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Viewing 1 to 30 of 16003
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0006
Yoichi Inoue, Toshiya Ohta, Hirotaka Kurita
A carburizing is widely applied for many kinds of engine components for motorcycles. On the other hand, a delayed fracture phenomenon of strengthened steel materials occurred under actual usage is a serious concern. The delayed fracture characteristics of surface modified steels such as a carburized steels followed by a tempering have a difficulty being evaluated by only measuring a partial characteristic of the hardened portion due to the existence of an inhomogeneity of a microstructure and a gradient of strength. Therefore, the studies on the characteristics of the delayed fracture of the surface modified steels are not so many. In this paper, the authors evaluated the delayed fracture characteristics of carburized and tempered actual components by comparing hydrogen desorption curves acquired with a thermal desorption spectroscopy using hydrogen-charged specimens with changing tempering conditions.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0009
Kazuya Miura, Toyofumi Tsuda, Akio Hikasa, Hiroyuki Minokoshi, Fumikazu Kimata, Ryo Watanabe, Choji Fukuhara
We investigated the interaction between the platinum and oxide support based on the HSAB (Hard-Soft-Acid-Base) concept to obtain guidelines for a superior exhaust-gas purification catalyst. The Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation provided the chemical potential (μ) and chemical hardness (η) via the eigenvalue of the Valence Band Maximum and Conduction Band Minimum. Moreover, it was found that the interaction depends on the μ and η, e.g., the metallic Pt cluster (Pt1, Pt3) had a greater interaction with the oxide supports having a lower η, on the other hand, the oxidized Pt cluster (Pt1O1, Pt1O2, Pt1O3, Pt1O4, Pt3O6) tends to be stabilized on the oxide support with a higher μ. These results could be explained by the HSAB concept. It was also found that the oxidation energy of the supported Pt cluster well corresponds to the actual valency of the supported Pt, furthermore, the particle size of the Pt after the thermal treatment depends on the μ of the oxide supports.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0049
Kohei Hirano, Yuki Chihara
The new titanium fuel tank has been developed to reduce weight of the fuel tank of production motocrossers. While the titanium permits deep drawing to shape a tank by presswork, the processing of titanium material is difficult, hence no past application of the material for a motorcycle fuel tank. This project was aimed at development of new techniques for mass production of titanium fuel tanks, and succeeded in mass production of titanium fuel tanks having an adequate durability to apply to a motocrosser that can receive a strong impact while driving. As a result, approximately 40% of weight reduction from the plastic fuel tank having the same fuel capacity was realized.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0056
Hirotoshi Inui, Toru Sakurai, Eiichi Sato, Tadashi Minoda, Yasuhiro Nakai
Tapered handlebars using high strength aluminum alloys have been applied mainly to motorcycle models requiring weight reduction and high texture appearance that aluminum handlebars can offer as their characteristics. This handle bar is manufactured through extrusion processing. Conventionally used alloys had low extrusion productivity, which led to increased cost of the handlebars. In view of this, we selected an alloy securing the strength by adding a large amount of zinc while reducing the amount of the copper, which deteriorates the extrusion productivity, to the minimum adding amount, in consideration of maintaining the stress corrosion cracking resistance. However, a large amount of zinc decreases the stress corrosion cracking resistance. Therefore, in order to obtain a metallic structure favorable to the prevention of stress corrosion cracking, the mandrel extrusion was applied for the pipe manufacturing method, and heat treatment condition and swaging condition were optimized.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0125
