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Viewing 121 to 150 of 20852
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2085
Kyle Pritz, Brent Etzel, Zheng Wei
The automation cycle time of wing assembly can be shortened by the automated installation of single-sided temporary fasteners to provide temporary part clamping and doweling during panel drilling. Feeding these fasteners poses problems due to their complexity in design and overall heavy weight. In the past, Electroimpact has remotely fed these fasteners by blowing them through pneumatic tubing. This technique has resulted in occasional damage to fasteners during delivery and a complex feed system that requires frequent maintenance. Due to these issues, Electroimpact has developed a new fully automated single-sided temporary fastening system for installation of the LISI Clampberry fasteners in wing panels for the C919 wing factory in Yanliang, China. The feed system stores fasteners in gravity-fed cartridges on the end effector near the point of installation.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2119
Gergis W. William, Samir N. Shoukry, Jacky C. Prucz, Mariana M. William
Abstract Air cargo containers are used to load freight on various types of aircrafts to expedite their handling. Fuel cost is the largest contributor to the total cost of ownership of an air cargo container. Therefore, a better fuel economy could be achieved by reducing the weight of such containers. This paper aims at developing innovative, lightweight design concepts for air cargo containers that would allow for weight reduction in the air cargo transportation industry. For this purpose, innovative design and assembly concepts of lightweight design configurations of air cargo containers have been developed through the applications of lightweight composites. A scaled model prototype of a typical air cargo container was built to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of creating such a container from fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials. The paper is the authoritative source for the abstract.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2126
Ali Mohamed Abdelhafeez, Sein Leung Soo, David Aspinwall, Anthony Dowson, Dick Arnold
Abstract Despite the increasing use of carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites, titanium and aluminium alloys still constitute a significant proportion of modern civil aircraft structures, which are primarily assembled via mechanical joining techniques. Drilling of fastening holes is therefore a critical operation, which has to meet stringent geometric tolerance and integrity criteria. The paper details the development of a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model for drilling aerospace grade aluminium (AA7010-T7451 and AA2024-T351) and titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloys. The FE simulation employed a Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) technique. The cutting tool was modelled according to a Lagrangian formulation in which the mesh follows the material displacement while the workpiece was represented by a non-translating and material deformation independent Eulerian mesh.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2120
David Judt, Kevin Forster, Helen Lockett, Craig Lawson, Philip Webb
Abstract In the civil aircraft industry there is a continuous drive to increase the aircraft production rate, particularly for single aisle aircraft where there is a large backlog of orders. One of the bottlenecks is the wing assembly process which is largely manual due to the complexity of the task and the limited accessibility. The presented work describes a general wing build approach for both structure and systems equipping operations. A modified build philosophy is then proposed, concerned with large component pre-equipping, such as skins, spars or ribs. The approach benefits from an offloading of the systems equipping phase and allowing for higher flexibility to organize the pre-equipping stations as separate entities from the overall production line. Its application is presented in the context of an industrial project focused on selecting feasible system candidates for a fixed wing design, based on assembly consideration risks for tooling, interference and access.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2124
Sara Nilsson, Jonas Jensen, Mats Björkman, Erik Sundin
Abstract Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is one of the most commonly used materials in the aerospace industry today. CFRP in pre-impregnated form is an anisotropic material whose properties can be controlled to a high level by the designer. Sometimes, these properties make the material hard to predict with regards to how the geometry affects manufacturing aspects. This paper describes eleven design rules originating from different guidelines that describe geometrical design choices and deals with manufacturability problems that are connected to them, why they are connected and how they can be minimized or avoided. Examples of design choices dealt with in the rules include double curvature shapes, assembly of uncured CFRP components and access for non-destructive testing (NDT). To verify the technical content and ensure practicability, the rules were developed by, inter alia, studying literature and performing case studies at SAAB Aerostructures.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2112
Hilmar Apmann
Abstract As a new material FML, made by aluminum foils and Glasfiber-Prepreg, is a real alternative to common materials for fuselages of aircrafts like monolithic aluminum or CFRP. Since experiences within A380 this material has some really good advantages and develops to the status as alternative to aluminum and composite structures. To become FML as a real alternative to aluminum and carbon structures there are many things to improve: design, material, costs and process chain. So following one of the main goals for an industrial application for high production rates of aircrafts is the automation of production processes inside the process chain for FML-parts like skins and panels for fuselages. To reach this goal for high production rates first steps of automation inside this new process chain have been developed in the last two years. Main steps is the automated lay-up of metallic foils and Glasfiber-Prepreg.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2116
Peter Mueller-Hummel
Abstract Drilling holes into metal with MQL (Minimal Quantity Lubrication) is a normal procedure, because the drill is designed for drilling metal and the malleable capability of the metal compensates for the insufficient cutting capability of a worn out drill. Drilling composite materials using the same drill (designed for drilling metal) is a different procedure, because composite fibers are not malleable like metal at all. Due to this fact the tools become very hot trying to forge composite fibers like metal. The elastic behavior of the composite and the delamination inside the hole makes the tool temporary smaller than the diameter of the drill. The hole in the metal part of the stack remains slightly larger due to the heat and the thermal expansion rate. This paper shows how to drill metal and composite with the same diameter, so that achieving H8 quality is no longer a dream.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2139
Hendrik Susemihl, Christian Moeller, Simon Kothe, Hans Christian Schmidt, Nihar Shah, Christoph Brillinger, Jörg Wollnack, Wolfgang Hintze
Abstract A mobile robotic system is presented as a new approach for machining applications of large aircraft components. Huge and heavy workshop machines are commonly used for components with large dimensions. The system presented in this paper consists of a standard serial robot kinematics and a mobile platform as well as a stereo camera system for optical measurements. Investigations of the entire system show that the mechanical design of the mobile platform has no significant influence on the machining accuracy. With mobile machines referencing becomes an important issue. This paper introduces an optical method for determining the position of the mobile platform in relation to the component and shows its accuracy limits. Furthermore, a method for increasing the absolute accuracy of the robots end-effector with help of stereo camera vision is presented.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2118
Patrick Land, Luis De Sousa, Svetan Ratchev, David Branson, Harvey Brookes, Jon Wright
Abstract With increased demand for composite materials in the aerospace sector there is a requirement for the development of manufacturing processes that enable larger and more complex geometries, whilst ensuring that the functionality and specific properties of the component are maintained. To achieve this, methods such as thermal roll forming are being considered. This method is relatively new to composite forming in the aerospace field, and as such there are currently issues with the formation of part defects during manufacture. Previous work has shown that precise control of the force applied to the composite surface during forming has the potential to prevent the formation of wrinkle defects. In this paper the development of various control strategies that can robustly adapt to different complex geometries are presented and compared within simulated and small scale experimental environments, on varying surface profiles.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2083
Steven P. Smith
Abstract This paper traces the development of a temporary blind fastener in the aircraft industry. These are used with automated drilling machines as part of an integrated assembly process where one-way assembly is inappropriate. Traditional blind temporary fasteners have a high protrusion (stand-off) on the side they are installed from, effectively preventing automated drilling. No suitable fastener was available on the market and existing suppliers were uninterested in development at the time. A set of requirements were created out of the need to improve efficiency of A380 wing assembly. However focus changed as the A350XWB programme demanded such a fastener. Testing, development and Stress approval are described leading to full deployment. Finally the paper looks at the additional factors which are required to successfully introduce a new standard of temporary fastening process.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8128
Vladimir G. Shevtsov, Alexandr Lavrov, Zahid A. Godzhaev, Valentin M. Kryazhkov, Gennagy S. Gurulev
Abstract The objective of this study is to identify the most popular agricultural tractor models in Russia by their engine ratings and countries of origin. This review presents an analysis of changes in the composition of engine-ratings and sales volume of agricultural tractors in the Russian market between 2008 and 2014. Including knock-down kits, the countries of origin are Russia, the CIS-countries and non-CIS Countries. The variety of manufacturers, highlight the leading international companies which have supplied up to 200 units is discussed. The papers shows that CIS-manufactured tractors represent the greatest number in the market - up to 57 per cent, tractors from non-CIS countries occupy up to 12 per cent of the market, and the number of Russian models is quite limited - 3.0 per cent in 2012 and 3.4 per cent in 2014.
2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5340E
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of investment castings.
2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5398H
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of sand or centrifugal castings.
2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5571K
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant steel in the form of seamless tubing.
2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5676G
This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant nickel alloy in the form of welding wire.

