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WIP Standard
2014-04-03
This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant nickel alloy in the form of welding wire.

This wire has been used typically as bare wire filler metal for gas-tungsten-arc or gas-metal-arc welding of parts fabricated from alloys of similar composition, but usage is not limited to such applications.

WIP Standard
2014-04-03
This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant steel in the form of work-strengthened bars and wire 1-1/4 inches (31.8 mm) and under in nominal diameter of least distance between parallel sides.

These products have been used typically for parts, such as fasteners, requiring room-temperature minimum tensile strength of 200 ksi (1379 MPa) after precipitation heat treatment for use up to 1000 °F (538 °C) and having oxidation resistance up to 1200 °F (649 °C), but usage is not limited to such applications.

WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This SAE Standard applies to all self-propelled machines with a gross vehicle mass up to 5000 kg that are utilized to clean material from outside paved areas, parkland, floors in non-residential buildings and areas principally exposed to pedestrian traffic. Primary methods for material removal can be by mechanical, pneumatic, washing and flushing systems, or in a combination of any system.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This SAE Standard applies to all self-propelled machines with a gross vehicle mass greater than 5000kg that are utilized to clean material from highways, parking lots, airfield runways, outside paved areas that are principally exposed to vehicular traffic. These machines may also be involved with road construction/repaving work. Primary methods for material removal and cleaning can be by mechanical, pneumatic, washing and flushing systems, or in a combination of any system.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This specification provides a standard set of procedures for sampling and testing to meet the requirements of material specifications for wrought titanium and titanium alloy products except forgings and forging stock. It is applicable to the extent specified in a material specification.
WIP Standard
2014-04-02
This SAE Recommended Practice presents the general uses, limitations on use, and appearance of the safety alert symbol.
Article
2014-04-01
With a patented approach to laser cutting of blanks from coil, LaserCoil Technologies systems enable companies to marry its laser cutting systems with any coil line automation, whether it be existing equipment currently in production or an investment in new or used equipment.
Article
2014-04-01
Miller improves select models in the XMT weld cable control (WCC) multi-process lineup to improve productivity, quality, and safety.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gary L. Anderson, Pete G. Imbrogno
Abstract Improved Power Density through Use of Powder-Forged Helical Gears in Transmissions. With the continuing mileage improvement requirements, increasing power density is an important economic consideration in new vehicle design. This paper describes the power density improvement available through reduced grain size and inclusion levels that are typically found in wrought materials. The powder forged process is similar to tool steel manufacturing rather than wrought steel manufacturing in that powder is used to manufacture the gear resulting in smaller inclusions than typically found in wrought steel.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Domenic Leo Barsotti, Sandra Boetcher
Abstract The present study discusses the benefits of using a phase change material (PCM) based cold plate for more efficient energy storage system (ESS) cooling in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). This paper numerically demonstrates the benefits that a PCM cold plate has over a more conventional aluminum cold plate design. These benefits include six times more passive cooling capacity and a 66% mass reduction. Further investigations into improving the system were conducted in an effort to maximize passive cooling.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Deepak Tiwari, Anand Bhope, Akshay Hegde
Abstract Hardened steel is the majorly used raw material for automotive components. In spite of its abundance, its application is limited due to low fatigue life in dynamic loading. Shot peening is one of the identified processes to improve the fatigue life of the ductile steel by inducing the work hardening & surface improvement. The process of shot peening involves the bombardment of shots on the component surface. As the process & technique, the shot size selection plays very important role in the fatigue life improvement as it alters the results substantially. Also during the process, shot size decreases due to the normal wear of the shots after hitting the component surface. As a result, there is always a ratio of various sizes of the shots involved in the process. Therefore it becomes imperative to control the shot size ratio for obtaining the required work hardening & possible fatigue life improvement. This paper explains the effects of shot size ratio on the durability life of a component & the process of shot size ratio selection.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Andrey Ilinich, S. George Luckey