Rianti Sulamet-Ariobimo, Gregah Yudha, Tono Sukarnoto, Yusep Mujalis, Yoska Oktaviano
Lighter automotive components are produced to respond to global issue regarding energy. Lighter components can be achieved by replacing the material to those known as lighter material such as aluminium or applying thin wall casting technique. Lightweight automotive components will mean lower fuel consumption. Based on the success in making thin wall ductile iron plate (TWDI) with a thickness to 1 mm using a vertical casting, it encourages the implementation of the design to create lightweight automotive components. The design was applied to produce a thin wall two-cylinder engine ductile iron connecting rod which will be upgraded with austempering process. This connecting rod will be applied in Vespa PX150. The designs were simulated in Z-Cast simulation software and analyzed to determine the most optimum design. The chosen design was casted in a foundry to match the simulation. Evaluation of the characteristics will be run in the second stage of the research.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0095
Preechar Karin, Warawut Amornprapa, Phiranat Khamsrisuk, Pol-ake Budsayahem, Pattara Chammana, Kobsak Sriprapha, Katsunori Hanamura
The soot contamination in used engine oils of diesel engine vehicles was about 1% by weight. The soot and metal wear particle sizes might be in the range of 0-1 µm and 1-25 µm, respectively. The characteristics of soot affecting on metal wear was investigated. Soot particle contamination in diesel engine oil was simulated using carbon black. Micro-nanostructure of soot particles were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser diffraction spectroscopy (LDS). The metal wear behavior was studied by means of a Four-Ball tribology test with wear measured. Wear roughness in micro-scale was investigated by high resolution optical microscopy (OM) , 3D rendering optical technique and SEM image processing method. It was found that the ball wear scar diameter increased proportionally to the soot primary particle size. The effect of biodiesel contamination were also increasing in wear scar diameter.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0099
Kazunobu Sakamoto
The purpose of this study is to improve the accuracy of durability predictions for motorcycle body components through the implementation of a fatigue analysis that uses the finite element method (FEM) to identify the fatigue failure characteristics of arc welds, die-cast aluminum alloys, and thermo-plastics. In addition to highly accurate load conditions and stress analysis, a fatigue analysis that also takes into consideration the fatigue failure mechanism is essential to making accurate durability predictions. Fatigue tests were carried out under several load conditions using specimens of several different shapes that simplified the actual structures. The fatigue life of the weld toe is assumed to be the difference of the crack propagation rate due to the loading mode. The durability of die-cast aluminum alloys was found to be sensitive to the microscopic structure due to the casting process.
2017-10-13
Technical Paper
2017-01-5012
Harveer Singh Pali, Shashi Prakash Dwivedi
Abstract The present work deals with the fabrication and tribological testing of an aluminium/SiC composite. Fabrication was done using two techniques; mechanical stir casting and electromagnetic stir casting. Metal matrix composite (MMC) was fabricated using aluminium as a matrix and SiC as reinforcement in varying weight percentages. The wear and frictional properties of the MMC were studied by performing dry sliding wear test using a pin-on-disc wear tester for both types of samples. Wear rate retards with the increase the percentage of reinforcement whereas it improves with the addition of normal force. At same time frictional coefficient upsurges by increasing the normal force and percentage of reinforcement. Increasing percentage of reinforcement and using electromagnetic stir casting process obtained the higher frictional coefficient and lower wear rate.