This wire has been used typically for use as filler metal for gas-tungsten-arc or gas-metal-arc welding of parts, fabricated from similar or dissimilar corrosion and heat resistant alloys, requiring joints with strength and corrosion resistance comparable to those of the basis metal, but usage is not limited to such applications.

2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5692F
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant steel in the form of welding wire.
2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5814D
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant cobalt alloy in the form of welding wire.
2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5817G
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant steel in the form of welding wire.
2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5821H
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of welding wire.
2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5824F
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of welding wire.
2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5823F
This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant steel in the form of welding wire.
2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5874D
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant alloy in the form of sheet, strip, and plate.
2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5826E
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant steel in the form of welding wire.
2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5829F
This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant nickel alloy in the form of welding wire.

This wire has been used typically as filler metal for gas-tungsten-arc or gas-metal-arc welding nickel alloys of similar composition requiring joints with strength and corrosion resistance comparable to those of the basis metal, but usage is not limited to such applications.

2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5680K
This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant steel in the form of welding wire.

This wire has been used typically as filler metal for gas-tungsten-arc or gas-metal-arc welding of corrosion and heat resistant steels and alloys, but usage is not limited to such applications.

2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5825H
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of welding wire.
2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5898B
This specification covers a premium aircraft-quality, corrosion-resistant steel in the form of bars, wire, forgings, and forging stock.

These products have been used typically for anti-friction bearing components requiring resistance to both corrosion and wear with hardness not lower than 58 HRC after hardening and tempering, but usage is not limited to such applications.

2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5401D
This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant, vacuum melted, nickel alloy in theform of investment castings.

These castings have been used typically for structural parts requiring moderate strength up to 1600 degrees F *871 degrees C) and oxidation and corrosion resistance up to 1800 degrees F (982 degrees C), but usage is not limited to such applications.

2016-09-22
WIP Standard
AMS5402D
This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant, air-melted, nickel alloy in the form of investment castings.

These castings have been used typically for structural parts requiring strength up to 1200 degrees F (649 degrees C) and oxidation and corrosion resistance up to 1800 degrees F (982 degrees C), but usage is not limited to such applications.

2016-09-21
WIP Standard
AMS5132L
This specification covers a high-carbon steel in the form of bars.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 20852

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