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Viewing 211 to 240 of 20491
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0334
Lucas e Silva, Tennakoon Mudiyanselage Tennakoon, Mairon Marques, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract A collaborative robot or cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing industrial tasks. The ability to work alongside humans has increased the importance of collaborative robots in the automation industry, as this unique feature is a much needed property among robots nowadays. Rethink Robotics has pioneered this unique discipline by building many robots including the Baxter Robot which is exclusive not only because it has collaborative properties, but because it has two arms working together, each with 7 Degrees Of Freedom. The main goal of this research is to validate the kinematic equations for the Baxter collaborative robot and develop a unified reconfigurable kinematic model for the Left and Right arms so that the calculations can be simplified.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0333
Pavel Lykov, Rustam Baytimerov, Sergey Vaulin, Evgeny Safonov, Dmitry Zherebtsov
Abstract Due to its unique physical properties (high thermal and electric conductivity) copper is one of the most interesting materials in point of view of additive manufacturing in particular of Selective Laser Melting (SLM). But because of the low laser radiation absorption, low melting point and high thermal conductivity it is difficult to fabricate of copper components without pores. Results of many research have been shown that for successful Selective Laser Melting of copper powder is needed high laser power (more than 300 W) and high laser scanning speed (more than 600 mm/s). However now most SLM machines are equipped with laser plants with output power up to 200 W.In this research, SLM machine with 200 W maximum power CO2 laser has been used. For determination of the influence of SLM process parameters on quality of copper parts cubic specimens have been fabricated. The point distance, exposure time and base plate preheating temperature have been changing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0329
Piyush Bubna, Michael P. Humbert, Marc Wiseman, Enrico Manes
Abstract Conventional car manufacturing is extremely capital and energy-intensive. Due to these limitations, major auto manufacturers produce very similar, if not virtually identical, vehicles at very large volumes. This limits potential customization for different users and acts as a barrier to entry for new companies or production techniques. Better understanding of the barriers for low volume production and possible solutions with innovative production techniques is crucial for making low volume vehicles viable and accelerating the adoption of new production techniques and lightweight materials into the competitive marketplace. Additive manufacturing can enable innovative design with minimal capital investment in tooling and hence should be ideal for low and perhaps high volume parts. For this reason, it was desired to evaluate potential opportunities in manufacturing automotive parts with additive techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0325
Farhan Javed, Salman Javed
Abstract Additive manufacturing has experienced rapid growth over a span of 25 years. Additive manufacturing involves the development of a three-dimensional (3D) object by stacking layer upon layer. Conventional machining techniques involve the removal of material. However, this technique differentiates itself from other techniques by means of addition of the material. The integration of CAD with additive manufacturing has offered the ability to create complex structures. Despite its clear benefits, additive manufacturing suffers from a high initial investment. An average cost of an entry level commercial 3D printer is 600$. A low-cost 3D printer has been designed and built for experimental investigation within a budget of 300$. The paramount process of 3D printing involves a combination of interpreting data from CAD files and controlling the motors using this data. The various design considerations while developing the 3D printer have been discussed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0346
Patrick Garcia, Jiri Radous, Artur Krol, Jacek Bosek, Caroline Baeten
During the 4 last years, Lean has been successfully implemented in one of the Tenneco’s Business Units: Ride Performance. This paper reflects on the results and more specifically on the third principle of Lean [1] “How to make flow” and on the fifth principle “To strive for perfection” obtained in the fields of “Product Development” related to Processes, Tools and People. Processes and Hard Tools. How to improve the flow in the engineering processes? It will be shown that In general standardized processes supported by some integrated tools and, more specifically Some workload leveling in testing, CAD Departments, Standardization in design processes, testing procedures and prototypes development processes and Standardization and availability of components and parts for prototype building are key enablers to enhance flow in the Product Development.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0342
Rushil Batra, Sahil Nanda, Shubham Singhal, Ranganath Singari
Abstract This research is an attempt to investigate the significance of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) in the lean transformation of manufacturing units (largely automotive) and then apply the same in a tool room. It is an essential tool used to interpret both material and information flow in a system. The tool room under study specializes in production of a large variety of high precision tools for the automotive industry. A product family is chosen to map and analyze various stages of its production process, starting from the raw material (R/M) to the finished goods’ (F/G) stage. VSM is then implemented in the tool room to correctly identify wastes and thus improvement areas to bridge gaps between current and future states. Both current and future state maps are drafted along with usage of other lean tools to justify its implementation in a small setup like tool room.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0341
