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Viewing 181 to 210 of 19658
Article
2014-05-09
BMW is doubling down on its commitment to carbon fiber with major capacity increases at the plant that makes the material for its new i brand of lightweight electrified vehicles. The plant (located in Moses Lake, WA, and owned by a joint venture between BMW and SGL Group called SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers) currently operates two production lines, exclusively for BMW i, with annual output of about 3000 ton (2721 t).
Technical Paper
2014-05-07
Timo Björk, Ilkka Valkonen, Jukka Kömi, Hannu Indren
Abstract The development of weldable high-strength and wear-resistant steels have made modern structures such as booms and mobile equipment possible. These sorts of novel and effective designs could not be constructed with traditional mild steel. Unfortunately, the use of these novel steels requires proper design, and there is no practical design code for these novel steels. This paper addresses stability issues, which are important considerations for designs with high-strength steels, and the properties of the heat-affected zone, which may require special attention. Fatigue design is also discussed in this paper, and the importance of the weld quality is highlighted, along with discussions on which details in the weld are the most important. By comparing the test results with the classical load limit solution, it is determined that full plastic capacity is reached and that the samples display good strain properties. Additionally, the reliability of the classical formulas is shown by comparing them to a recently proposed, novel formula.
Standard
2014-05-07
This SAE Standard establishes a method of disclosing the sweep-ability performance of self-propelled sweepers that use broom means for sweeping and collection, together with either a mechanical- or pneumatic-conveyance system for the transfer of “sweepings” into a collection hopper.
Standard
2014-05-07
This standard specifies a procedure for approximating the volume of materials contained in the grapple of bucket linkage operated grapples mounted to excavators. The volume ratings are based on the inside dimensions of the grapple and representative volumes extending beyond the grapple. The method employs the technique of dividing the complex shape of the material in the grapple into simple geometric forms to allow volume calculations of different grapple configurations. The rating method is intended to provide a consistent means of comparing grapple capacities. It is not intended to define actual capacities that might be observed in any specific application.
Standard
2014-05-07
This SAE Standard and its supplementary detail specifications cover the engineering requirements for the controlled shot peening of a medical device where shot peening is required for enhancement of a material's mechanical properties through the intentional creation of compressive residual stress.
Standard
2014-05-07
This SAE Standard covers the mechanical and material requirements for inch-series steel bolts, screws, studs, screws for sems , and U-bolts in sizes to 1-1/2 in. inclusive. The term “stud” as referred to herein applies to a cylindrical rod of moderate length threaded on either one or both ends or throughout its entire length. It does not apply to headed, collared, or similar products which are more closely characterized by requirements shown herein for bolts. The mechanical properties included in Table 1 were compiled at an ambient temperature of approximately 20 °C (68 °F). These properties are valid within a temperature range which depends upon the material grade used and thermal and mechanical processing. Other properties such as fatigue behavior, corrosion resistance, impact properties, etc., are beyond the scope of this document and responsibility for ensuring the acceptability of the product for applications where conditions warrant consideration of these other properties shall be borne by the end user.
WIP Standard
2014-05-06
This specification covers the requirements for electrodeposited hard chromium plate.
Standard
2014-05-05
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of coiled sheet supplied in the –T4 temper.
Standard
2014-05-05
This specification covers a cobalt-nickel-iron alloy in the form of bars, forgings, flash welded rings, and stock for forging, flash welded rings, or heading.
Standard
2014-05-05
This specification specifies the engineering requirements for heat treatment, by part fabricators (users) or their vendors or subcontractors, of parts (See 8.8.1). It also covers heat treatment by warehouses or distributors converting raw material from one temper to another temper (See 1.3 and 8.5). It covers the following aluminum alloys: 1100, 2004, 2014, 2017, 2024, 2098, 2117, 2124, 2219, 2224, 3003, 5052, 6013, 6061, 6063, 6066, 6951, 7049, 7050, 7075, 7149, 7178, 7249, 7475
Standard
2014-04-30
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of sheet, strip, and plate. These products have been used typically for parts requiring strength up to 750 °F (400 °C), but usage is not limited to such applications.
Standard
2014-04-30
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of sheet, strip, and plate.
WIP Standard
2014-04-30
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the performance of platings and coatings for landing gear that potentially provide environmental compliance benefits versus the current baseline processes. The hazardous systems addressed in this version of the document include cadmium plating, chromated primers, and high VOC (volatile organic compounds) topcoats. Available data are presented for various standard tests in order to compare the replacement candidates. Conclusions are made as to the best performer(s) for each test section presented. These conclusions are not to be regarded as recommendations for or against any of the candidates. The AIR applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms for all types of civil and military aircraft. The potential replacements apply to both original equipment manufacturer (OEM) hardware and overhaul of in-service landing gears.