Abstract This paper documents the finite element (FE) analysis of a hot stamping process for high strength aluminum sheet. In this process a 7075 blank, heated above its solvus temperature, was simultaneously die quenched and stamped in a room temperature die to form a B-pillar outer reinforcement. Two modeling approaches have been investigated: an isothermal mechanical model and a non-isothermal coupled thermo-mechanical model. The accuracy of each approach was assessed by comparing the predicted strain and thickness distributions to experimental measurements from a formed panel. The coupled thermo-mechanical model provided the most accurate prediction.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Xiaoming Chen, Ching-Kuo Hsiung, Ken Schmid, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Chris Roman
Abstract Forming a metal gainer is a common technique used to gather material in a high stretch region along an edge in preparation for a subsequent flanging operation. This technique has proven to be successful for mild steels, but needs to be evaluated for the applicability to advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Stamping Team launched a project for this study. Experimental trials were conducted on gainer forming, trimming and flanging. Twelve (12) AHSS have been tested with tensile strengths ranging from 460 to 1240 MPa. Edge stretch limits for flanging have been evaluated and compared to flanging without gainers. Different trimming and flanging approaches have also been tried. The results show that metal gainers are not advantageous for flanging of higher strength AHSS.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
K.S. Raghavan, R.J. Comstock, B.M. Hance
Abstract An indirect method to determine friction coefficient under punch stretching conditions has been developed. The methodology involves correlation of experimental draw-in measurements to FEA predictions for a range of assumed friction coefficients. Initial evaluation with a ferritic stainless steel (SS 439) shows that the proposed indirect method to determine the effective friction coefficient during punch stretching is feasible. Friction coefficient (μ) estimate based on the indirect method was 0.15 for the sample with residual mill oil (dry), 0.12 with excess mill oil (wet), and 0.03 with polyethylene sheets between the sample blank and tooling. The importance of prescribing accurate material hardening behavior beyond uniform elongation to obtain good correlation between simulation and experimental punch loads and to better tune the model is highlighted in the paper.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Andre Sereno Lopes, Marco Colosio, Jose Castillo
Abstract This paper presents a technological comparison of weldability and mechanical properties between a dual phase steel (DP) and an advanced high strength low alloy steel (AHSLA) used for automotive structural parts in order to demonstrate some unclear characteristics of each. Samples were spot welded and had their hardness and microstructure analyzed, also a shear test was applied on the weld button area. The edge stretchability was analyzed using hole expansion tests and tensile tests to determine the tensile and yield strength, anisotropic coefficients and total elongation. Data were used to estimate crash energy absorption. The results showed an AHSLA steel with higher than typical ductility. Finally, while DP showed improved stretchability, it was also concluded that such AHSLA could perform better bendability, drawability, flangeability and weldability.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Dennis Parkes, Qingling Cui, Daniel Westerbaan, Sashank Nayak, Norman Zhou, Frank Goodwin, Daniel Liu, Sanjiwan Bhole, Daolun Chen
Abstract Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual phase (DP) steels are now being extensively used to achieve light weighting goals of vehicles because of their attractive combination of formability and high strength. High strength low alloy (HSLA) steels are also used in lightweight bodies-in-white; DP and HSLA steels are therefore often laser butt-welded together into tailor welded blanks and to create other joints. Among the laser welding processes, fiber laser welding (FLW) has been shown to provide excellent quality welds, including superior weld mechanical properties, at higher speeds than those possible with other laser welding processes. Using dissimilarly welded DP980-HSLA blanks made with different welding parameters, the tensile properties were found to not change in spite of the HSLA being weaker than the soft zone on the DP980 side of the weld. The high heat input weld was found to have more softening in comparison to its base metal (BM) (55 HV versus 46 HV) and less bainite (8% versus 15%) in its FZ in comparison to the low heat input weld.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hua-Chu Shih, Ching-Kuo Hsiung, Bill Wendt
Abstract Edge fracture is one of the major issues for stamping Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS). Recent studies have showed this type of fracture is greatly affected by an improper trimming process. The current production trimming process used for the conventional mild steels has not been modified for AHSS trimming. In addition to the high-energy requirement, the current mechanical trimming process would generate a rough edge (burr) with microcracks in trimmed edges for AHSS trimming, which could serve as the crack initiation during forming. The purpose of this study is to develop a proper production trimming process for AHSS and elucidate the effect of the trimmed edge conditions on edge fracture. A straight edge shearing device with the capability of adjusting the shearing variables is used in this study. Two different AHSS grades, DP600 and DP980, with similar thicknesses are selected to assess the edge stretchability of the material for edge conditions created using various shearing variables.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Luv Aggarwal, Ruth Urbanic, Kush Aggarwal