2017-10-13
Technical Paper
2017-01-5013
G. Magendran
The input shafts are conventionally developed through Hot forging route. Considering upcoming new technologies the same part was developed through cold forging route which resulting in better Mechanical properties than existing hot forging process. It has added benefit of cost as well as environmental friendly. Generally, the part like Input shaft which having gear teeth, splines etc., will be manufactured through Hot forging process due to degree of deformation, availability of press capacity, diameter variations etc., This process consumes more energy in terms of electricity for heating the bar and also creates pollution to the atmosphere. Automotive input shaft design modified to accommodate cold forging process route to develop the shaft with press capacity of 2500T which gives considerable benefit in terms of mechanical and metallurgical Properties, close dimensional tolerances, less machining time, higher material yield when compared to hot forging and metal cutting operation.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2330
Leonardo Israel Farfan-Cabrera, Ezequiel Gallardo, José Pérez-González
Abstract Flouroelastomers and silicone rubbers are commonly employed in static and dynamic seals for automotive applications. In order to prevent premature failures and leakages caused by swelling and/or changes in their mechanical properties, materials for seals are selected according to their compatibility with the environment and fluids involved in the engine operation. Thus, in particular, the use of new fuels and additives in automotive engines requires the assessment of compatibility with common sealing elastomers to prevent failures. Currently, Jatropha oil is being used as a renewable source of fuel in diesel engines for electricity production, transport or agricultural mechanization in various countries. It is used either as biodiesel or as straight vegetable oil (SVO) since it has good heating power and provide exhaust gas with almost no sulfur or aromatic polycyclic compounds. However, the compatibility of elastomers with this SVO has not been investigated yet.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2357
Mark Devlin, Jeffrey Guevremont, Chip Hewette, Marc Ingram, Grant Pollard, William Wyatt
Abstract Different mechanical components in a vehicle can be made from different steel alloys with various surface treatments or coatings. Lubricant technology is needed to prevent wear and control friction on all of these different surfaces. Phosphorus compounds are the key additives that are used to control wear and they do this by forming tribofilms on surfaces. It has been shown that different operating conditions (pressures and sliding conditions) can influence the formation of tribofilms formed by different anti-wear additives. The effect of surface metallurgy and morphology on tribofilm formation is described in this paper. Our results show that additive technology can form proper tribofilms on various surfaces and the right combination of additives can be found for current and future surfaces.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2379
Qian Feng, Shu Shen, Mengliang Li, Zhijun Li, Kongjian Qin, Diming Lou, Jiguang Wang, Xiyu Fang
Abstract Recent toxicological and epidemiologic studies have shown that diesel emissions have been a significant toxic air contaminant. Catalyzed DPF (CDPF) not only significantly reduces the PM mass emissions (>90%), but also further promotes carrier self-regeneration and oxidize more harmful gaseous pollutants by the catalyst coated on the carrier. However, some ultrafine particles and potentially harmful gaseous pollutants, such as VOCs species, originally emitted in the vapor-phase at high plume temperature, may penetrate through the CDPF filter. Furthermore, the components and content of catalyst coated on the CDPF could influence the physicochemical properties and toxicity intensity of those escaping ultrafine particles and gaseous pollutants. In this work, (1) we investigated the influence of precious metal content as a variable parameter on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the small CDPF samples.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2406
Wu Yang, Xiuting Yin, Zhang Song Zhan, Huixian Shen, Huibin Qing, Qingqiang Zeng, Liyun Kang
Abstract This work addresses the problem of fatigue strength prediction of crankshaft fillet rolling processes to improve its accuracy. It is empirical to usually consider the effect of fillet rolling process on crankshaft fatigue performance. The fatigue performance of rolling process is mainly determined by induced compressive residual stresses, increased hardness and reduced roughness. Because the first two factors are difficult to measure the arc surface of fillet rolled cranks, it is difficult to predict the enhanced rate of crankshaft rolled performance to baseline unrolled’s. In this work a prediction method of fatigue strength for ductile cast iron crankshafts rolling process is presented. This method indirectly predicts the effect of the increased hardness on fatigue performance by the resonant bending fatigue test and modelling of crankshaft fillet rolling dynamic for the induced compressive residual stress.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2183
Xiangfeng Yu, Shengcheng Li, Zhishuang Ma, Wei Du, Fengxiang Huang, Weijun Huang, Beiping Jiang
