Display:

Results

Viewing 211 to 240 of 20491
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1394
Anuj Anand, Hari Prasad Konka, Peter Fritz
Abstract Light weight structures give significant advantages to products in the Industrial sector. Component weight-saving plays a major role in improving the efficiency and performance of assembled systems. The introduction of lighter materials into products using dissimilar material joining techniques can create more weight savings and leads to lighter structures. Structural optimization is another method to optimize the material layout without affecting overall performance of the product. This paper discusses the methods to create lighter structures by the introduction of lighter materials in structures and structural optimization methods. Lighter materials are introduced in the structure using dissimilar material joining techniques. Joining processes such as thermal shrink-fit and mechanical press-fit are useful for metal to metal components. Similarly, adhesively bonded joints are useful for both metal and non-metal (plastics and composites) components.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1279
Ko Wei Lin, Ya Lun Chen, Yong-Yuan Ku, Ta-Wei Tang
Abstract Biodiesel, Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), can be made from different types of animal and vegetable oils. Its characteristics are different from those of fossil diesel, such as oxygen content, higher cold filter plugging point, and so on. Compared with fossil diesel, biodiesel can be oxidized more easily. If the fuel is oxidized, there might be product to cause some problems, like blocking filters. Therefore, the information of the storage life of the fuel is very important to vehicle owners. Moreover, the storage condition of the fuels is related to the types of source materials, additives, local weather or quality control of biodiesel. This research had used D100 and B2 fuels as experiment samples. (Blending B100 made by two different companies and represented A and B.)
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1291
Greig Latham
Abstract Applying the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIOLCA) method to the question of fielding newly manufactured or remanufactured vehicles provides an illuminating view of the economic and environmental advantages of remanufacturing. Sustained accomplishments of policy and engineering have reduced vehicle emissions such that current work has reached the point of diminishing returns. The macroeconomic, global, unprecedented, debt-supercycle-combined with increasing costs of natural resource extraction and vehicle production-demands improved asset and resource utilization. Expanding and exploiting the entire vehicle life cycle is a profitable and sustainable extension of work to date; such extension calls for remanufacturing to move from vehicle components to the entire vehicle. Stretching service lifetimes delay traditional end-of-life recovery practices while radically challenging the status quo.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1290
J. Groenewald, James Marco, Nicholas Higgins, Anup Barai
Abstract While a number of publications have addressed the high-level requirements of remanufacturing to ensure its commercial and environmental sustainability, considerably less attention has been given to the technical data and associated test strategies needed for any evidence-based decision as to whether a vehicle energy storage system should be remanufactured - extending its in-vehicle life, redeployed for second-life (such as domestic or grid storage) or decommissioned for recycling. The aim of this paper is to critically review the strategic requirements for data at the different stages of the battery value-chain that is pertinent to an Electric Vehicle (EV) battery remanufacturing strategy. Discussed within the paper is the derivation of a feasible remanufacturing test strategy for the vehicle battery system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1074
Takamichi Hirasawa, Michihiro Yamamoto
Abstract Although burr removal after machining generates no value, it is a factor to add major processing cost. While our final goal is to remove the deburring process, development of minimizing the variance in the amount and type of burr after machining was promoted this time as our first step. This report presents how we reduced deburring time significantly by minimizing burr as much as possible from optimization of a blade release angle and development of a relevant tool.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
AMS2374F
This specification covers quality assurance sampling and testing procedures used to determine conformance to applicable material specifications of corrosion and heat-resistant steel and alloy forgings.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1130
Mike Johns, Heinz Kamping, Kristian Krueger, James Mynderse, Chris Riedel
Abstract Tapered roller bearings used to support pinion and differential gears in automotive drive axles perform best with accurate assembled preload. One of the most common high volume production assembly methods relies on bearing friction to adjust preload; however torque is an indirect measure of load, can be influenced by the raceway condition, and is difficult to control. A new method to measure preload utilizes frequency response to estimate axial preload from system stiffness. The stiffness can be measured dynamically and an assembly method automated to set preload without the need for torque or dimensional measurements. By eliminating the need for a torque signal, the raceway conditions which contribute to setting torque do not contribute to the preload setting accuracy. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using frequency response to measure stiffness and estimate preload.
