to judging the performance of the vehicle, BIW is analyzed not only for its strength and shape but also the weight. Light weight BIW structures have grown rapidly in order to fulfill the requirements of the best vehicle performance in dynamic conditions. Since then lot of efforts have been put into computer-aided engineering (CAE), materials research, advanced manufacturing processes and joining methods. Each of them play a critical role in BIW functionality. Constructional designing, development of light materials with improved strength and special manufacturing practices for BIW are few research areas with scope of improvement. This paper attempts to review various factors studied for BIW weight reduction.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8082
Kaushik Saha, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Anita Ramirez, Sibendu Som, Munidhar Biruduganti, Michael Bima, Patrick Powell
Abstract The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2084
Curtis Hayes
Abstract Successfully riveting aerospace fatigue-rated structure (for instance, wing panels) requires achieving rivet interference between a minimum and a maximum value in a number of locations along the shank of the rivet. In unbalanced structure, where the skin is much thicker than the stringer, this can be particularly challenging, as achieving minimum interference at the exit of the skin (D2) can often be a problem without exceeding the maximum interference at the exit of the stringer (D4). Softer base materials and harder, higher-strength rivets can compound the problem, while standard manufacturing variations in hardness of part and rivet materials can cause repeatability issues in the process. This paper presents a solution that has been successfully implemented on a production commercial aircraft.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2113
Raphael Reinhold
Abstract Resin transfer molding (RTM) is gaining importance as a particularly economical manufacturing method for composites needed in the automotive and aerospace industries. With this method, the component is first shaped with dry fiber reinforcements in a so-called “preforming process” before the mold is placed in a RTM tool, injected with resin and cured. In recent years, Broetje-Automation has been developing innovative product solutions that are specially designed for these preforming processes and suitable for industrial use. For the first time ever, Broetje’s Composite Preforming Cell (CPC) makes large-quantity serial production of complex and near-net-shape preforms for composite components using this RTM process possible. With the additional integration of the patented 3D Composite Handling System Broetje impressively demonstrates its service and product portfolio in the area of innovative composite manufacturing technology and its know-how as a complete system integrator.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2114
Matthias Meyer
Carbon composites have been on an odyssey within the past 15 years. Starting on the highest expectations regarding the performance, reality was hitting a lot of programs hard. Carbon composites were introduced on a very high technical level and industry has shown of being capable to handle those processes in general. In particular, production never sleeps and processes undergo a continuous change. Within these changes costs remain the most critical driver. As products are improving during their lifetime, they usually increase the degree of complexity, too. According to the normal cost improvement, this has drastic consequences for production. When setting up the first generation of composite production, the part being produced has been in the centre of attention.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 15678