Abstract Industrial robotic arms and manipulators are systems that offer technological advances in automation, production, and logistical processes. Therefore, it is vital to understand and analyze the reachability and dexterity of such manipulators. This paper presents a reconfigurable algorithm for evaluation and 3D visual representation of the total workspace and singularity space of two and three degrees of freedom open-ended kinematic chains. A manipulator's performance is greatly depreciated at or near singular regions which may occur as subset(s) in its complete workspace. It is therefore crucial to understand the functional workspace of a manipulator for an enhanced performance in an industrial setting. The implementation of this algorithm requires two inputs namely; the joint type(s), rotational (R) or translational (T), and the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameters of the manipulator. The model first evaluates the forward kinematics of the manipulator based on its input configuration and provides a theoretical solution to its complete workspace (position and orientation of the manipulator's end-effector).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Joy H Forsmark
Abstract High ductility cast aluminum alloys are seeing more use in vehicles as a greater effort is made to replace components made from heavier steel and iron alloys with lighter weight alloys such as aluminum. High ductility cast aluminum has significant advantages by allowing for complex shape and considerable consolidation of parts in body structures. However, joining can be a challenge because one popular method for aluminum joining, self-piercing riveting (SPR), requires a ductility of greater than 10%, forcing the common high ductility Al alloys to undergo a T6 heat treatment which adds cost and potential distortion issues to Al component. In this study, friction stir spot welding was investigated as a potential joining technique for this material in the as-cast condition. Samples of as-cast Aural-2™ alloy were joined to Aural-2™, 5754, and 6061 alloys, to determine the manufacturing feasibility, weld strength, and fatigue strength using this joining technique.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Debabrata Ghosh, Lokesh Pancholi, Asmita Sathaye
Abstract Use of adhesives in automotive require in-depth material, design, manufacturing & engineering knowledge. It is also necessary to understand functional requirements. For perfect and flawless adhesive joinery, the exact quantity of adhesive, its material composition, thickness of adhesive layer, substrate preparation methods for adhesive bonding, handling and curing time of the adhesive have to be studied & optimized. This paper attempts to describe different aspects of adhesive bonding in automotive industry to include: Selection of adhesives based on application and design of the components, surface preparation of adherend, designing of adhesive joint, curing conditions of adhesives, testing and validation of adhesive joints. Emphasis was given to study & verify the performance of different adhesive joints to meet end product requirements. Samples were prepared with a variety of adhesive and adherend combinations. These combinations were tested for tensile, single lap shear, T-peel, flexural & fatigue tests according to standard testing methods.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Seiji Furusako, Kodama Shinji, Yasunobu Miyazaki, Tetsuro Nose, Yoshiaki Akiniwa
To achieve improvement of crashworthiness and weight reduction of car bodies, the application of high strength steel sheets to car bodies is expanding [1, 2]. However cross tension strength of spot welded joints decreases as material strength increases in the range of material strength exceeding 780MPa grade. Therefore arc spot welding was attempted to enhance the joint strength in a high strength steel sheet of 980MPa in tensile strength. Consequently, the following experimental results were obtained: 1) cross tension strength (CTS) of the arc spot welded joints doubled compared with CTS of spot welded joints when appropriate welding conditions such as heat input and hole diameter of the sheet were selected and 2) height of excess weld decay in addition to the diameter of weld metal for the arc spot welded joints played an important role in improving CTS.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rod Emery
Abstract With Battery-free Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs), the production line is no longer held hostage to a slow station, and diverge/converge paths do not require a coupling/uncoupling process. Asynchronous indexing ensures that units move forward when they are ready, enabling the most efficient production paths. Where overhead conveyance is required for ergonomics or engagement with other line paths, it is easily integrated into the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT®) system. A software and controls-driven conveyance, its integrated intelligence allows for seamless inclusion of automated work instructions, error proofing, traceability, Factory Information Systems (FIS) and other elements of Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) for improved quality. Requiring only two shallow channels cut into an iron-free floor, path changes are quickly made. Gone are requirements for floor pits and drag chains and for hundreds of highly skilled changeover staff during shut-down. A clean, smooth flat floor free of obstructions, trenches or floor-mounted rails reduces workplace injuries.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sunil Kumar Chippa, Bhavani Srinivasaiah, Samraj Jabez Dhinagar
