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Viewing 181 to 210 of 21154
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0396
Guobiao Yang, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Hao Wang, Elizabeth Lekarczyk, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Vehicle weight reduction is a significant challenge for the modern automotive industry. In recent years, the amount of vehicular components constructed from aluminum alloy has increased due to its light weighting capabilities. Automotive manufacturing processes, predominantly those utilizing various stamping applications, require a thorough understanding of aluminum fracture predictions methods, in order to accurately simulate the process using Finite Element Method (FEM) software or use it in automotive engineering manufacture. This paper presents the strain distribution of A5182 aluminum samples after punch impact under various conditions by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system, its software also measured the complete strain history, in addition to sample curvature after it was impacted; therefore obtaining the data required to determine the amount of side-wall-curl (Aluminum sheet springback) present after formation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0227
Omar Al-Shebeeb, Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan
Abstract Process planning, whether generative or variant, can be used effectively as through the incorporation of computer aided tools that enhance the evaluator impact of the dialogue between the design and manufacturing functions. Expert systems and algorithms are inherently incorporated into the software tools used herein. This paper examines the materials related implications that influence design for manufacturing issues. Generative process planning software tools are utilized to analyze the sensitivity of the effectiveness of the process plans with respect to changing attributes of material properties. The shift that occurs with respect to cost and production rates of process plans with respect to variations in specific material properties are explored. The research will be analyzing the effect of changes in material properties with respect to the design of a specific product that is prismatic and is produced exclusively by machining processes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0224
Zhangxing Chen, Yi Li, Yimin Shao, Tianyu Huang, Hongyi Xu, Yang Li, Wei Chen, Danielle Zeng, Katherine Avery, HongTae Kang, Xuming Su
Abstract To advance vehicle lightweighting, chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is identified as a promising material to replace metals. However, there are no effective tools and methods to predict the mechanical property of the chopped carbon fiber SMC due to the high complexity in microstructure features and the anisotropic properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach is used to model the SMC microstructure. Two modeling methods, the Voronoi diagram-based method and the chip packing method, are developed to populate the RVE. The elastic moduli of the RVE are calculated and the two methods are compared with experimental tensile test conduct using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Furthermore, the advantages and shortcomings of these two methods are discussed in terms of the required input information and the convenience of use in the integrated processing-microstructure-property analysis.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0248
Fabian Jorg Uwe Koark, Arvind Korandla
Abstract Motivation - Ambiguous product targets, a global market, innovation pressure, changing process requirements and limited resources describe the situation for engineering management in the most R&D organizations. Achieving complex objective with limited resources is a question of performance. Performance in engineering departments is highly correlated to the existing capability of the engineering staff. When the reduction of engineering effort in development projects becomes additional goal for the management, an increase of engineering productivity is required. International engineering sites are established globally to push the capacity limits and to increase the productivity by the accessing big employment markets of engineering talents. By solving the conflict of limited resources and complex engineering goals, a need organizational challenge occurs - global co-engineering.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0244
Joshua Lyon, Junheung Park, Yakov Fradkin, Jeff Tornabene
Abstract We describe an optimization model developed by Ford Motor Company to reallocate stamped parts between facilities when business conditions change. How can the business meet new targets when demand starts to exceed existing capacity? Likewise, how can it respond when demand is lower than expected? Sometimes the business can reduce costs by transferring production to a different location or by outsourcing parts. We describe in this paper how mathematical optimization can identify solutions that balance both logistical and outsourcing costs. We explain the algorithm and demonstrate with a small example how it recommends sourcing plans that minimize cost.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0499