Abstract A reciprocating piston expander model based on organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is built for engine waste heat recovery. The expander characterizes by variable expansion ratio through adjusting working fluid injection timing. This paper investigates the effect of working fluid evaporating pressure, expansion ratio and clearance volume on the expander performance which mainly includes output power, equivalent recovery efficiency, total output power, expander efficiency, and the weighted efficiency of the expander, weighted heat recovery efficiency of the expander. The results demonstrate that the total output power and the equivalent heat recovery efficiency increase with working fluid evaporating pressure under overall operating conditions, while the increment is negligible. The expander reaches maximum total output power up to 83.4kW under c100 engine condition and 1.1MPa working fluid evaporating pressure within the research operating conditions.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2222
ZhenYang Liu, Xihui Wang
Abstract The ever increasing popularity of electric vehicles and higher requirement on safety and comfort has led heat pump air conditioning system indispensable in electric vehicle. Many studies have shown that the addition of nano particles contributes to great improvement on thermal conductivity than that of conventional refrigerants. Therefore, the application of the magnetic nanorefrigerant in heat pump air conditioning system has massive potential to heighten the heat transfer efficiency. This paper aims at studying the magnetic nanorefrigerant comprised of the magnetic nano powder Fe3O4 and refrigerant R134a. According to the relevant theoretical analyses and empirical formula, the heat transfer coefficient, density, viscosity, and other physical parameters are calculated approximately.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2219
Xihui Wang
Abstract The conventional cooling fluids in vehicle engine cooling water jacket have relatively poor heat transfer performance. The key to enhance heat transfer in cooling-jacket is to research a kind of new coolants. Nanofluids have heat transfer enhancement merits. In present study, the numerical simulation on Fe3O4 nanofluid flow in cooling water jacket of Gasoline direct injection engine was performed using computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) software FLUENT. The heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids was calculated and verified by experiment. Fe3O4 nano-particles were used in mixture of water/ethylene glycol as a base fluid. The thermal performance of the nanofluid was studied, also the thermal performance of a cooling-jacket was studied with CFD technology. The simulation was performed for different volumetric concentrations of(1%,2%,5%) nanofluids at different engine speeds. The results showed that heat transfer enhanced compared to the base fluid.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2343
Nicolas Champagne, Nicolas Obrecht, Arup Gangopadhyay, Rob Zdrodowski, Z Liu
Abstract The oil and additive industry is challenged to meet future automotive legislations aimed at reducing worldwide CO2 emissions levels. The most efficient solution used to date has been to decrease oil viscosity leading to the introduction of new SAE grades. However this solution may soon reach its limit due to potential issues related to wear with lower engine oil viscosities. In this paper, an innovative solution is proposed that combines the use of a new tailor-made polyalkylene glycol (PAG) with specific anti-wear additives. Valvetrain wear measurements using radionuclide technique demonstrates the robustness of this solution. The wear performance was also confirmed in Sequence IVA test. An extensive tribological evaluation (film formation, wear and tribofilm surface analysis) of the interactions between the base oil and the anti-wear additives lead us to propose an underlying mechanism that can explain this performance benefit.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2366
Wenzheng Xia, Yi Zheng, Xiaokun He, Dongxia Yang, Huifang Shao, Joesph Remias, Joseph Roos, Yinhui Wang
Abstract Because of the increased use of gasoline direct engine (GDI) in the automobile industry, there is a significant need to control particulates from GDI engines based on emission regulations. One potential technical approach is the utilization of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). The successful adoption of this emission control technology needs to take many aspects into consideration and requires a system approach for optimization. This study conducted research to investigate the impact of vehicle driving cycles, fuel properties and catalyst coating on the performance of GPF. It was found that driving cycle has significant impact on particulate emission. Fuel quality still plays a role in particulate emissions, and can affect the GPF performance. Catalyzed GPF is preferred for soot regeneration, especially for the case that the vehicle operation is dominated by congested city driving condition, i.e. low operating temperatures.
2017-10-05
Journal Article
2017-01-9287
David Oh, Martin Brouillette, Jean-Sebastien Plante
Abstract In this second of two parts, the fundamentals of convective wall heat transfer losses are elucidated in the context of the desired objective toward its reduction in a direct-injected, hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine. A comparative, transient 2D CFD analysis evaluated at 4500 RPM between a combustion chamber design representing current practice and the here-introduced “vortex-stratified combustion” process finds an approximately 50% reduction in the peak convective flux with the latter.