Jan-Friedrich Brand, Patrick Garcia, Laxman Nalage, Pradip Ithape
Abstract Several factors influence a company working culture including its industry, its geographical region, as well as the cultural and the educational background of its employees. Despite these, Japanese companies have successfully transferred a company’s working culture from Japan to other countries [2], so that only minor regional differences in productivity remain. Such transfer is possible with a strong process oriented mind set and working style. This paper examines the change in a working culture associated with the prototyping of exhaust systems in India. That change required a shift from a reactive “firefighting” mode of working to a structured, projectable and reliable working environment. The goal was to achieve increased in-time delivery, higher quality, greater flexibility, more innovation and reduced cost. The same process approach may be transferred from India to other parts of the world, while allowing for country-specific influences on a company’s working culture.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0378
John George, Daniel Gross, Hamid Jahed, Ali Roostaei
Abstract The choice of an appropriate material model with parameters derived from testing and proper modeling of stress-strain response during cyclic loading are the critical steps for accurate fatigue-life prediction of complex automotive subsystems. Most materials used in an automotive substructure, like a chassis system, exhibit combined hardening behavior and it is essential to capture this behavior in the CAE model in order to accurately predict the fatigue life. This study illustrates, with examples, the strain-controlled testing of material coupons, and the calculations of material parameters from test data for the combined hardening material model used in the Abaqus solver. Stress-strain response curves and fatigue results from other simpler material models like the isotropic hardening model and the linear material model with Neuber correction are also discussed in light of the respective fatigue theories.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1394
Anuj Anand, Hari Prasad Konka, Peter Fritz
Abstract Light weight structures give significant advantages to products in the Industrial sector. Component weight-saving plays a major role in improving the efficiency and performance of assembled systems. The introduction of lighter materials into products using dissimilar material joining techniques can create more weight savings and leads to lighter structures. Structural optimization is another method to optimize the material layout without affecting overall performance of the product. This paper discusses the methods to create lighter structures by the introduction of lighter materials in structures and structural optimization methods. Lighter materials are introduced in the structure using dissimilar material joining techniques. Joining processes such as thermal shrink-fit and mechanical press-fit are useful for metal to metal components. Similarly, adhesively bonded joints are useful for both metal and non-metal (plastics and composites) components.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0386
HongTae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Mingchao Guo, Yung-Li Lee, Shyam Pittala, Chonghua Jiang, Brian Jordon
Abstract Friction stir linear welding (FSLW) is widely used in joining lightweight materials including aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys. However, fatigue life prediction method for FSLW is not well developed yet for vehicle structure applications. This paper is tried to use two different methods for the prediction of fatigue life of FSLW in vehicle structures. FSLW is represented with 2-D shell elements for the structural stress approach and is represented with TIE contact for the maximum principal stress approach in finite element (FE) models. S-N curves were developed from coupon specimen test results for both the approaches. These S-N curves were used to predict fatigue life of FSLW of a front shock tower structure that was constructed by joining AM60 to AZ31 and AM60 to AM30. The fatigue life prediction results were then correlated with test results of the front shock tower structures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0389
Mingchao Guo, Ramchandra Bhandarkar, Weidong Zhang, Guofei Chen, Zhenke Teng
Abstract This paper describes static and fatigue behavior of resistance spot welds with the stack-up of conventional mild and advanced high strength steels, with and without adhesive, based on a set of lap shear and coach peel coupon tests. The coupons were fabricated following specified spot welding and adhesive schedules. The effects of similar and dissimilar steel grade sheet combinations in the joint configuration have been taken into account. Tensile strength of the steels used for the coupons, both as-received and after baked, and cross-section microstructure photographs are included. The spot weld SN relations between this study and the study by Auto/Steel Partnership are compared and discussed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0384
Andrew Cox, Jeong Hong
Lightweight, optimized vehicle designs are paramount in helping the automotive industry meet reduced emissions standards. Self-piercing rivets are a promising new technology that may play a role in optimizing vehicle designs, due to their superior fatigue resistance compared with spot welds and ability to join dissimilar materials. This paper presents a procedure for applying the mesh-insensitive Battelle Structural Stress Method to self-piercing riveted joints for fatigue life prediction. Additionally, this paper also examines the development of an interim fatigue design master S-N curve for self-piercing rivets. The interim fatigue design master S-N curve accounts for factors such as various combinations of similar and dissimilar metal sheets, various sheet thicknesses, stacking sequence, and load ratios. A large amount of published data was collapsed into a single interim S-N curve with reasonable data scattering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0353