2016-04-05
Standard
J3071_201604
This SAE Battery Identification and Cross Contamination Prevention document is intended to provide information that may be applicable to all types of Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) devices. It is important to develop a system that can facilitate sorting by chemistry. The recycler is interested in the chemistry of the RESS. This is true for the recyclers of Lead Acid, Lithium Ion, Nickel Cadmium etc. Thus recyclers of RESS will receive RESS from automotive, commercial, and industrial applications. These RESS have the potential to be contaminated with a RESS of an incompatible chemistry. It is recognized that mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate the introduction of incompatible chemistries into a given recycling stream would also benefit safety and the environment.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1258
Tatsuya Iida, Hiroya Mitani, Mamoru Sato
Abstract 1 Inside a paint booth to spray paint on vehicle bodies, bumpers, and other parts (hereinafter referred to as “works”), air whose temperature and humidity are controlled by air-conditioner is supplied by blower fans through filters. Dust-eliminated and regulated air flow is sent downward from top to bottom (hereinafter referred to as “downflow”) in the painting booth. Conventionally, paint which does not adhere to work in spraying (hereinafter referred to as “paint mist”) is collected while flowing at a high speed through a slit opening called venturi scrubber in a mixture of air and water. However, this mist collecting system using venturi scrubber requires a large space with a large amount of pressure loss while consuming substantial energy. By radically changing the mist collecting principle, we developed a new compact system with less pressure loss aiming to reduce energy consumption by 40% in a half-size booth.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0106
Michael Stamper
Abstract One of the many critical design criteria for vehicle harness design is circuit protection. This process typically involves calculating the maximum load on each wire manually and then comparing the result to a spreadsheet that may be quite old. Testing physical prototypes occurs so late in the design process that problems found can be very expensive to rectify. Using simulation to detect faults, such as short circuits or the time for the fuse to blow vs. the time for the wire to smoke is an effective solution that can not only save a great deal in costs, but shorten the development cycle as well.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0139
Andreas Himmler, Klaus Lamberg, Tino Schulze, Jann-Eve Stavesand
Abstract Increasing productivity along the development and verification process of safety-related projects is an important aspect in today’s technological developments, which need to be ever more efficient. The increase of productivity can be achieved by improving the usability of software tools and decreasing the effort of qualifying the software tool for a safety-related project. For safety-critical systems, the output of software tools has to be verified in order to ensure the tools’ suitability for safety-relevant applications. Verification is particularly important for test automation tools that are used to run hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) tests of safety-related software automatically 24/7. This qualification of software tools requires advanced knowledge and effort. This problem can be solved if a tool is suitable for developing safety-related software. This paper explains how this can be achieved for a COTS test automation tool.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0271
David A. Warren
Abstract The objective of the paper is to outline the steps taken to change the reliability and maintenance environment of a plant from completely reactive to proactive. The main systems addressed are maintenance function fulfillment with existing staffing; work order management, planning, and scheduling; preventive maintenance (PM) definition and frequency establishment; predictive maintenance (PdM) scheduling and method definition; and shutdown planning and execution. The work order management methods were evaluated and modified to provide planning and scheduling of work orders on a weekly basis. The computerized maintenance and management system (CMMS) was updated to automatically insert work orders into the backlog of work for completion. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was performed and the results of the FMEA led to implementation of the following PM and PdM activities: vibration analysis, thermal imaging, and temperature monitoring.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0296
Monika Minarcin
Abstract Increasing electrification of the vehicle as well as the demands of increased connectivity presents automotive manufacturers with formidable challenges. Automakers and suppliers likely will encounter three practices that will influence how they develop and manufacture highly connected vehicles and future e-mobility platforms: 1) hierarchical production processes in fixed footprints that do not share data freely; 2) lack of real-time, in-line quality inspection and correction processes for complex miniaturized electronic components; and 3) floor to enterprise resource and execution systems that can collect, analyze and respond to rapidly changing production needs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0306
