Abstract It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work. The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements.
Frontloading Approach for Sound Package Design for Noise Reduction and Weight Optimization Using Statistical Energy Analysis
Abstract First time right vehicle performance and time to market, remains all automotive OEMs top priority, to remain competitive. NVH performance of product communicates impression to customer, remains one of the most important and complex attribute to meet, considering performances to be met for 20 Hz -6000 Hz. Frontloading techniques (FEM/BEM/SEA/MBD) for NVH are critical and necessary to achieve first time right NVH performance. Objective of this paper is to present a frontloading approach for automotive sound package optimization (absorber, barrier and damper elements) for SUV vehicle. Current process of designing sound package is mainly based on experience, competitive benchmarking of predecessor products. This process (current process) heavily depend on testing and validation at physical prototype and happens at later stages of program, especially on tooled up body.
Abstract Vehicles manufacturers, in search of cost reduction, fill the tanks of recently manufactured vehicles with the least volume of fuel necessary for future commercialization. The adoption of such practice, depending on the diesel fuel storage conditions, may lead to oxidation products formation in the fuel system and to problems during the first start of these vehicles. Some vehicles manufacturers, trying to minimize the occurrence of these problems, replace the diesel fuel in the vehicle tank with new fuel when vehicle storage time reaches 90 days. As a result of such occurrences, the opportunity for a first fill diesel fuel development, that presented better oxidation stability during storage, was identified.
Unique Material Handling and Automated Metrology Systems Provides Backbone of Accurate Final Assembly Line for Business Jet
Abstract Figure 1 Global 7000 Business Jet. Photo credit: Robert Backus. The customer’s assembly philosophy demanded a fully integrated flexible pulse line for their Final Assembly Line (FAL) to assemble their new business jets. Major challenges included devising a new material handling system, developing capable positioners and achieving accurate joins while accommodating two different aircraft variants (requiring a “flexible” system). An additional requirement was that the system be easily relocated to allow for future growth and reorganization. Crane based material handling presents certain collision and handover risks, and also present a logistics challenge as cranes can become overworked. Automated guided vehicles can be used to move large parts such as wings, but the resulting sweep path becomes a major operational limitation. The customer did not like the trade-offs for either of these approaches.
Abstract Air cargo containers are used to load freight on various types of aircrafts to expedite their handling. Fuel cost is the largest contributor to the total cost of ownership of an air cargo container. Therefore, a better fuel economy could be achieved by reducing the weight of such containers. This paper aims at developing innovative, lightweight design concepts for air cargo containers that would allow for weight reduction in the air cargo transportation industry. For this purpose, innovative design and assembly concepts of lightweight design configurations of air cargo containers have been developed through the applications of lightweight composites. A scaled model prototype of a typical air cargo container was built to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of creating such a container from fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials. The paper is the authoritative source for the abstract.
Abstract Biodiesel, Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), can be made from different types of animal and vegetable oils. Its characteristics are different from those of fossil diesel, such as oxygen content, higher cold filter plugging point, and so on. Compared with fossil diesel, biodiesel can be oxidized more easily. If the fuel is oxidized, there might be product to cause some problems, like blocking filters. Therefore, the information of the storage life of the fuel is very important to vehicle owners. Moreover, the storage condition of the fuels is related to the types of source materials, additives, local weather or quality control of biodiesel. This research had used D100 and B2 fuels as experiment samples. (Blending B100 made by two different companies and represented A and B.)
Abstract Fuel economy is one of the major challenges for both on and off-road vehicles. Inefficient engine operation and loss of kinetic energy in the form of heat during braking are two of the major sources of wasted fuel energy. Rising energy costs, stringent emission norms and increased environmental awareness demand efficient drivetrain designs for the next generation of vehicles. This paper analyzes three different types of powertrain concepts for efficient operation of a forklift truck. Starting from a conventional torque convertor transmission, hydrostatic transmission and a hydraulic hybrid transmission (Eaton architecture) are compared for their fuel economy performance. Eaton hydraulic hybrid system is seen to perform much better compared to other two architectures. Improved fuel economy is attributed to efficient engine operation and regeneration of vehicle kinetic energy during braking.