Suleman Ahmad, Dimitry Sediako, Anthony Lombardi, C. (Ravi) Ravindran, Robert Mackay, Ahmed Nabawy
Abstract Aluminum alloys have been replacing ferrous alloys in automotive applications to reduce the weight of vehicles. The engine block is a striking example of weight reduction, and is made of Al-Si-Cu-Mg (319 type) alloys. The wear resistance in the engine block is enabled by cast iron liners, and these liners introduce tensile residual stress due to a thermo-mechanical mismatch. Typically, an artificial aging treatment effectively reduces residual stress. In this study, neutron diffraction was used to measure the residual stress profiles along the cylinder bridge of a T5 treated 319 aluminum alloy engine block. Results indicated high tensile residual stresses (200-300 MPa) in the hoop and axial orientation at depths of 50-60 mm below the head deck. The high residual stresses were likely due to a combination of minimal stress relief during artificial aging and stress development during post process cooling.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0370
Zhigang Wei, Yunfei Qu, Dongying Jiang, Limin Luo, Jason Hamilton, Kay Ellinghaus, Markus Pieszkalla
Fatigue life assessment is an integral part of the durability and reliability evaluation process of vehicle exhaust components and systems. The probabilistic life assessment approaches, including analytical, experimental, and simulation, CAE implementation in particular, are attracting significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, the state-of-the-art probabilistic life assessment methods for vehicle exhausts under combined thermal and mechanical loadings are reviewed and investigated. The loading cases as experienced by the vehicle exhausts are first categorized into isothermal fatigue, anisothermal fatigue, and high-temperature thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) based on the failure mechanisms. Subsequently, the probabilistic life assessment procedures for each category are delineated, with emphasis on product validation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0406
Akihiko Asami, Tomoyuki Imanishi, Yukio Okazaki, Tomohiro Ono, Kenichi Tetsuka
Abstract High-tensile steel plates and lightweight aluminum are being employed as materials in order to achieve weight savings in automotive subframe. Closed-section structures are also in general use today in order to efficiently increase parts stiffness in comparison to open sections. Aluminum hollow-cast subframe have also been brought into practical use. Hollow-cast subframe are manufactured using sand cores in gravity die casting (GDC) or low-pressure die casting (LPDC) processes. Using these manufacturing methods, it is difficult to reduce product thickness, and the limitations of the methods therefore make the achievement of weight reductions a challenge. The research discussed in this paper developed a lightweight, hollow subframe technology employing high-pressure die casting (HPDC), a method well-suited to reducing wall thickness, as the manufacturing method. Hollow-casting using HPDC was developed as a method of forming water jackets for water-cooled automotive engines.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0392
HongTae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Mingchao Guo, Yung-Li Lee, Sai Boorgu, Chonghua Jiang
Abstract Joining technology is a key factor to utilize dissimilar materials in vehicle structures. Adaptable insert weld (AIW) technology is developed to join sheet steel (HSLA350) to cast magnesium alloy (AM60) and is constructed by combining riveting technology and electrical resistance spot welding technology. In this project, the AIW joint technology is applied to construct front shock tower structures composed with HSLA350, AM60, and Al6082 and a method is developed to predict the fatigue life of the AIW joints. Lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were constructed and tested to develop the fatigue parameters (load-life curves) of AIW joint. Two FEA modeling techniques for AIW joints were used to model the specimen geometry. These modeling approaches are area contact method (ACM) and TIE contact method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0531
Pulkit Batra, Arpit Bansal, V Jeganathan ArulMoni
Abstract Friction stir processing (FSP) is a method of changing the properties of metal through intense, localized plastic deformation. This deformation is produced by forcibly inserting a non-consumable tool into a workpiece, and revolving the tool in a stirring motion as it is pushed laterally through the workpiece. It comprises of a rotating tool with pin and shoulder which are inserted into a single piece of material and traversed along the desired path to cover the region of interest. Friction between the shoulder and work piece results in localized heating which raises the temperature of the material to the range where it is plastically deformed. During this process, severe plastic deformation occurs and due to thermal exposure of material, it results in a significant evolution in the local microstructure. Carbon nanotubes were dispersed into Al matrix by multipass FSP to fabricate Al6082 T0/Fe-MWCNT.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0503
Evandro Giuseppe Betini, Francisco Carlos Cione, Cristiano Stefano Mucsi, Marco Antonio Colosio, Jesualdo Luiz Rossi, Marcos Tadeu D'Azeredo Orlando