Heeseung Yang, Hyunkwon Jo, Hyunchul Lee, Hyunmin Park, JaeMin Park
Abstract The Automotive Interior Parts offer convenience and riding comfort for passengers. One of its main features is that it is placed in a conspicuous place. Therefore, automotive interior part manufacturer attach importance to appearance quality. Additionally, appearance quality of Interior Parts is more important as the senses of passenger heighten. Most Automotive Interior Parts manufactured by Injection Molding to mass produce it with complex geometry. But there are numerous defects in method of Injection Molding. Especially, large products like automotive interior parts are disadvantage. A typical example of defects is weld line, sink mark, short shot. These are having an adverse effect on the appearance quality as well as another quality like BSR (Buzz Squeak Rattle) and Side impact performance. In order to improve problem, molding has been modified and spray coating has been done over the past.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0338
R.J. Urbanic, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract The ‘boundary of space’ model representing all possible positions which may be occupied by a mechanism during its normal range of motion (for all positions and orientations) is called the work envelope. In the robotic domain, it is also known as the robot operating envelope or workspace. Several researchers have investigated workspace boundaries for different degrees of freedom (DOF), joint types and kinematic structures utilizing many approaches. The work envelope provides essential boundary information, which is critical for safety and layout concerns, but the work envelope information does not by itself determine the reach feasibility of a desired configuration. The effect of orientation is not captured as well as the coupling related to operational parameters. Included in this are spatial occupancy concerns due to linking multiple kinematic chains, which is an issue with multi-tasking machine tools, and manufacturing cells.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0337
Ana M. Djuric, R.J. Urbanic, J.L. Rickli
Abstract Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (CoBots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. CoBots, unlike traditional CoBots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although CoBots have the potential to become standard in production systems, there is no strong foundation for systems design and development. The focus of this research is to provide a foundation and four tier framework to facilitate the design, development and integration of CoBots. The framework consists of the system level, work-cell level, machine level, and worker level. Sixty-five percent of traditional robots are installed in the automobile industry and it takes 200 hours to program (and reprogram) them.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0336
R.J. Urbanic, R. Hedrick, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract When performing trajectory planning for robotic applications, there are many aspects to consider, such as the reach conditions, joint and end-effector velocities, accelerations and jerk conditions, etc. The reach conditions are dependent on the end-effector orientations and the robot kinematic structure. The reach condition feasibility is the first consideration to be addressed prior to optimizing a solution. The ‘functional’ work space or work window represents a region of feasible reach conditions, and is a sub-set of the work envelope. It is not intuitive to define. Consequently, 2D solution approaches are proposed. The 3D travel paths are decomposed to a 2D representation via radial projections. Forward kinematic representations are employed to define a 2D boundary curve for each desired end effector orientation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0335
Samuel M. Odeyinka, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract Inverse kinematic solutions of six degree of freedom (DOF) robot manipulation is a challenging task due to complex kinematic structure and application conditions which affects and depend on the robot’s tool frame position, orientation and different possible configurations. The robot trajectory represents a series of connected points in three dimensional space. Each point is defined with its position and orientation related to the robot’s base frames or users teach pendant. The robot will move from point to point using the desired motion type (linear, arc, or joint). This motion requires inverse kinematic solution. This paper presents a detailed inverse kinematic solution for Fanuc 6R (Rotational) robot family using a geometrical method. Each joint angular position will be geometrically analyzed and all possible solutions will be included in the decision equations. The solution will be developed in a parametric manner to cover the complete Fanuc six DOF family.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0334