In some today's and future electronic and optoelectronic packaging systems (assemblies), including those intended for aerospace applications, the package (system's component containing active and passive devices and interconnects) is placed (sandwiched) between two substrates. In an approximate stress analysis these substrates could be considered, from the mechanical (physical) standpoint, identical. Such assemblies are certainly bow-free, provided that all the stresses are within the elastic range and remain elastic during testing and operation. Ability to remain bow-free is an important merit for many applications. This is particularly true in optical engineering, where there is always a need to maintain high coupling efficiency. The level of thermal stresses in bow-free assemblies of the type in question could be, however, rather high.
Oxidation Stability of Diesel/Biodiesel Blends: Impact of Fuels Physical-Chemical Properties over Ageing During Storage and Accelerated Oxidation
Current and future engine technologies and fuels are mutually dependent. The increased use of alternative fuels has been linked to deterioration in performance of injectors, fuel filters and engines as a result of insoluble deposit formation. The present work aimed to study the impact of Diesel/biodiesel blends formulation (biodiesel feedstock and content) and temperature on the oxidation stability based on total acid number (TAN). The biofuels used in the fuel matrix were: rapeseed, soy and palm methyl esters (RME, SME and PME respectively). The Diesel/biodiesel blends were made with 0%v/v, 5%v/v, 10% v/v and 20%v/v of biodiesel blended with additive-free new Diesel. The oxidation stability of Diesel/biodiesel blends was to evaluate during 6 months fuels storage, under 20°C and 40°C, and fuels severe oxidation into a reactor vessel to better understand the parameters leading to fuel oxidation on-board.
Abstract Increased demands on rare earth fossil fuels and the global warming have led to development of alternative technology vehicles. Electrical vehicle (EV) is chosen as one of the alternative technology to overcome these hindrances. In EVs the battery and the motor are the two most critical components used for generating the required power output. In this paper, work was done for selection battery technology and relevant packaging for a small car. The work done is described in four stages: i) battery selection based on literature, ii) car selection based on virtual reality (VR) study iii) battery package design, and iv) finally specification sheet was developed for an EV. Key Objectives considered for the battery selection are: i) minimal maintenance, ii) modular and scalable, iii) high energy density, iv) optimized thermal management, and v) low cost implications.
Abstract Material handling is a major section in all the industries especially for delicate and huge components. Here in this industry they are using pneumatics system to tilt the component for certain angle so that operator will be able to do the further operation in the line. Pneumatic system needs compressed air for running the system, which in turn requires electricity to compress the air using an air compressor. Due to frequent power shutdowns many industries are facing problem to run their manufacturing unit peacefully. As an alternate they are using generators which require fuel to generate power. This adds excess cost for manufacturing the products and demand for fuel is also increasing day by day. So to avoid all this problem with a one step solution, dependability of energy resources has to be minimized. For avoiding the usage of energy resources the usage of pneumatics and compressed air has to be reduced.
Abstract In current scenario importance of fuel efficient vehicles, lesser emissions & energy efficiency are the major considerations for any vehicle manufacturer. To meet these expectations vehicle manufacturer are exploring alternate powertrains to reduce emissions and produce better fuel efficient vehicles. For any vehicle manufacturer component cost, weight and package volume are the major driving factors for success. This is even true for latest upcoming hybrid and electric vehicles as well. To gain advantage and introduce products faster, OEMs are inclined to electrify their existing platforms to compete with other manufacturers. To convert existing vehicles into hybrid vehicles, all the major components like e machine, High voltage battery, power electronics etc. needs to be carefully packaged along with existing components in the same package space.