2017-10-05
Journal Article
2017-01-9288
Stefania Falfari, Gian Marco Bianchi, Giacomo Micci, Augusto Della Torre, Gianluca Montenegro, Angelo Onorati, Sergio Negro
Abstract Metallic open-cell foams have proven to be valuable for many engineering applications. Their success is mainly related to mechanical strength, low density, high specific surface, good thermal exchange, low flow resistance and sound absorption properties. The present work aims to investigate three principal aspects of real foams: the geometrical characterization, the flow regime characterization, the effects of the pore size and the porosity on the pressure drop. The first aspect is very important, since the geometrical properties depend on other parameters, such as porosity, cell/pore size and specific surface. A statistical evaluation of the cell size of a foam sample is necessary to define both its geometrical characteristics and the flow pattern at a given input velocity. To this purpose, a procedure which statistically computes the number of cells and pores with a given size has been implemented in order to obtain the diameter distribution.
2017-10-05
Journal Article
2017-01-9286
David Oh, Martin Brouillette, Jean-Sebastien Plante
Abstract A vortex-stratified combustion process for hydrogen-fueled reciprocating internal combustion engines is introduced to increase the thermal efficiency by reducing the convective heat transfer losses to the surrounding walls during combustion. The process imposes a highly ordered rotational field upon the charge in a separate, transverse, cylindrically shaped combustion chamber by means of channels that connect with the main chamber enclosed by the engine cylinder and piston. Gaseous hydrogen is injected directly during the compression stroke, while air enters into the combustion chamber tangentially and preferentially along the circumference due to the Coandă effect. The two streams entrain one another and develop into a vigorous vortex by virtue of the chamber and channel geometries.
2017-09-30
Technical Paper
2017-01-5009
Li Fang, Henry Hu, Xueyuan Nie, Jimi Tjong, Xuezhi Zhang
Abstract In the present study, a design of experiment (DOE) technique, the Taguchi method, was used to develop as-cast high strength aluminum alloys with element additions of Si, Cu, Ni and Sr. The Taguchi method uses a special design of orthogonal arrays to study all the designed factors with a minimum of experiments at a relatively low cost. The element factors chosen for this study were Si, Cu, Ni and Sr content in the designed aluminum-based alloys. For each factor, three different levels of weight percentages were selected (Si: 6, 9, 12%, Cu: 3, 5, 7%, Ni: 0.5, 1, 1.5% and Sr: 0.01, 0.02, 0.03%). Tensile properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation at failure were selected as three individual responses to evaluate the engineering performance of the designed alloys. The results of the factor response analysis were used to derive the optimal level combinations.
2017-09-29
Technical Paper
2017-01-7004
Abhirup Chakraborty, Sagar Polisetti, Jayanthan Jayaseelan, Rajesh Upadhyay
Abstract Vibrational fatigue is a metal fatigue caused by the forced vibrations which are purely random in nature. The phenomenon is predominantly important for the components/systems which are subjected to extreme vibration during its operation. In a vehicle, an engine is the main source of vibration. The vibrational fatigue, therefore, plays a key role in the deterioration of engine mounted components. Multiple test standards and methodologies are available for validating engine mounted parts of an automobile. These might not be appropriate in the case of an off- road vehicle as the vibrational exposure of engine mounted components of an off-road vehicle is entirely different. In the case of an off-road vehicle, the engine mounted components are subjected to a comparatively higher level of vibration for a longer duration of time as compared to the passenger cars.
2017-09-22
Technical Paper
2017-01-5010
H.J. Liu, X.D. Zhang
Abstract In order to research the effect of process parameters (laser power, welding speed, wire-feed speed, spot diameter) on mechanical properties of Zn-coated Steel Laser Brazing Lap Joint for vehicle, the influence of welding parameters on energy input of brazing seam cross section was theoretically analyzed, and then a great number of laser brazing experiments of 0.7mm galvanized steel was carried out. After that, the tensile strength and micro-hardness tests were also done for well-formed joints of galvanized steel formed in the laser brazing. The results show that joints with good mechanical properties and surface morphology can be formed when laser power is in the range of 2500-3200W and the other parameters keep in a specified range. Joint performance significantly reduces when the value of wire-feed speed exceeds 3.0m/min for that a wider brazing seam cross section can’t be formed.