Lucas e Silva, Tennakoon Mudiyanselage Tennakoon, Mairon Marques, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract A collaborative robot or cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing industrial tasks. The ability to work alongside humans has increased the importance of collaborative robots in the automation industry, as this unique feature is a much needed property among robots nowadays. Rethink Robotics has pioneered this unique discipline by building many robots including the Baxter Robot which is exclusive not only because it has collaborative properties, but because it has two arms working together, each with 7 Degrees Of Freedom. The main goal of this research is to validate the kinematic equations for the Baxter collaborative robot and develop a unified reconfigurable kinematic model for the Left and Right arms so that the calculations can be simplified.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0333
Pavel Lykov, Rustam Baytimerov, Sergey Vaulin, Evgeny Safonov, Dmitry Zherebtsov
Abstract Due to its unique physical properties (high thermal and electric conductivity) copper is one of the most interesting materials in point of view of additive manufacturing in particular of Selective Laser Melting (SLM). But because of the low laser radiation absorption, low melting point and high thermal conductivity it is difficult to fabricate of copper components without pores. Results of many research have been shown that for successful Selective Laser Melting of copper powder is needed high laser power (more than 300 W) and high laser scanning speed (more than 600 mm/s). However now most SLM machines are equipped with laser plants with output power up to 200 W.In this research, SLM machine with 200 W maximum power CO2 laser has been used. For determination of the influence of SLM process parameters on quality of copper parts cubic specimens have been fabricated. The point distance, exposure time and base plate preheating temperature have been changing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0328
Scott Curran, Paul Chambon, Randall Lind, Lonnie Love, Robert Wagner, Steven Whitted, David Smith, Brian Post, Ronald Graves, Craig Blue, Johney Green, Martin Keller
Abstract Rapid vehicle powertrain development has become a technological breakthrough for the design and implementation of vehicles that meet and exceed the fuel efficiency, cost, and performance targets expected by today’s consumer. Recently, advances in large scale additive manufacturing have provided the means to bridge hardware-in-the-loop with preproduction mule chassis testing. This paper details a case study from Oak Ridge National Laboratory bridging the powertrain-in-the-loop development process with vehicle systems implementation using big area additive manufacturing (BAAM). For this case study, the use of a component-in-the-loop laboratory with math-based models is detailed for the design of a battery electric powertrain to be implemented in a printed prototype mule. The ability for BAAM to accelerate the mule development process via the concept of computer-aided design to part is explored.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0348
Nan Wang, Sergey Golovashchenko
Abstract Stamping die design recommendations attempt to limit the production of burrs through accurate alignment of the upper and lower trimming edges. For aluminum automotive exterior panels, this translates to a clearance less than 0.1 mm. However, quality of sheared edge and its stretchability are affected by stiffness of the cutting tool against opening of the clearance between the shearing edges. The objective of the study is to investigate the influence of stiffness of trimming or piercing dies against opening of the cutting clearance on sheared edge stretchability of aluminum blanks 6111-T4. For experimental study, one side of the sample had sheared surface obtained by the trimming process while the other side of the sample had a smooth surface achieved by metal finish. Burr heights of the sheared edge after different trimming configurations with 10% clearance were measured.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0346
Patrick Garcia, Jiri Radous, Artur Krol, Jacek Bosek, Caroline Baeten
During the 4 last years, Lean has been successfully implemented in one of the Tenneco’s Business Units: Ride Performance. This paper reflects on the results and more specifically on the third principle of Lean [1] “How to make flow” and on the fifth principle “To strive for perfection” obtained in the fields of “Product Development” related to Processes, Tools and People. Processes and Hard Tools. How to improve the flow in the engineering processes? It will be shown that In general standardized processes supported by some integrated tools and, more specifically Some workload leveling in testing, CAD Departments, Standardization in design processes, testing procedures and prototypes development processes and Standardization and availability of components and parts for prototype building are key enablers to enhance flow in the Product Development.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0344
Mohamed El-Sayed
Abstract Success in lean product realization depends on the ability to specify value from the voice of the customer at the beginning of the process. Value streaming, is therefore essential for assuring that the specified value is being pursued and achieved throughout the process. During lean implementation, however, it is usually assumed that nothing but value will be streamed if wastes are eliminated using value stream mapping. While waste elimination is necessary to make the process leaner and facilitate value streaming it is not sufficient for assuring that specified value is being streamed without structured and formalized participation of customers. With current structure of product realization processes, the voice of the customer is provided during the planning phase at the beginning of the process and customer satisfaction feedback is provided after product launch.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0341
