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Standard
2014-05-07
This SAE Standard covers the mechanical and material requirements for inch-series steel bolts, screws, studs, screws for sems , and U-bolts in sizes to 1-1/2 in. inclusive. The term “stud” as referred to herein applies to a cylindrical rod of moderate length threaded on either one or both ends or throughout its entire length. It does not apply to headed, collared, or similar products which are more closely characterized by requirements shown herein for bolts. The mechanical properties included in Table 1 were compiled at an ambient temperature of approximately 20 °C (68 °F). These properties are valid within a temperature range which depends upon the material grade used and thermal and mechanical processing. Other properties such as fatigue behavior, corrosion resistance, impact properties, etc., are beyond the scope of this document and responsibility for ensuring the acceptability of the product for applications where conditions warrant consideration of these other properties shall be borne by the end user.
WIP Standard
2014-05-06
This specification covers the requirements for electrodeposited hard chromium plate.
Standard
2014-05-05
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of coiled sheet supplied in the –T4 temper.
Standard
2014-05-05
This specification covers a cobalt-nickel-iron alloy in the form of bars, forgings, flash welded rings, and stock for forging, flash welded rings, or heading.
Standard
2014-05-05
This specification specifies the engineering requirements for heat treatment, by part fabricators (users) or their vendors or subcontractors, of parts (See 8.8.1). It also covers heat treatment by warehouses or distributors converting raw material from one temper to another temper (See 1.3 and 8.5). It covers the following aluminum alloys: 1100, 2004, 2014, 2017, 2024, 2098, 2117, 2124, 2219, 2224, 3003, 5052, 6013, 6061, 6063, 6066, 6951, 7049, 7050, 7075, 7149, 7178, 7249, 7475
WIP Standard
2014-04-30
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the performance of platings and coatings for landing gear that potentially provide environmental compliance benefits versus the current baseline processes. The hazardous systems addressed in this version of the document include cadmium plating, chromated primers, and high VOC (volatile organic compounds) topcoats. Available data are presented for various standard tests in order to compare the replacement candidates. Conclusions are made as to the best performer(s) for each test section presented. These conclusions are not to be regarded as recommendations for or against any of the candidates. The AIR applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms for all types of civil and military aircraft. The potential replacements apply to both original equipment manufacturer (OEM) hardware and overhaul of in-service landing gears.
Standard
2014-04-30
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of sheet, strip, and plate.
Standard
2014-04-30
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of sheet, strip, and plate. These products have been used typically for parts requiring strength up to 750 °F (400 °C), but usage is not limited to such applications.
Standard
2014-04-30
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of investment castings.
Standard
2014-04-29
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) recommends design and test criteria for reusable shipping and storage containers for aircraft engines and modules, weapon systems and components, etc. The containers are to provide water-vaporproof and physical protection.
Standard
2014-04-29
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of bars, forgings, flash welded rings, and stock for forging or flash welded rings.
Standard
2014-04-29
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of investment castings.
Standard
2014-04-29
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of investment castings.
Standard
2014-04-29
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of investment castings.
Article
2014-04-28
ATK reached agreement on a $178 million contract award as part of the U.S. Air Force's Phase 1 Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) buy from United Launch Alliance (ULA). The order value includes hardware for both of the cur-rent Air Force EELV launch vehicles, the Atlas V and Delta IV.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Ashok KK, Bade Simhachalam, Dhanooj Balakrishnan, Krishna Srinivas
Abstract In this paper, the application of tube Extrusion for the development of stepped tubular components is discussed. Thickness increase with respect to cold reduction of diameter is predicted with reasonable accuracy. Thickness increase, length increase and strain hardening coefficient for a given cold reduction of diameter of tube are obtained using LS-DYNA Software. True stress-plastic strain curves from the tensile test are used in the forming simulation using LS-DYNA. A special purpose machine is developed for the production of steering shaft components. Considerable reduction in weight is achieved by using stepped tubular components.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Sagar Bajaj, Deepak Wakode, Gopal Musale
Abstract In an era of exceptional digital computation and immense indulgence in the theoretical behavior of sheet metal during its manufacturing process, the simulation of sheet metal forming becomes the most feasible and viable option for every OEM to consider this prior to its manufacturing. This paper contains a methodology for using an optimizing tool like Hyper Study to get the best formed part by incorporating forming benchmarked parameters like FLD (forming limit diagram), percentage thinning and plastic strains as responses by building up expressions among various variables and thus optimizing the forming process parameters like blank holding pressure, sliding friction, and Draw bead restraining force effectively to meet the formability requirements. This would reduce the time and effort of a forming engineer to reiterate among these parameters to get the desired result effortlessly.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Christiane Fourment, Julien Barlier, Mickael Barbelet, Patrice Lasne, David Cardinaux