Mingde Ding, Jiancai Liu PhD, Jianbo Su Sr, Zhiyuan He Sr, Benhong Tan Sr, Ligang Wang
Abstract Because of their high specific stiffness and strength, composite materials have been used in the structural of vehicles to provide a competitive advantage of through weight reduction while maintaining or even increasing functionality. Composite materials have been used for IP carrier which forms the skeleton of the cockpit and provides the base architecture off of which IP components are attached and function. Specially, composite materials using injection molding process have been used to develop IP carrier recently, due to high level of styling flexibility by that can achieve high degree integration and simplicity of process. However, for injection part especially for large part would deform largely. Consequently, deformation controlling is very important for large composite part that used injection molding. In this study mold flow analysis was conducted on the composite IP carrier structure which gets from the topology optimization result.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0536
William Goodwin, Claudio Mancuso, Nicolas Brown
This paper describes how distributive computing along with statistical subsystem simulation can be applied to produce near production ready embedded vehicle software and calibrations. Coupling distributive computing and statistical simulation was first employed over a decade ago at General Motors to design and analyze propulsion subsystem hardware. Recently this method of simulation has been enhanced extending its capabilities to both test embedded vehicle code as well as develop calibrations. A primary advantage of this simulation technique is its ability to generate data from a statistically significant population of subsystems. The result is the acquisition of an optimal data set enabling the development of a robust design now including both embedded code and calibrations. Additionally it has been shown that there are significant economic advantages in terms of time and cost associated with this type of development when compared to traditional method.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1239
Naoya Take, Takuya Kadoguchi, Masao Noguchi, Kimihiro Yamanaka
Abstract Power modules are used to operate three-phase alternating current motors in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles. Good fuel efficiency and high power density are required in the field of hybrid vehicles. To achieve this goal, the miniaturization of the power module will be necessary. This trend may make a current density, which is created by insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and free wheel diodes (FWDs), higher in power modules. Solder is often used as the joint material of power modules. It is known that a current density larger than 10 kA/cm2 causes solder electromigration. This phenomenon may cause delamination of the joint area. In addition, the ambient temperature has an influence on electromigration. The temperature of an engine compartment is high, so it is likely to cause electromigration. However, the current density of the double-sided cooling power modules in 2007 with solder joint is lower than 0.4 kA/cm2, and this value is lower than 10 kA/cm2.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1625
Rajeev Kalamdani, Chandra Jalluri, Stephen Hermiller, Robert Clifton
Abstract Use of sensors to monitor dynamic performance of machine tools at Ford’s powertrain machining plants has proven to be effective. The traditional approach to convert sensor data to actionable intelligence consists of identifying single features from cycle based signatures and setting thresholds above acceptable performance limits based on trials. The thresholds are used to discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable performance during each cycle and raise alarms if necessary. This approach requires a significant amount of resource & time intensive set up work up-front and considerable trial and error adjustments. The current state does not leverage patterns that might be discernible using multiple features simultaneously. This paper describes enhanced methods for processing the data using supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods. The objective of using these methods is to improve the prediction accuracy and reduce up-front set up.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0295
Silvio César Bastos
Abstract Automotive industries have been seeking quality excellence as a key factor in competitiveness. Product characteristics and functions should meet the expectations of customers in terms of warranty and reliability. The objective of this paper is to present a method to improve the synchronization of customer’s product requirements with their suppliers in terms of key performance indicators. The improvement allows suppliers to take corrective and preventive actions through knowledge of component applications in engines and vehicles. Engine assembly lines maintain records and meet daily meet to explore trends of productivity, and supplier quality performance is measured based on engine failure instead of parts supplied. This methodology integrates Lean Manufacturing and Supplier Quality Engineering and respective targets, combining efforts towards Quality Assurance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0254
