Start/Stop Test Drive Cycle Design and Implementation in Challenging Markets: A Mexico City Case Study
Abstract Political and social trends in the automotive industry production and consumption have changed in the last decade, driving a demand for more efficient, low-fuel consuming, clean vehicles in most markets nowadays. Recently the demand for such vehicles has been increasing and emerging markets are no exception; automakers all around the world have invested heavily in developing new electrification technologies that would comply with the newer and stricter regulations and environmental policies, being Start-Stop systems one of the preferred approaches due to their lower complexity and cost compared to full and mild hybrids. Mexico stands out as a challenge for the implementation of this technology due to its wide range of altitudes, temperatures, traffic jams, and some other contributing factors that can hinder this type of application – especially in its bigger and more populated cities.
Abstract The automotive industry is rapidly expanding its Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicle product offerings in response to meet customer wants and regulatory requirements. One way for electrified vehicles to have an increasing impact on fleet-level CO2 emissions is for their sales volumes to go up. This means that electrified vehicles need to deliver a complete set of vehicle level attributes like performance, Fuel Economy and range that is attractive to a wide customer base at an affordable cost of ownership. As part of “democratizing” the Hybrid and plug-In Hybrid technology, automotive manufacturers aim to deliver these vehicle level attributes with a powertrain architecture at lowest cost and complexity, recognizing that customer wants may vary considerably between different classes of vehicles. For example, a medium duty truck application may have to support good trailer tow whereas a C-sized sedan customer may prefer superior city Fuel Economy.
Abstract Voice of customer is typically captured through multiple connect points like surveys, warranty claims, social media, and so on. Customer verbatim is collected through these connect points to encourage free expression of opinion by customers. Such verbatim data is generally of high value and is typically analyzed using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for translating into influencing actions in manufacturing, customer service, marketing, and product development departments. One of the challenges in analyzing unstructured verbatim data is to map that data onto appropriate concern codes (CCCs), which are typically used in automotive firms for tracking quality and satisfaction metrics. These concern codes map to a hierarchy of function areas in the organization aimed at improving product, service and hence the customer’s overall experience.
Abstract For achieving viable mass customization of products, product configuration is often performed that requires deep understanding on the impact of product features and feature combinations on customers’ purchasing behaviors. Existing literature has been traditionally focused on analyzing the impact of common customer demographics and engineering attributes with discrete choice modeling approaches. This paper aims to expand discrete choice modeling through the incorporation of optional product features, such as customers’ positive or negative comments and their satisfaction ratings of their purchased products, beyond those commonly used attributes. The paper utilizes vehicle as an example to highlight the range of optional features currently underutilized in existing models. First, data analysis techniques are used to identify areas of particular consumer interest in regards to vehicle selection.
Abstract Electrified vehicles including Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) made by Ford Motor Company are fitted with a telematics modem to provide customers with the means to communicate with their vehicles and, at the same time, receive insight on their vehicle usage. These services are provided through the “MyFordMobile” website and phone applications, simultaneously collecting information from the vehicle for different event triggers. In this work, we study this data by using Big Data Methodologies including a Hadoop Database for storing data and HiveQL, Pig Latin and Python scripts to perform analytics. We present electrified vehicle customer behaviors including geographical distribution, trip distances, and daily distances and compare these to the Atlanta Regional Survey data. We discuss customer behaviors pertinent to electrified vehicles including charger types used, charging occurrence, charger plug-in times etc.
Abstract In order to design the in-wheel motor (IWM) for Electric Vehicles (EV), it is necessary to analyze the desired (expected) duty cycle at a higher performance level in order that the IWM becomes commercially relevant. The duty cycle may be representative of different segments of the customer base. Or, the individual customer may wish to have a set of IWMs that uniquely meet his/her measured “demand” cycle for a balance of drivability and efficiency. Questions then arise: How to measure the demand cycle of an individual? What 2 or 3 standard duty cycles should be offered as customer choices for their vehicle? Should the IWM represent multiple speed domains to enhance efficiency and drivability? Can the vehicle be updated rapidly 2 to 3 years after purchase? Etc. In this paper, we lay the groundwork to answer these types of customer questions for an EV with four independent IWMs.
Abstract The competition among automotive industries increases each year worldwide. Among their diverse needs, what can be highlighted are: market expansion, model diversification, competitive prices, customer-recognized quality, new products release in shorter time periods, among others. The occurrence of flaws that might compromise the health or safety of the product’s user is admittedly one of the largest issues for any manufacturer, especially if these flaws are identified after its commercialization (recall). In this work, a study on recall in the automotive industry in the Brazilian market will be presented, comprising the years of 2013 and 2014. Reasons and causes of recall are addressed, based on the sample of the aforementioned research, with special emphasis on flaws derived from the production process. The conclusion at the end of the work is that the final assembly in the automotive manufacturing process is what requires more attention from engineering area.