Abstract This paper reports the experimental efforts in recording the 2-dimensional temperature distribution on autogenous thin plates of UNS S32304 steel during welding. The butt-welded autogenous joints were experimentally performed by the GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) process with either argon or argon-2%nitrogen atmospheres. The temperatures cycles were recorded by means of thermocouples embedded by spot welding on the plate's surfaces and connected to a multi-channel data acquisition system. The laser flash method (LFM) was also used for the determination thermal diffusivity of the material in the thickness direction. The temperature curves suggest a relationship between the microstructures in the solidified and the heat affected zone with the diffusivity variation. This is a region where there had been a major incidence of heat. The obtained results validate the reliability of the experimental used apparatus.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0500
Akira Kato, Masayuki Takano, Kohei Hase, Satoko Inuzuka, Toshiyuki Dobashi, Tsuyoshi Sugimoto, Nobuaki Takazawa
Abstract In this report, adhesion mechanism between epoxy resin and primer and between primer and Ni platting in Hybrid vehicle (HV) was investigated. Adhesion forces are thought to be a combination of mechanical bond forces (such as anchor effect), chemical bond forces and physical bond forces (such as hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals force). Currently there is insufficient understanding of the adhesion mechanism. In particular, the extent to which the three bond forces contribute to adhesion strength. So the adhesion mechanism of polyimide primers was analyzed using a number of different methods, including transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observation, to determine the contributions of the three bonding forces. Molecular simulation was also used to investigate the relationship between adhesion strength and the molecular structure of the primer.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0502
Yuyang Song, Umesh Gandhi
Abstract The application of adhesively bonded joints has increased significantly in order to improve the integrity of structural components in vehicle design. In this paper, finite element analysis is used to model the adhesive behavior of the adhesive joining between steel and composite. The cohesive element modeling techniques in Abaqus is used to model the adhesive interface. The standard lap shear and peeling test are first conducted to estimate the adhesive properties using reverse engineering. Next, these adhesive properties are applied and validated on the FE model of a 3D part for complex loading condition. The FEA model using reverse engineered cohesive interface properties get closed match to the test results for joining of the complex shape parts.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1279
Ko Wei Lin, Ya Lun Chen, Yong-Yuan Ku, Ta-Wei Tang
Abstract Biodiesel, Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), can be made from different types of animal and vegetable oils. Its characteristics are different from those of fossil diesel, such as oxygen content, higher cold filter plugging point, and so on. Compared with fossil diesel, biodiesel can be oxidized more easily. If the fuel is oxidized, there might be product to cause some problems, like blocking filters. Therefore, the information of the storage life of the fuel is very important to vehicle owners. Moreover, the storage condition of the fuels is related to the types of source materials, additives, local weather or quality control of biodiesel. This research had used D100 and B2 fuels as experiment samples. (Blending B100 made by two different companies and represented A and B.)
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1291
Greig Latham
Abstract Applying the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIOLCA) method to the question of fielding newly manufactured or remanufactured vehicles provides an illuminating view of the economic and environmental advantages of remanufacturing. Sustained accomplishments of policy and engineering have reduced vehicle emissions such that current work has reached the point of diminishing returns. The macroeconomic, global, unprecedented, debt-supercycle-combined with increasing costs of natural resource extraction and vehicle production-demands improved asset and resource utilization. Expanding and exploiting the entire vehicle life cycle is a profitable and sustainable extension of work to date; such extension calls for remanufacturing to move from vehicle components to the entire vehicle. Stretching service lifetimes delay traditional end-of-life recovery practices while radically challenging the status quo.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1290
J. Groenewald, James Marco, Nicholas Higgins, Anup Barai
Abstract While a number of publications have addressed the high-level requirements of remanufacturing to ensure its commercial and environmental sustainability, considerably less attention has been given to the technical data and associated test strategies needed for any evidence-based decision as to whether a vehicle energy storage system should be remanufactured - extending its in-vehicle life, redeployed for second-life (such as domestic or grid storage) or decommissioned for recycling. The aim of this paper is to critically review the strategic requirements for data at the different stages of the battery value-chain that is pertinent to an Electric Vehicle (EV) battery remanufacturing strategy. Discussed within the paper is the derivation of a feasible remanufacturing test strategy for the vehicle battery system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1074
Takamichi Hirasawa, Michihiro Yamamoto
Abstract Although burr removal after machining generates no value, it is a factor to add major processing cost. While our final goal is to remove the deburring process, development of minimizing the variance in the amount and type of burr after machining was promoted this time as our first step. This report presents how we reduced deburring time significantly by minimizing burr as much as possible from optimization of a blade release angle and development of a relevant tool.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0357