Sudeep Chavare, Kevin Thomson, Nitin Sharma
Abstract Use of parametric approach to optimize CAE models for various objectives is a common practice these days. In addition to load members, the connection entities such as welds and adhesives play an important role in overall performance matrix. Hence adding the connection entities to the pool of design variables during an optimization exercise provide additional opportunity for design exploration. The method presented in this paper offers a unique approach to parameterize adhesive lines by evaluating the possibility of using structural adhesives as intermittent patches rather than continuous lines. The paper discusses two optimization studies 1) structural adhesive patches along with spot weld pitch as design variables, and 2) structural adhesive patches with gage variables. These studies include the Body in White (BiW) and Trimmed Body in White (TBiW) assessments.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0340
Li Lu, Jane Zhou, Ram Iyer, Jeffrey Webb, Derren Woods, Thomas Pietila
Abstract Injection molding tools are expensive and the fatigue failure during production would result in very costly rework on the tool and downtime. Currently, mold designs are mostly based on expert experience without a careful stress analysis and the mold tool life cycle relies largely on rough estimates. The industry state of the art applies averaged temperature change and peak pressure load on the mold tool. The static analysis is then performed. Mold temperature history and thermal shock are not considered in the durability analysis. In this paper, a transient thermal analysis of the tool is performed in conjunction with the injection molding process simulation. The spatial and temporal variation of temperature, pressure and clamping forces are exported from Moldflow simulation. These histories of temperature and pressure are converted to appropriate loading curves and mapped into Abaqus FEA model.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0472
Gyoko Oh
Abstract To prevent corrosion of the inlet part with aqueous ammonia injection, high chromium corrosion-resistant materials have been applied for welded joints of mufflers. Bending fatigue strength of welded joint samples of flange pipes was defined through fatigue experiments, modeling that high fluctuating stresses exist in the inlet and outlet flange pipes of a muffler caused by the vibration of a moving vehicle. Factors that caused fatigue to failure such as welding bead shape and metallographic structure were identified through local stress measurements, FEM stress simulations, microscopic observations, and SEM-EDS composition analyses. By comparing with sample A having a smaller flank angle and sample B having a larger flank angle, the results suggested that the difference of bending fatigue strengths at 200,000 cycles was 24% when based on nominal stress, and the difference was 10% when based on measured maximum stress.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1074
Xingfu Chen, Todd Brewer, Cagri Sever, Eben Prabhu, Reda Adimi, Carlos Engler-Pinto
Abstract Cylinder head design is a highly challenging task for modern engines, especially for the proliferation of boosted, gasoline direct injection engines (branded EcoBoost® engines by Ford Motor Company). The high power density of these engines results in higher cylinder firing pressures and higher operating temperatures throughout the engine. In addition to the high operating stresses, cylinder heads are normally heat treated to optimize their mechanical properties; residual stresses are generated during heat treatment, which can be detrimental for high-cycle fatigue performance. In this paper, a complete cylinder head high cycle fatigue CAE analysis procedure is demonstrated. First, the heat treatment process is simulated. The transient temperature histories during the quenching process are used to calculate the distribution of the residual stresses, followed by machining simulation, which results in a redistribution of stress.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1665
Qigui Wang, Peggy Jones, Yucong Wang, Dale Gerard
Abstract With the increasing use of aluminum shape castings in structural applications in automobiles, assurance of cast product integrity and performance has become critical in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, the latest understanding of the relationship between casting quality and mechanical properties of aluminum castings is summarized. Examples of newly developed technologies for alloy design, melting and melt treatment, casting and heat treatment processes in aluminum casting are reviewed. Robust design and development of high integrity aluminum castings through an Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) approach is also discussed.