Abstract Road train vehicles have been applied as one of the common and efficient ways for transportation of goods, specifically hazardous liquid cargos, in different nations. These vehicles have a wide variety of lengths and towing systems such as the fifth wheel or the dolly draw-bar. Based upon specific regulations, they could be authorized to move on specific roads. In order to avoid hazard and danger in case of accidents, safety performance of a B-train vehicle as a specific type of road train vehicles is investigated in this paper. A Multi-Body Dynamic (MBD) model, which consists of a prime mover and two trailers coupled by fifth wheels, are simulated in the initial phase of the study. The developed dynamic model is capable of simulating required tests as well as the SAE lane change, along with a constant radius turn for the purpose of roll and yaw stability analysis and safety evaluation. The effects of variation of the fluid fill level are considered in this research.
Abstract “Today's electronic components rely on principles of physics and science with no manufacturing precedence and little data on long term stability and reliability.”  Yet many are counting on their reliable performance years if not decades into the future, sometimes after being literally abandoned in barns or stored neatly in tightly sealed bags. What makes sense? To toss everything away, or use it as is and hope for the best? Surely there must be a middle ground! With an unprecedented number of missions in its future and an ever-tightening budget, NASA faces the daunting task of doing more with less. One proven way for a project to save money is to use already screened and qualified devices from the spares of its predecessors. But what is the risk in doing so? How can a project reliably count on the value of spare devices if the risk of using them is not, in itself, defined?
Compatibility Assessment of Plastic Infrastructure Materials to Test Fuels Representing Gasoline Blends Containing Ethanol and Isobutanol
The compatibility of plastic materials used in gasoline storage and dispensing applications was determined for test fuels representing neat gasoline (Fuel C), and blends containing 25% ethanol (CE25a), 16% isobutanol (CiBu16a), and 24% isobutanol (CiBu24a). A solubility analysis was also performed and compared to the volume swell results obtained from the test fuel exposures. The plastic specimens were exposed to each test fuel for16 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 65 hours at 60°C and then remeasured for volume and hardness. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), which measures the storage modulus as a function of temperature, was also performed on the dried specimens to determine the temperature associated with the onset of the glass-to-rubber transition (Tg). For many of the plastic materials, the solubility analysis was able to predict the relative volume swell for each test fuel.
A Detailed Analysis of Proper Safety Features Implementation in the Design and Construction of Modern Automotive LPG and CNG Containers
Paper describes analysis of the design process of modern automotive LPG and CNG containers. Over decade experience in the field of both computer based analysis as well as in the real conditions testing has been collected and presented in the paper. Authors present the potentials of modern FEM methodologies in the optimization and production of lightweight steel containers. It has been proved that the most sophisticated numerical analysis have to be followed by the construction verification, particularly considering direct exposure to fire. Bonfire test have become obligatory for both liquid and compressed gases containers. Properly chosen fire protection system, together with the adequate level of quality of materials applied for its production together with proper directing of the gas flowing out from safety devices are the essential factors defining gas containers fire safety.
Abstract Scooters are popular for the legroom available in the front and closed storage space beneath the seat. Engine is located at rear part of the vehicle beneath the storage space and is cooled by forcing the air by a centrifugal fan over the engine surface. Heat is rejected from the engine by the forced cooling and radiation to the surroundings. Storage space gets heated as result of excessive heat rejection from engine. To protect the material of storage space and the items stored in that, it is necessary to avoid heating of the storage space. The work aims to conduct the storage space heating analysis in a scooter. The objective is to propose the design modifications to reduce the storage space heating. The effect of convection and radiation in heating of the storage space is studied.
For any organization, inventory management has come up as a big challenge to handle. Since, there are extensive variations in the products; the hurdles related to this issue get more intensified. Thus, the prediction of correct number of inventory between two different manufacturing systems is difficult and needs absolute understanding about the respective behavior of the system. In this paper the illustrations are about the application of ‘probability distribution function’ (or the PDF) in order to gain understanding about the behavior of the system in different working conditions, such as FTQ, uptime, etc. PDF assists in representing line behavior in terms of graphic distribution and comprehensive. Thus, the process gets easier to control inventory within the confidence level and further saves procurement costs, area of shed and costs of material handling. This is applicable for an automobile OEM that has savings over items with ‘A’ class ranking within procurement cost.