Jan-Friedrich Brand, Patrick Garcia, Laxman Nalage, Pradip Ithape
Abstract Several factors influence a company working culture including its industry, its geographical region, as well as the cultural and the educational background of its employees. Despite these, Japanese companies have successfully transferred a company’s working culture from Japan to other countries [2], so that only minor regional differences in productivity remain. Such transfer is possible with a strong process oriented mind set and working style. This paper examines the change in a working culture associated with the prototyping of exhaust systems in India. That change required a shift from a reactive “firefighting” mode of working to a structured, projectable and reliable working environment. The goal was to achieve increased in-time delivery, higher quality, greater flexibility, more innovation and reduced cost. The same process approach may be transferred from India to other parts of the world, while allowing for country-specific influences on a company’s working culture.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0342
Rushil Batra, Sahil Nanda, Shubham Singhal, Ranganath Singari
Abstract This research is an attempt to investigate the significance of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) in the lean transformation of manufacturing units (largely automotive) and then apply the same in a tool room. It is an essential tool used to interpret both material and information flow in a system. The tool room under study specializes in production of a large variety of high precision tools for the automotive industry. A product family is chosen to map and analyze various stages of its production process, starting from the raw material (R/M) to the finished goods’ (F/G) stage. VSM is then implemented in the tool room to correctly identify wastes and thus improvement areas to bridge gaps between current and future states. Both current and future state maps are drafted along with usage of other lean tools to justify its implementation in a small setup like tool room.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0340
Tina Hull, Monika A. Minarcin
Abstract Applications using industrial robotics have typically led to establishing a safeguarded space encompassing a wide radius around the robot. Operator access to this hazard zone was restricted by a combination of means, such as hard guarding, safeguarding, awareness means, and personal protective equipment. The introduction of collaborative robots is redefining safeguarding requirements. Many collaborative robots have inherently safe designs that enable an operator and a robot to work within a shared, collaborative workspace. New technology in industrial robotics has opened up opportunities for collaborative operation. Collaborative operation could include either industrial or collaborative robots, depending on its application. The current defined modes of collaborative operation are hand guiding; speed and separation monitoring; safety-rated monitored stop; and, power and force limiting.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0325
Farhan Javed, Salman Javed
Abstract Additive manufacturing has experienced rapid growth over a span of 25 years. Additive manufacturing involves the development of a three-dimensional (3D) object by stacking layer upon layer. Conventional machining techniques involve the removal of material. However, this technique differentiates itself from other techniques by means of addition of the material. The integration of CAD with additive manufacturing has offered the ability to create complex structures. Despite its clear benefits, additive manufacturing suffers from a high initial investment. An average cost of an entry level commercial 3D printer is 600$. A low-cost 3D printer has been designed and built for experimental investigation within a budget of 300$. The paramount process of 3D printing involves a combination of interpreting data from CAD files and controlling the motors using this data. The various design considerations while developing the 3D printer have been discussed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0378
John George, Daniel Gross, Hamid Jahed, Ali Roostaei
Abstract The choice of an appropriate material model with parameters derived from testing and proper modeling of stress-strain response during cyclic loading are the critical steps for accurate fatigue-life prediction of complex automotive subsystems. Most materials used in an automotive substructure, like a chassis system, exhibit combined hardening behavior and it is essential to capture this behavior in the CAE model in order to accurately predict the fatigue life. This study illustrates, with examples, the strain-controlled testing of material coupons, and the calculations of material parameters from test data for the combined hardening material model used in the Abaqus solver. Stress-strain response curves and fatigue results from other simpler material models like the isotropic hardening model and the linear material model with Neuber correction are also discussed in light of the respective fatigue theories.
Viewing 211 to 240 of 20491

Filter