CURRENT
2017-03-28
Standard
AMS4959G
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of cold drawn wire.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1274
Jason M. Luk, Hyung Chul Kim, Robert De Kleine, Timothy J. Wallington, Heather L. MacLean
Abstract This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0183
Mingyu Wang, Timothy Craig, Edward Wolfe, Tim J LaClair, Zhiming Gao, Michael Levin, Danrich Demitroff, Furqan Shaikh
Abstract It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work. The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0301
Lu Huang, Ming Shi
Abstract Digital image correlation (DIC) technique has been proved as a potent tool to determine the forming limit curve (FLC) of sheet metal. One of the major technical challenges using the DIC to generate FLC is to accurately pinpoint the onset of localized necking from the DIC data. In addition to the commonly applied ISO 12004-2 standard, a plethora of other DIC data analysis approaches have been developed and used by various users and researchers. In this study, different approaches, including spatial, temporal and hybrid approaches, have been practiced to determine the limit strains at the onset of localized necking. The formability of a 980GEN3 sheet steel was studied in this work using the Marciniak cup test coupled with a DIC system. The resulting forming limits determined by different approaches were compared. Strengths and limitations of each approach were discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0309
Mitchell Rencheck, Paul Zelenak, Jianhui Shang, Hyunok Kim
Abstract Aluminum alloys are increasingly utilized in automotive body panels and crash components to reduce weight. Accurately assessing formability of the sheet metal can reduce design iteration and tooling tryouts to obtain the desired geometry in aluminum stampings. The current ISO forming limit curve (FLC) procedure is a position dependent technique which produces the FLC based on extrapolation at the crack location. As aluminum sheet metal use increases in manufacturing, accurate determination of the forming limits of this material will be necessary prior to production. New time dependent methods using digital imaging correlation (DIC) account for variations in material behavior by continuously collecting strain data through the material necking point. This allows more accurate FLC determination that is necessary for efficient design in the automotive stamping industry.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0307
Xiaohua Hu, Xin Sun, Sergey Golovashchenko
Abstract The hole stretchability of two Aluminum Alloys (AA6111 and AA6022) are studied by using a two stages integrated finite element framework where the edge geometry and edge damages from the hole piercing processes were considered in the subsequent hole expansion processes. Experimentally it has been found that AA6022 has higher hole expansion ratios than those of AA6111. This observation has been nicely captured by finite element simulations. The main cause of differences have been identified to the volume fractions of the random distributed second phase hard particles which play a critical role in determining the fracture strains of the materials.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0314
Lu Huang, Ming Shi, Patrick Russell
Abstract Fracture strain data provide essential information for material selection and serve as an important failure criterion in computer simulations of crash events. Traditionally, the fracture strain was measured by evaluating the thinning at fracture using tools such as a microscope or a point micrometer. In the recent decades, digital image correlation (DIC) has evolved as an advanced optical technique to record full-field strain history of materials during deformation. Using this technique, a complete set of the fracture strains (including major, minor, and thickness strains) can be approximated for the material. However, results directly obtained from the DIC can be dependent on the experiment setup and evaluation parameters, which potentially introduce errors to the reported values.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0312
ZiQiang Sheng, Pankaj Mallick
Abstract Based on findings from micromechanical studies, a Ductile Failure Criterion (DFC) was proposed. The proposed DFC treats localized necking as failure and critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness. Under linear strain path assumption, a method to predict Forming Limit Curve (FLC) is derived from this DFC. With the help of predetermined effect functions, the method only needs a calibration at uniaxial tension. The approach was validated by predicting FLCs for sixteen different aluminum and steel sheet metal materials. Comparison shows that the prediction matches quite well with experimental observations in most cases.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0311
Pedro Stemler, Anoop Samant, Dennis Hofmann, Taylan Altan
Abstract The capabilities of the servo press for varying the ram speed during stroke and for adjusting the stroke length are well known. Various companies installed servo presses for blanking. Some of the considerations may include increase in productivity and flexibility in adjusting the ram stroke, noise reduction and improvement of edge quality of blanked edge. The objectives of this study are to determine the effect of ram (blanking) speed upon the edge quality, and the effect of multiple step blanking using several punch motions, during one blanking stroke.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0394