Standard
2014-04-30
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of investment castings.
Standard
2014-04-29
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) recommends design and test criteria for reusable shipping and storage containers for aircraft engines and modules, weapon systems and components, etc. The containers are to provide water-vaporproof and physical protection.
Standard
2014-04-29
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of bars, forgings, flash welded rings, and stock for forging or flash welded rings.
Standard
2014-04-29
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of investment castings.
Standard
2014-04-29
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of investment castings.
Standard
2014-04-29
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of investment castings.
Article
2014-04-28
ATK reached agreement on a $178 million contract award as part of the U.S. Air Force's Phase 1 Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) buy from United Launch Alliance (ULA). The order value includes hardware for both of the cur-rent Air Force EELV launch vehicles, the Atlas V and Delta IV.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Ingrid Rasquinha, Reji Koshy Daniel
Abstract Environment, energy and safety concerns for vehicles have made improving strength-to-weight ratio of vehicles an imperative issue for the automobile industry. Tube hydroforming (THF) is an innovative forming technology, which can efficiently reduce the weight of a component or assembly, and at the same time, increase the part strength. THF produces parts with a high degree of part complexity (various cross-sections in a single piece) and dimensional stability. Tube hydroforming involves the expansion and sizing of tubes in a closed die under dynamic action of pressurized fluid, with simultaneous axial or radial compression. Best forming results can be achieved by the optimized combination of process parameters (internal pressure, feed, friction, load, blank thickness) and material properties (yield strength, tensile strength, n-value, r-value, elongation).With the help of case studies, this thesis presents how tube hydroforming has been used to shave mass off some conventionally produced auto components like chassis cross-members, trailing arms, crash members and exhaust housings.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
A. K. Bhakat, Ramen Datta, B. K. Jha, M. K. Pradhan, C. Muthuswamy
Abstract Development of economical, as rolled, high strength low alloy steels is the requirement of the day due to its unique features such as increased strength, toughness, formability and weldability property. These materials are required for a variety of critical applications such as long and cross members of auto chassis, pre-engineered building (PEB) structures etc. In line with the developmental trend and market requirement, special quality hot rolled formable grades such as HSFQ 350/ 450 (High Strength Formable Quality) have been selected for development at Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP). The newly developed HSFQ hot rolled steel possess an attractive combination of strength and formability property which is typically quantified as high elongation (25 % min) and hole expansion ratio (145 % min) coupled with lower YS/UTS ratio (0.80-0.85). This has been possible as a result of innovative alloy design and synergistic effect of Nb & Si during controlled processing. Similarly medium carbon steels are being used for wide range of automotive applications.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
M.J. Rathod, T.R. Karale
Abstract Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding technology specially used for joining non ferrous alloys like aluminium-alloys, magnesium alloy etc. FSW have various advantages over conventional welding method like low distortion of material, lower loss of alloying materials, high strength of joint, energy efficient, environment friendly, and versatile. The present studies aimed to understand microstructural changes and associated mechanical properties of the joints produced by using FSW. In this work aluminium alloy Al6061-T6 and Al5052 sheets of thickness 3mm were used for joining. Parameters changed for joining were tool rotational speed, traverse speed and tool geometry with conical pin and hexagonal pin. These process parameters were optimized using design of experiment technique. The welded joints were tested for tensile properties and impact toughness. Metallographic observations of joints were carried out using optical microscopy; scanning electron microscopy. Hardness profile and residual stress were also investigated
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Santosh P. Rahane, V.D. Wakchuare, S.M. Mulla
Abstract In this work, the effect of tool rake angle and cutting speed on residual stresses of tool was studied, the rake angles of 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, and 20° and a constant clearance (Relief angle) of 8° were used to turn bright mild steel on the lathe machine, A total of 15 experiments were carried out with three different cutting speeds (37.69, 59.37, 94.24 m/min) for each rake angle, keeping the feed rate and depth of cut constant. During the experimentation, the residual stresses were measured using an x-ray diffractiometer. This is all in order to explore the energy savings opportunities during regrinding of tools, useful production time and energy is being wasted due to regrinding or re-sharpening of tools when cutting tools got worn or blunt, selection of the rake angle which generate the optimum residual stresses in the tool, goes a long way in saving these time and energy.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Ashok KK, Bade Simhachalam, Dhanooj Balakrishnan, Krishna Srinivas