Alternative automotive engine oil filtration devices are described herein, aiming at alleviating the environmental issues caused by conventional one-piece, spin-on, throwaway filters. The spin-on feature has been retained in these novel filters, to facilitate retrofitting, however provisions to dismantle the filter have been incorporated to allow for periodic replacement of the filter element (cartridge). The filter element is made of ceramic powder and, upon replacement, it may be treated and reused as such, or it may be crushed, treated and remanufactured from the recycled powder. In the process, the entirety of the used motor oil may be retrieved, treated and reused, thus conserving energy and resources, minimizing waste streams and, most importantly, preventing environmental ground-water contamination.
Gasoline vapour losses from marketing operations are a major source of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emission and a significant economic loss. Exposure to VOC can cause adverse health effects. VOC also lead to the formation of harmful ground level ozone. Gasoline vapour losses from retail outlets occur in two stages viz., vapour losses from the underground storage tank termed as Stage I and vapour losses during dispensing of fuel to the vehicles termed as Stage II. In India, there are currently only few Stage II vapour recovery systems in selected marketing outlets and no Stage I vapour recovery systems in place. Quantifying the extent of the gasoline losses would help in implementation of the vapour recovery systems.
A roof fairing is a commonly used add-on for trucks or tractor-trailers, where a significant difference in height exists between the cabin and the container. A roof fairing reduces the aerodynamic drag on the vehicle by directing the onward wind flow smoothly onto the container and thus reducing flow separation in front of the container. Since standard containers are available in two different heights and there are cases when vehicles ply without load i.e. without a container, it is necessary to adjust the height of the fairing accordingly to maintain an optimum aerodynamic configuration. While adjustable fairings have been in use in the commercial vehicle industry, these fairings are usually shaped as flat plates, often with open sides for ease of folding. A highly curved and bulbous fairing helps in reducing drag better, especially in presence of side winds, although it makes adjustability difficult.
More than ever before, electronics industries manufactures around the world are required to improve products by substituting Tin/Lead for lead-free solders in accordance with European directives on End of Life Vehicles (ELV) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and Restriction on Hazardous Substances (RoHS). Similarly, the European directive on End of Life Vehicles (ELV) affect the automotive sector where lead-based solders frequently are the main application for joining electronics and electrical applications under hood and in passenger compartment devices such as GPS locators and audio/video entertainment media. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the legislation around the world and the impact to Brazilian automotive market.
As information is going to be a strategic weapon in all future warfare, every country is taking giant steps to access the accurate information about the combat situation so that right decision is taken at right time A Battle Tank can effectively annihilate the enemy targets, until it has Ammunition Stocks and can successfully maneuver through the enemy locations until the fuel lasts, thus replenishing the same is a foremost important winning factor in war. So, the Information about the exact quantity of Fuel, Ammunition available in the Fighting vehicle (Tanks) at any point of time dictates its deployability into the deeper enemy territories. Worldwide, all Main Battle Tanks (MBT), are fitted with a capacitance based fuel level indicating system. The difficulty is that it can indicate only the volume of a particular fuel tank to which it is fitted, where as a MBT may have many fuel tanks, to utilize the space wherever possible.
A requirement of low cost, pollution free, flexible shelter was required for storing and housing costly equipment in remote areas. As such, a concept of an inflatable structure was thought of. This inflatable flexible structure is a mobile system, which could be used for housing costly equipment for providing emergency services, or used as transit camp at remote places. The flexible dome would be required to be inflated with air blowers for 4 to 5 hrs initially. These air blowers would be required to be operated continuously, for maintaining a constant pressure of about 4 mbar inside the envelope. Further it is provided with air conditioning units for controlling the temperature and humidity inside the envelope. The hemispherical structure is fabricated from coated fabrics having resistance to environmental degradation. It is also designed to withstand external wind speed up to 100 kmph.