Junrui Li, Ruiyan Yang, Zhen Li, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) is gaining popularity in the automotive industry due to its higher final part strength with the better formability compares to the conventional steel. However, the edge fracture occurs during the forming procedure for the pre-strained part. To avoid the edge fracture that happens during the manufacturing, the effect of pre-strain on edge cracking limit needs to be studied. In this paper, digital image correlation (DIC), as an accurate optical method, is adopted for the strain measurement to determining the edge cracking limit. Sets of the wide coupons are pre-strained to obtain the samples at different pre-strain level. The pre-strain of each sample is precisely measured during this procedure using DIC. After pre-straining, the half dog bone samples are cut from these wide coupons. The edge of the notch in the half dog bone samples is created by the punch with 10% clearance for the distinct edge condition.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0316
Kiran Mallela, Andrey Ilinich, S Luckey, Danielle Zeng, Yuan Gan
Abstract Aluminum extrusions are used in the automotive industry for body structure applications requiring cross-section design flexibility, high section stiffness, and high strength. Heat-treatable 6xxx series extrusion alloys have typically been used in automotive due to commercial availability, competitive cost, high strength, and impact performance. This paper presents a characterization study of mechanical properties of 6xxx series aluminum extrusions using digital image correlation (DIC). DIC has been used to capture spatial strain distribution and its evolution in time during material deformation. The materials of study were seamless and structural 6061 and 6082 extrusions. The alloys have been tensile tested using an MTS load frame with a dual optical camera system to capture the stereoscopic digital images. Notable results include the differing anisotropy of seamless and structural extrusions, as well as the influence of artificial aging on anisotropy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0479
Soichi Hareyama, Ken-ichi Manabe, Makoto Nakashima, Takayuki Shimodaira, Akio Hoshi
Abstract This investigation describes a method for estimating the absolute lock effect in bolted joint. Observation results of loosening phenomenon in industrial vehicle are analyzed for the linear relation by the proposed regression formula. Based on the relation, in early stages of the development test, the rate of clamping force decrease can be estimated accurately after prolonged operation by measuring the clamping force behavior. The tendency to decrease is observed about the depression type and working load type loosening. For evaluation design bases, the residual clamping force estimation chart is established. The L-N (Loosening Lifetime - Number of Cycles to Loosening N) diagram is proposed for the loosening lifetime prediction for working load type loosening also. Using the loosening damage (cumulative decrease of clamping force) and L-N diagram, the lifetime to loosening failure can be predicted accurately for the locking device and method as an absolute evaluation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0126
Joshua W. Finn, John R. Wagner
Abstract Hybrid vehicle embedded systems and payloads require progressively more accurate and versatile thermal control mechanisms and strategies capable of withstanding harsh environments and increasing power density. The division of the cargo and passenger compartments into convective thermal zones which are independently managed can lead to a manageable temperature control problem. This study investigates the performance of a Peltier-effect thermoelectric zone cooling system to regulate the temperature of target objects (e.g., electronic controllers, auxiliary computer equipment, etc) within ground vehicles. Multiple thermoelectric cooling modules (TEC) are integrated with convective cooling fans to provide chilled air for convective heat transfer from a robust, compact, and solid state device. A series of control strategies have been designed and evaluated to track a prescribed time-varying temperature profile while minimizing power consumption.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1276
Aditi Moorthy, Robert De Kleine, Gregory Keoleian, Jeremy Good, Geoff Lewis
Abstract The problem of accessibility to public transit is well-documented in transportation theory and network literature, and is known as the last mile problem. A lack of first and last mile transit services impairs access to public transit causing commuters to opt for private modes of transit over public modes. This paper analyzes the implications of a shared autonomous vehicle (AV) taxi system providing last mile transit services in terms of environmental, cost, and performance metrics. Conventional public transit options and a hypothetical last-mile shared autonomous vehicle (SAV) system are analyzed for transit between Ann Arbor and Detroit Wayne County Airport for life cycle energy, emissions, total travel time, and travel costs. In the case study, energy savings from using public transit options with AV last mile service were as high as 37% when compared to a personal vehicle option.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0489
Hyunkwon Jo, Jongsoo Kim, Jaemin Park, Heeseung Yang, Hyunmin Park
Abstract Cost reduction is an important issue in the intense competition automotive industry. Interior parts which are mainly consist of plastic have same issue. The manufacturing main processes of plastic products are injection and assemble and the cost of injection depends on injection cycle time. Therefore many studies for the reduction of injection cycle time have been implemented. However the researches based on engineer's experiences have limits so, nowadays many studies utilize CAE. In this paper, the study for the reduction of cycle time focused on injection molding design. To satisfy appearance quality with the reduction of cycle time, the design of injection molding was optimized by using CAE. The result of CAE showed many causes and effects of problems. The optimization of injection molding design improved the quality with the reduction of cycle time. Finally, the product based on CAE showed good quality and cycle time reduction in comparison with previous products.
Viewing 181 to 210 of 21154

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