Abstract In this paper, the application of tube Extrusion for the development of stepped tubular components is discussed. Thickness increase with respect to cold reduction of diameter is predicted with reasonable accuracy. Thickness increase, length increase and strain hardening coefficient for a given cold reduction of diameter of tube are obtained using LS-DYNA Software. True stress-plastic strain curves from the tensile test are used in the forming simulation using LS-DYNA. A special purpose machine is developed for the production of steering shaft components. Considerable reduction in weight is achieved by using stepped tubular components.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Yathish Rao
Abstract An important use of axle shaft is to transmit the power between two parallel planes. Axle shaft can experience severe impact load when there is sudden drop in clutch pedal during the vehicle operation under loaded condition. Insufficient case depth and lower core hardness could cause the low subsurface shear strength of the material. This would result in torsional permanent deformation, phenomenon called Twist in the axle shaft. In order to improve the metallurgical property of the material, the axle shaft is redesigned & strengthened by suitable heat treatment process. The surface of the shaft is induction hardened and the core is toughened (hard & tempered) which would enhance the subsurface & core property of the material particularly shear strength of the material. The correlation between the applied shear stress & material inherent shear strength is used to determine the optimum shaft diameter. The current shaft is modified for increase in case depth, core hardness, shaft diameter & subjected to Ultimate Torsional bench Test.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
P. Dineshbabu, G. Magendran, Subhash Mahajan
Abstract In general, the automotive drive shafts are being manufactured by one of the conventional manufacturing process sequence i.e. Hot Forging, Normalizing & subsequently case hardening and tempering to achieve the desired functional strength requirements. The case hardening process like induction hardening or gas carburizing shall be decided based on geometry, material chemistry and functional requirements. The part like drive shafts which are subjected to torsional load at the surface and bending load at core during application. As per CAE analysis, the torsional and bending stress will act upon 40-50% of the shaft diameter from the surface. These property requirements are achieved through normalizing followed by induction hardening process. The study has been done to eliminate the normalizing process by increasing the case depth around 20% without affecting the functional requirements as mentioned. Comparative Microstructural study has been done on normalized and non normalized shaft and found to be at par.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
M. J. Rathod, H. A. Deore
Abstract Desired mechanical properties including wear resistance at affordable price are the key parameters for which ductile cast irons are widely selected. Particularly, in many automobile applications like brake cylinders, camshafts, connecting rods, gears, pistons and yokes ductile iron is used. Traditionally surface heat treatments like induction hardening and in recent times electron beam and laser hardening are used to improve wear and fatigue resistance of ductile irons. However, the laser surface hardening has a lot of advantages over others such as low distortion due to high power density, flexibility, accuracy, lack of quenching medium and limited grain growth. In this work, laser surface hardening of Ferrito pearlitic ductile iron grade has been carried out. Hardening was performed with a 400W continuous wave fiber laser with the objective to investigate the effect of local tempering in continuous laser multi-pass laser surface hardening on hardness profile of the specimen.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
M.J. Rathod, R.L. Rithe
Abstract Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a recent solid state welding technology. This welding technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and versatile. FSSW is a novel derivative of Friction-Stir Welding (FSW) which is proving to be a better alternative to Resistance Spot Welding (RSW). In this work FSSW of aluminium alloy 6061-T6 and mild steel sheets of thickness 1.5 mm was evaluated using circular pin tool. Tool rotation speed, plunge depth and dwell time were varied to determine the effect of individual process parameter on lap shear separation load. Process parameters were optimized by using Taguchi technique. The optimum values for processing parameters were obtained as 2800 rpm rotational speed, 0.9 mm plunge depth and 8 sec dwell time. Maximum lap shear load of about 2250N was obtained. Joint interface is very clean no inter metallic compound is observed at the Al/Fe interface.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Sumeet Mishra, Piyush Priyadarshi, Kaustubh Kulkarni, N. P. Gurao, Prasad Phale, Suhail Mulla
Abstract The effect of different cold- rolling and cryo-rolling routes on the strength and ductility of Al-6061 alloy was thoroughly investigated. Rolling decreased the grain size and increased the strength according to the Hall-Petch relationship. However subjecting the samples to ageing at different temperatures and for different time period increased the strength and improved the ductility. The ductility was improved due to the rearrangement and even decrease in dislocation density due to recovery and recrystallization during ageing while the strength was maintained due to ageing. Evolution of microstructure was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary hardness measurements coupled with tensile tests indicate the improvement of both yield strength and ductility. The disparity in ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and the elongation to failure with different ageing temperatures and for different time period is determined and discussed.
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