Abstract Automated testing of manufactured products reduces the lead time to considerable extent in the process of production to delivery. Products like automobiles demand automated testing, for which robots and vision systems are widely employed. The basic functionality of a vision system in automation is to detect an object and then recognize it. In current automotive industry such systems are being used for robotic guidance, component tracking, dimensional gauging etc. There is a need to test the proper functionality of a speedometer fitted on a motorbike in the production line itself. Focused work on detection and recognition of Analog type and Digital type speedometer console reading of a motorbike is described in this paper. A vision based system is proposed which recognizes the speedometer reading instantaneously at the desired time. Image binarization, connected component analysis combined with character recognition algorithms are used to achieve the desired recognition, which resulted in reduced lead time hence contributing to lean manufacturing
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Fengzhu LI, Shunan Bao, Gang Li
Abstract In order to meet the requirement of Flexible Manufacturing System, tool management, including tool preparation and tool setting, has to be planned systematically at the beginning of manufacturing engineering planning and flexible manufacturing line planning based on lean manufacturing principles. The objective of this article is to study the tool management factors that lean and flexible manufacturing system required, based on the planning of tool management in a new engine factory. This article introduces the main contents of tool management systems, analyzes the process of tool management, and summarizes the steps of tool planning process. In details, this article includes planning on tool management procedures, plant floor layout and information system. In addition, the article puts forwards a formula for calculation of tool presetting time, so that the demand of tool equipment quantity and personnel in a tool presetting room can be decided. This article can be used as reference or assistance to engineers as they develop tool management systems for engine manufacturing systems.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Li Yanhua, Jianping Lin
Abstract Similar laser welded blanks with same material and same gauge have been extensive applied in automobile body for improving the material utilization and extending maximum coil size. It is known that, for TWBs with dissimilar material and thicknesses, the difference of material properties and/or thickness of the welded blanks, change of the material properties in the weld seam and heat-affected zones (HAZ) as well as location and orientation of the weld seam are reasons for reduced formability. However, the plastic deformation capacity of TWBs is reduced even when the material and thickness are the same. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the deformation behaviors of similar laser welded joints. Uniaxial tensile of five laser welded joints, with 90°,60°,45°,30°and 0°weld orientations, were tested by using optical measurement-DIC (Digital Image Correlation). Strain /strain ratio distribution and evolution of each joint was analyzed and compared with base material. In addition, mechanical property of weld was determined using rule of mixture and hardness testing.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yi-Hsin Chen, Xu Chen, Nan Xu, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract The residual stresses found in components are mainly due to thermal, mechanical and metallurgical changes of material. The manufacturing processes such as fabrication, assembly, welding, rolling, heat treatment, shot peening etc. generate residual stresses in material. The influence of residual stress can be beneficial or detrimental depending on nature and distribution of the residual stress in material. In general, the compressive residual stress can increase the fatigue life of material because it provides greater resistance for crack initiation and propagation. A significant number of improvements for residual stress measurement techniques have occurred in last few decades. The most popular technique of residual stress measurement is based on the principle of strain gage rosette and hole drilling (ASTM E837-01, destructive). Although this technique is effective for some applications, strain gages provide the localized or averaged data and cannot capture the peak or high resolution data when this technique is applied on high strain gradient areas.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Dileep Kumar Gupta, Abhishek Sharma, Varun Pathak, Naveen Kumar
Due to high energy demand and limited availability of fossil fuels, the energy necessity becomes a point of apprehension as it results in hike of fuel prices. It is essential to develop renewable energy resources while considering the impact on environment. In the last decade, demand of alternative fuels has increased a lot. Therefore, researchers have already started working on the aim of developing a green fuel to overcome the future energy demand. And as we know that the biodiesel is generally prepared from the non-edible and renewable resources thus, it can be among the competitive alternative future fuels. Besides that, it does not require any prior engine modifications for its usual advantage among other alternative fuels while using it within certain boundaries. However, the process biodiesel production is in itself time consuming which increases the cost of production while decreasing the yield. Supercritical method is drawing major attention for its efficient means with overcoming the negatives of conventional production processes.
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