Daniel J. Branagan, Andrew E. Frerichs, Brian E. Meacham, Sheng Cheng, Alla V. Sergueeva
Abstract The historical development of autobody steels has demonstrated a paradoxical relationship between strength and ductility, with increasing strength necessary for lightweighting commensurate with reductions in ductility necessary for cold formability. This in turn creates geometric constraints in part design and manufacturing, ultimately limiting usage of these higher strength steel grades in automobiles. Quench and tempering including variants such as quench, partitioning, and tempering are known approaches to increase strength while attempts to overcome the paradox have focused on increasing ductility through three distinct deformation mechanisms including; 1) shear band induced plasticity (SIP), 2) transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), and 3) twinning induced plasticity (TWIP).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0358
Saeid Nasheralahkami, Sergey Golovashchenko, Kaicen Pan, Lindsay Brown, Bindiya Gugnani
Abstract In recent years, implementation of dual phase (DP) Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS) is increasing in automotive components due to their superior structural performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. However, these materials are often sensitive to trimmed edge cracking if stretching along sheared edge occurs in such processes as stretch flanging. Tool wear is another major issue in the trimming of UHSS because of higher contact pressures at the interface between cutting tools and sheet metal blank caused by UHSS’s higher flow stresses and the presence of a hard martensitic in the microstructure. The objective of the present paper is to study the influence of trimming conditions and tool wear on quality of trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheet. For this purpose, mechanically trimmed edges were characterized for DP980 steel, sheared with six different cutting clearances (from 4% to 40% of the sheet thickness).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0348
Nan Wang, Sergey Golovashchenko
Abstract Stamping die design recommendations attempt to limit the production of burrs through accurate alignment of the upper and lower trimming edges. For aluminum automotive exterior panels, this translates to a clearance less than 0.1 mm. However, quality of sheared edge and its stretchability are affected by stiffness of the cutting tool against opening of the clearance between the shearing edges. The objective of the study is to investigate the influence of stiffness of trimming or piercing dies against opening of the cutting clearance on sheared edge stretchability of aluminum blanks 6111-T4. For experimental study, one side of the sample had sheared surface obtained by the trimming process while the other side of the sample had a smooth surface achieved by metal finish. Burr heights of the sheared edge after different trimming configurations with 10% clearance were measured.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0364
Guobiao Yang, Tian Bai, Wan Xu, Junrui Li, Lianxiang Yang, Dajun Zhou, Changqing Du
Abstract Dimensional problems for punched holes on a sheet metal stamping part include being undersized and oversized. Some important relationships among tools and products, such as the effect of conical punch tip angle, are not fully understood. To study this effect, sheets of AA6016 aluminum and BH210 steel were punched by punches with different conical tip angles. The test method and test results are presented. The piercing force and withdrawing force when using conical punches were also studied. The results indicate that the oversize issue for a punched hole in a stamped panel is largely due to the combination of the conical tip effect and the stretching-release effect.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0416
Eduardo Bustillos, Haley Linkous, Xin Xie, Laila Guessous, Lianxiang Yang
This paper presents the measurement and analysis of the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy using digital image correlation. The edge stretching limit, also known as the “edge thinning limit,” is the maximum thinning strain at a point of edge failure resulting from tension; which may be predisposed by edge quality. Edge fracture is a vital failure mode in sheet metal forming, however it is very difficult to measure. A previous study enabled the measurement of edge thinning strain by using advanced digital image correlation but it did not consider how the edge quality could affect the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy. This paper continues to measure edge thinning strain by comparing polished to unpolished AA5754, thus determining the effect edge quality has on the edge stretching limit. To enable the measurement by optical method for a very long and thin sample, a notch is used to localize where edge failure occurs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0395
Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou, Gunti R. Srinivas, Sanketh Gowda, Goutham Kurnool
Abstract An attractive strategy for joining metallic as well as non-metallic substrates through adhesive bonding. This technique of joining also offers the functionality for joining dissimilar materials. However, doubts are often expressed on the ability of such joints to perform on par with other mechanical fastening methodologies such as welding, riveting, etc. In the current study, adhesively-bonded single lap shear (SLS), double lap shear (DLS) and T-peel joints are studied initially under quasi-static loading using substrates made of a grade of mild steel and an epoxy-based adhesive of a renowned make (Huntsman). Additionally, single lap shear joints comprised of a single spot weld are tested under quasi-static loading. The shear strengths of adhesively-bonded SLS joints and spot-welded SLS joints are found to be similar.
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