Modern Trolleybus Systems as a Technological Option for Greening Bus Corridors - A Technical Economical Assessment
Abstract Public transport has been considered the preferred strategy to reduce congestion and pollution from urban road traffic. For low to medium capacity, bus systems are considered the most affordable and flexible mode. Currently, diesel based systems still dominate transit bus market, due to their high productivity, low deployment costs, technological maturity, operational reliability and flexibility (high daily ranges, fast refuelling and no infrastructure requirement along the routes). However, although some important improvements in engine technology and aftertreatment devices, enforced by emission standards improvements (Euro VI, US 2010 and those related), have been achieved, it is well known that there is a limit to cleaning exhaust diesel buses exhaust. In this context, transit authorities and operators have been under pressure to shift for more environmental friendly technologies.
Abstract Due to financial global crisis started in 2008 and intensified in the past years in Brazil, the maintenance of a good company’s financial situation is a big challenge and it is more relevant in actual moment. Because of expected turbulent scenario for the next years, it is necessary to adopt strategies to mitigate risks that involve Supply Chain impacting industrial production. In this way, it is crucial adopt strategies and actions that assist to evaluate the performance of suppliers and its associate potential financial risk, what can be considered a companies’ success differential factor during crisis period as well. In this scenario, MWM Motores Diesel adopts an internal process of monitoring the risk of suppliers based on internally developed tools and others available at market.
Abstract The objective of this study is to identify the most popular agricultural tractor models in Russia by their engine ratings and countries of origin. This review presents an analysis of changes in the composition of engine-ratings and sales volume of agricultural tractors in the Russian market between 2008 and 2014. Including knock-down kits, the countries of origin are Russia, the CIS-countries and non-CIS Countries. The variety of manufacturers, highlight the leading international companies which have supplied up to 200 units is discussed. The papers shows that CIS-manufactured tractors represent the greatest number in the market - up to 57 per cent, tractors from non-CIS countries occupy up to 12 per cent of the market, and the number of Russian models is quite limited - 3.0 per cent in 2012 and 3.4 per cent in 2014.
A Preventive Evaluation of Perceived Postural Comfort in Car-Cockpit Design: Differences between the Postural Approach and the Accurate Muscular Simulation under Different Load Conditions in the Case of Steering-Wheel Usage
Abstract The evaluation of perceived comfort inside a car during the early stages of the design process is still an open issue. Modern technologies like CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) and DHM (Digital Human Modeling) already offer several tools for a preventive evaluation of ergonomic parameters for car drivers using detailed CAD (Computer Aided Design) models of car interiors and by a MBS (multi-body-system) solver for evaluating movements and interactions. Such evaluations are, nonetheless, not sufficient because the subjectivity of comfort perception is due to factors that are very difficult to evaluate in the early stage of design. Physical prototypes are needed and these are often too expensive to be realized.
Conceptualization and Implementation of a Dual-Purpose Battery Electric Powertrain Concept for an Urban Utility/Activity Vehicle
Abstract The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the sixth generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of a dual-purpose powertrain system enabling vehicle propulsion as well as stationary activities of the Deep Orange 6 vehicle concept. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish vehicle target and subsystem requirement, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept.
Conceptual Development and Implementation of a Reconfigurable Interior Concept for an Urban Utility/Activity Vehicle
Abstract The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to explain the interior concept that offers a flexible interior utility/activity space for Generation Z (Gen Z) users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish technical specifications, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept.
Conceptual Development of a Multi-Material Composite Structure for an Urban Utility/Activity Vehicle
Abstract The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of a multimaterial lightweight Body-in-White (BiW) structure to support an all-electric powertrain combined with an interior package that maximizes volume to enable a variety of interior configurations and activities for Generation Z users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics.
Abstract This paper presents a mathematical model of an electric driveline consisting of one battery pack, two independent Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC) motors and motor-controllers and two fixed-ratio planetary gearboxes, all located inside the rear frame of the vehicle. The proposed analysis has been performed with the objective of: (i) Determination of acceleration run time for a straight patch of 75 meters; (ii) Determination of lap times and energy consumption for endurance track of 23 laps. A model of a PMDC motor and motor controller has been developed based on response analysis by conducting experiments on a jig setup. The motor controllers are compared for two control modes- Speed mode and Torque mode. A simplified race car model for longitudinal vehicle dynamics is derived from forces acting on the car including the effect of losses due to drag forces, rolling resistance, transmission inefficiency and inertial losses due to rotary elements.