2017-09-19
Journal Article
2017-01-2154
Alan Hiken
Abstract A review of critical technologies and manufacturing advances that have enabled the evolution of the composite fuselage is described. The author’s perspective on several development, military, and production programs that have influenced and affected the current state of commercial fuselage production is presented. The enabling technologies and current approaches being used for wide body aircraft fuselage fabrication and the potential reasons why are addressed. Some questions about the future of composite fuselage are posed based on the lessons learned from today and yesterday.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2130
Yucheng Liu, Thomas Sippel, Ge He
Abstract Oven and flame tests were designed and conducted to evaluate the heat resistance of a ceramic coating material, Cerakote C-7700Q, and evaluate its viability to replace the intumescent coating as one painting material for helicopter engine cowlings. The test results showed that the currently used painting scheme of the engine cowlings failed the 220°C oven test while after replacing the epoxy seal coat with the Cerakote, the new painting system passed the 220°C test in regards to painting bubbling. This study explained why serious appearance defects occurred in the inner skin of the engine cowling when the aircraft is hovering and suggested that one most time- and cost-effective solution is to repaint the current engine cowlings with a new three coating system of Cerakote, surface protection HS7072-622, and intumescent paint as a fireproof lacquer.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2149
Cameron S. Gillespie
Abstract As carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) become more integrated into the design of large single piece aircraft structures, aircraft manufacturers are demanding higher speed and efficiency in Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) deposition systems. To facilitate the manufacturing of large surface area and low contour parts (wing skins, in this case) at a high production rate, Electroimpact has developed a new AFP head consisting of 20 1.5 inch wide pre-impregnated carbon tows. The new head design has been named the ‘OH20’, short for ‘One and a Half Inch, 20 Tows’. This AFP head format creates a deposition swath over 30 inches wide when all 20 tows are active. A total of four of these AFP heads have been integrated with a quick change robotic tool changer on two high speed, high acceleration, and high accuracy moving beam gantries.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2148
Ho-Sung Lee
In this paper, manufacturing of launcher structural components with superplastic forming (SPF) and solid state welding technologies is presented with several examples. Some of high strength aerospace alloys, like aluminum, titanium and superalloys, are known to have superplasticity so that complex shapes of aerospace components can be produced with this technology. A combination of superplastic forming and solid state welding processes produces lighter and stiffer components than one manufactured with conventional machining and welding. Solid state welding is an attractive method to weld materials without melting where mechanical properties are important since the welding interface is homogeneous without liquid phases.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2139
Guy Fortin
Abstract This paper reviews the current knowledge on super-hydrophobic coatings (SHC). Using an ideal super-hydrophobic surface patterned with identical cylindrical flathead posts forming a square network with constant periodicity, models are proposed to explain SHC, wear and ice adherence on SHC. The models demonstrate that SHC based on Cassie-Baxter state improve the bead mobility compared to SHC based on Wenzel state and more suitable for aircraft application. Their erosion resistance can be improved by increasing the post height and the hydrophobic material thickness. Their ice adhesion reduction factor (IARF) is better but SHC based on Cassie-Baxter state have a limitation to reduce ice adherence dependence on the surface pattern and IARF of the hydrophobic material. The bead mobility is calculated from advancing and receding water contact angles (WCA).
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2123
Violet Leavers
Abstract The need to maintain aircraft in remote, harsh environments poses significant challenges. For example, in desert assignments or on-board carrier vessels where frequent rotation of staff with variable levels of skill and experience requires condition monitoring equipment that is not only robust and portable but also user friendly and requiring a minimum of training and skill to set up and use correctly. The mainstays of any on-site aircraft maintenance program are various fluid and particulate condition monitoring tests that convey information about the current mechanical state of the system. In the front line of these is the collection and analysis of wear debris particles retrieved from a component’s lubricating or power transmission fluid or from magnetic plugs. It is standard practice within the specialist laboratory environment to view and image wear debris using a microscope.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 16003