This paper reports and analyses experimental results showing the performances of two state-of-the art, commercially available storage systems, adequate for use onboard hybrid vehicles, i.e. a supercapacitor (SC) and a super-high power lithium battery. The two devices were subjected to specific experimental tests adequate to ease comparisons for use onboard hybrid vehicles. The results are expressed mainly in terms of specific power and charge/discharge efficiency as a function of the wanted discharge time; they show that, if future cycle efficiency analyses do not reverse the result, very high power lithium batteries are a very competitive candidate for use as onboard storage within hybrid vehicles, when storage of a single technology are considered.
NOx emitted from diesel is one of the main air pollutants for most countries. To reduce the emission of NOx could promote to diffuse diesel vehicles. A NOx storage/reduction (NSR) catalyst has been developed for the diesels. The catalyst for NSR is strongly poisoned by sulfur. We have found good reaction of CaCO3 with sulfur dioxide by using a thermogravimetry. We obtained desulfurization breakthrough characteristic for the sample of the CaCO3 which is washcoated on the monolith. As a result, this sample which has specific surface area, of 100 m2/g, absorbed SO2 about 0.43 ~ 0.45 g−SO2/g−CaCO3. In this experimental condition, The conversion of the sulfate does not depend on the amount of the supported CaCO3. The absorption efficiency of these samples were more than 99.4%. According to this result, it was found that the necessary amount of the absorbent was supposed to be 0.538 kg or 2.1 L for 100,000 km running.
Euro 6 European legislation emission limits, expected to be introduced around the 2014 timeframe, Lean NOx Trap (LNT) Aftertreatment technology is today considered one the of candidate technology to allow diesel Engine to meet the future Euro 6 limit. The working principle of the LNT is based on its capability to store the NOx engine out during the normal lean (excess of Oxygen) phase operation condition of the Diesel engine. The NOx will be then reduced in a dedicated regeneration phase which consist in creating for relatively short time a rich exhaust gas condition inside the LNT. The LNT regeneration strategy lead to run a Diesel engine with a rich mixture out of the combustion as a Gasoline engine. This can be obtained using advanced air and fuel management. The fuel management implicate the use of delayed injections (after and/or post injections) which can have a direct impact on oil dilution.
The Flexible Membrane Commode (FMC) is an alternative waste management system designed to address the severe mass restrictions on the Orion vehicle. The concept includes a deployable seat and single use, three layer bags that employ air flow to draw solids away from the body and safely contain them in disposable bags.1 Simulated microgravity testing of the system was performed during two separate parabolic flight campaigns in July and August of 2008. Experimental objectives included verifying the waste fill procedures in reduced gravity, characterizing waste behavior during the filling process, and comparison of the results with model predictions. In addition the operational procedure for bag installation, removal, and sealing were assessed. 2 A difficult operational requirement concerns the delivery of the fecal waste simulant into the upper area of the bag in a manner that faithfully simulates human defecation.
This paper documents the progress of a conceptual packaging design effort for a Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The concept discussed is a flexible backpack intended for use on the Constellation Program (CxP) lunar suit, also known as the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE). The goal of this effort is to reduce the weight of the PLSS packaging while also meeting CxP goals to develop systems that are less costly, more adaptable to mission and technology changes, and have more performance capability than that of existing systems or previous lunar systems. This flexible backpack concept relies on a foam protection system to absorb, distribute, and dissipate the energy from falls on the lunar surface. The testing and analysis of the foam protection system concept that took place during this effort indicate that this method of system packaging is a viable solution.
Two separate experimental rigs used in tests on NASA and Zero-G Corporation aircrafts flying low-gravity trajectories, and in the NASA 2.2 Second Drop Tower have been developed to test the functioning of the Flexible Membrane Commode (FMC) concept under reduced gravity conditions. The first rig incorporates the flexible, optically opaque membrane bag and the second rig incorporates a transparent chamber with a funnel assembly for evacuation that approximates the size of the membrane bag. Different waste dispensers have been used including a caulking gun and flexible hose assembly, and an injection syringe. Waste separation mechanisms include a pair of wire cutters, an iris mechanism, as well as discrete slug injection. The experimental work is described in a companion paper. This paper focuses on the obtained results and analysis of the data.