This paper presents the method of designing an optimized light weight, cost effective planetary gearbox for a Formula Student vehicle. The gearbox has a high speed functioning capability, in addition to the compact size and light weight. The iterative optimization procedure used provides a technique for selecting the best possible configuration of the gearbox. Conventional gearboxes used for this purpose are generally two step reduction gearboxes, which are bulkier in terms of weight and volume. Also, a review of the existing market reveals that the planetary gearboxes manufactured in India are not capable of handling high speeds, thus rendering them futile for racing applications. The target reduction ratio for the gearbox is a fixed parameter. The method involves design and optimization of the gear-train with the calculated ratio.
Certain categories of vehicle users have very high expectations of comfort, with noise playing a major role in these requirements. Market research demonstrates that gear whine is an important failure mode for transmission NVH. French major OEM is developing new design methodologies which will guarantee improved NVH quality performance in all new gearbox designs. A transmission NVH simulation and analysis tool has been tested on pre-existing transmission designs to assess its capabilities in the prediction and resolution of gear whine problems. The software tool successfully predicted the vibration response of the current gearboxes. The validated model has been used to simulate parametric sensitivity of NVH performance and the software simulation tool is now part of the OEM's design and development process
Tomorrow's Car - For Today's People: Can Tilting Three Wheeled Vehicles be a Solution for the Problems of Today and the Future?
The current automotive industry and todays car drivers are faced with every increasing challenges, not previously experienced. Climate Change, financial issues, rising fuel prices, increased traffic congestion and reduced parking space in cities are all leading to changes in consumer preferences and the requirements of modern passenger vehicles. However, despite the shift in the industry dynamics, the principal layout of a car hasn't changed since its invention. The design of a ‘conventional’ vehicle is still principally a matchbox with four wheels, one at each corner. The concept has served its purpose well for over 100 years, but such a layout is not suited to solving today's problems. To address the range of problems faced by the industry, a number of alternative commuting vehicles have been developed. Yet the commercialization of these ‘alternative’ vehicles has yet to be successful.
Software has become the driving force behind innovation in the automotive industry. According to a recent Frost & Sullivan market research report, “Strategic Analysis of the European Market for Software in Passenger Cars”, the software for passenger cars in Europe accounted for 5.8% of the cost of vehicles in 2004. The same report projects an annual growth rate (CAGR) of 15.5% until 2011, when software is expected to represent 11.0% of the cost of vehicles. This paper discusses the emerging AUTOSAR standard (AUTOSAR release 2.0), which aims to address the need for more efficient E/E (Embedded Electronic) automotive architecture solutions. The paper also provides a review of the mapping of a few key AUTOSAR concepts to their Simulink counterparts, which should help designers using Simulink deliver AUTOSAR compatible solutions. Finally the paper features a component of an experimental engine management system that has been remodeled in Simulink to conform to the AUTOSAR requirements.
This paper is a report of the findings and insights derived from a continuously variable transmission (CVT) Cyber Bulletin Board Group study. When a new technology is introduced to the car market, a small number of early adaptors brace the technology. Several stakeholders are interested in getting the feedback from these customers. However, it is very difficult to recruit sufficient customers to complete a meaningful market research at any one location. Along with scattered and small customer base, high cost of the traditional market research is a major roadblock. Cyber research method is very useful and low-cost technique to obtain customer feedback effectively and efficiently. Nearly all CVT owners are satisfied with CVT however it will not be a driving force for a repeat purchase. Few consumers were concerned about purchasing a vehicle with a new technology but brand ownership & reputation convinced them to make the purchase.
Supersonic Business Jet Design and Requirements Exploration using Multiobjective Interactive Genetic Algorithms
Although market research has indicated that there is significant demand for a supersonic business aircraft, development of a feasible concept has proven difficult. Two factors contributing to this difficulty are the uncertain nature of the vehicle’s requirements and the fact that conventional design methods are inadequate to solve such non-traditional problems. This paper describes the application of a multiobjective genetic algorithm to the design space exploration of such a supersonic business jet. Results obtained using this method are presented, and give insight into the important decisions that must be made at the early stages of a design project.
Our research is motivated by the need for a rigorous engineering design framework and the need for developing a demand analysis approach that is critical for assessing the profit a product can bring. A Decision-Based Design framework is presented as a rigorous design approach and the method of Discrete Choice Analysis is applied in order to create a demand model that facilitates engineering decision-making in vehicle design with an emphasis on engine design. Through interdisciplinary collaborations, we illustrate how the gap between market research and engineering analysis can be bridged in product design.
One area of NASA's Aviation Safety Program involves investigation of the feasibility of advanced Aviation Weather Information Systems to reduce accident rates. An element of this program involves integrating weather information systems into the general aviation cockpit. Since the automotive and trucking industry currently use Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), this study investigated the possibility of applying similar systems in the cockpit of general aviation aircraft and examined three areas that support better understanding of this possibility. The first includes market activities in general ITS products. The second area involves a market research survey, to identify the user requirements for new in-cockpit information systems. The third area examines the historical growth patterns of GPS systems to estimate possible market acceptance of future information systems that have parallels with ITS in general aviation.
A new foundation brake, the CamLaster ™, is being introduced into the North American heavy truck market. This new product is one of the first new drum brake designs in over 20 years. It promises to address many of the trucking industries major concerns for improved reliability, ease of maintenance and long service life. The product was a joint development of Freightliner and ArvinMeritor. The brake took over 6 years to develop and bring to market. Multiple design groups in North America and Europe were involved in the development. This paper discusses the engineering program from market research to production.
Automotive Obstacle Detection Systems: a Survey of Design Requirements and Vehicle Integration Issues
Obstacle detection technology has made significant progress in the last five years in the important product areas of quality, performance and affordability. Ford Motor Company's market research indicates that our customers are very interested in new safety features. Drivers consider obstacle detection and collision warning technology as the next breakthrough in safety technology. Ford recognizes the importance of moving from the collision mitigation to the collision avoidance paradigm. Fortunately, the first step in collision avoidance can be taken by equipping the vehicle with reliable and affordable obstacle detection sensors
The genetic modification of oilseeds has been a critical step in the evolution of biodegradable, non-toxic vegetable oil-based industrial fluids. Oils that are high in oleic acid possess the required properties for many industrial applications and have been successfully used as hydraulic fluids and numerous lubricants. Recently, the DuPont Co. has developed high oleic soybean varieties that produce oil with greatly improved oxidative stability. This oil provides the opportunity to make environmentally acceptable industrial fluids that may be lower in cost and/or functionally superior to vegetable oil-based fluids currently on the market. Research and testing over the last year has focused on utilizing genetically modified soyoil for industrial applications. Using standard bench tests and low volume fluid power pump tests, experiments were conducted to develop a soybean oil-based hydraulic fluid in cooperation with Lubrizol Corporation.
The Development of a High Speed Steel Based Sintered Material for High Performance Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts
The demands on valve seat insert materials, in terms of providing greater wear-resistance at higher temperatures, enhanced machinability and using non-environmentally hazardous materials at a reasonably low cost have intensified in recent years. Due therefore to these strong demands in the market, research was made into the possibility of producing a new valve seat insert material. As a result a high speed steel based new improved material was developed, which satisfies the necessary required demands and the evaluation trials, using actual gasoline engine endurance tests, were found to be very successful.
Allison Transmission has developed a family of two new automatic transmission products, the 1000 Series and the 2000 Series, for the light and medium duty commercial markets. This technical paper will introduce these products by reviewing the early development efforts which helped define the transmission attributes that they should bring to market. This included the analysis of Allison's product portfolio and industry rating requirement trends, and the extensive market research which identified the key product attributes and led to the concept selection. There is also a review of the 1000 Series and 2000 Series product features as well as a discussion on the development of their respective vocational ratings. Future papers will provide greater detail on the various technical aspects of this new product family's design.
The usage of personal computers by members of The Maintenance Council of the American Trucking Associations has been measured through primary market research. Survey results indicate that maintenance management utilization of personal computers is significant and can be expected to continue to grow over the next several years. The computer platform is relatively new and includes peripherals such as communications modems and CD-ROM. Applications most prevalent today are office management and personal productivity packages. Future demand is for more vertical software specific to maintenance training, diagnostics and management.
Automotive cabin air filters have become increasingly popular as automotive manufacturers recognize the need to provide vehicle occupants with a more comfortable driving experience. Cabin air filters which reduce particulates (e.g. dust, pollen) have been standard on many European models since the late 1980's and have recently become available on several vehicles produced by Ford Motor Company in North America. Market research (focus panels and customer surveys) has shown that consumers expect cabin air filters to reduce both particulates and odors/gases and as a result, future vehicles will offer systems which address both. Test methods and standardized test codes for evaluating these types of filters are currently being drafted. Current methods for testing such gas/odor filters call for part-per-million challenge levels for reasons of analytical simplicity and test speed.