Abstract Virtual forming tools based on Finite Element simulation are routinely used in order to improve process design and to reduce time to market. However, with the growing requirements with regards to in-use properties of forged components, not only the forming processes must be simulated but the entire process chain, including the heat treatment processes that are carried out to improve the mechanical properties of the final part. In order to meet these needs, new heat treatment features have been introduced into the commercial code FORGE®. This paper presents an application of induction hardening to an industrial component. This application demonstrates the strategic capabilities of FORGE® commercial software to achieve production challenges.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Vinand V. Arabale
Abstract Superplastic forming is a process designed for sheet material allowing elongation of several hundred percent. In superplastic forming process material is formed at particular strain rate at particular temperature with the application of pressure. The target strain rate is maintained by the varying the pressure during the forming process. The most challenging part of superplastic forming is the prediction of range of variation of pressure to maintain the target strain rate. Though several analytical models, such as Dutta equation, for predicting the pressure are available, FEA simulation with the help of MSC Marc offers great advantage of predicting the pressure accurately. FEA simulation study also helps in predicting the thinning that occurs during forming. One can also study the effect of friction on the thinning characteristics. The present paper discusses FEA simulation results of superplastic forming of Aluminium alloy. The FEA results are used for predicting the range of variation of pressure required to maintain the target strain rate during superplastic forming.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
A. K. Bhakat, Ramen Datta, B. K. Jha, M. K. Pradhan, C. Muthuswamy
Abstract Development of economical, as rolled, high strength low alloy steels is the requirement of the day due to its unique features such as increased strength, toughness, formability and weldability property. These materials are required for a variety of critical applications such as long and cross members of auto chassis, pre-engineered building (PEB) structures etc. In line with the developmental trend and market requirement, special quality hot rolled formable grades such as HSFQ 350/ 450 (High Strength Formable Quality) have been selected for development at Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP). The newly developed HSFQ hot rolled steel possess an attractive combination of strength and formability property which is typically quantified as high elongation (25 % min) and hole expansion ratio (145 % min) coupled with lower YS/UTS ratio (0.80-0.85). This has been possible as a result of innovative alloy design and synergistic effect of Nb & Si during controlled processing. Similarly medium carbon steels are being used for wide range of automotive applications.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Santosh P. Rahane, V.D. Wakchuare, S.M. Mulla
Abstract In this work, the effect of tool rake angle and cutting speed on residual stresses of tool was studied, the rake angles of 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, and 20° and a constant clearance (Relief angle) of 8° were used to turn bright mild steel on the lathe machine, A total of 15 experiments were carried out with three different cutting speeds (37.69, 59.37, 94.24 m/min) for each rake angle, keeping the feed rate and depth of cut constant. During the experimentation, the residual stresses were measured using an x-ray diffractiometer. This is all in order to explore the energy savings opportunities during regrinding of tools, useful production time and energy is being wasted due to regrinding or re-sharpening of tools when cutting tools got worn or blunt, selection of the rake angle which generate the optimum residual stresses in the tool, goes a long way in saving these time and energy.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
P. Dineshbabu, G. Magendran, Subhash Mahajan
Abstract In general, the automotive drive shafts are being manufactured by one of the conventional manufacturing process sequence i.e. Hot Forging, Normalizing & subsequently case hardening and tempering to achieve the desired functional strength requirements. The case hardening process like induction hardening or gas carburizing shall be decided based on geometry, material chemistry and functional requirements. The part like drive shafts which are subjected to torsional load at the surface and bending load at core during application. As per CAE analysis, the torsional and bending stress will act upon 40-50% of the shaft diameter from the surface. These property requirements are achieved through normalizing followed by induction hardening process. The study has been done to eliminate the normalizing process by increasing the case depth around 20% without affecting the functional requirements as mentioned. Comparative Microstructural study has been done on normalized and non normalized shaft and found to be at par.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
M.J. Rathod, R.L. Rithe
Abstract Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a recent solid state welding technology. This welding technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and versatile. FSSW is a novel derivative of Friction-Stir Welding (FSW) which is proving to be a better alternative to Resistance Spot Welding (RSW). In this work FSSW of aluminium alloy 6061-T6 and mild steel sheets of thickness 1.5 mm was evaluated using circular pin tool. Tool rotation speed, plunge depth and dwell time were varied to determine the effect of individual process parameter on lap shear separation load. Process parameters were optimized by using Taguchi technique. The optimum values for processing parameters were obtained as 2800 rpm rotational speed, 0.9 mm plunge depth and 8 sec dwell time. Maximum lap shear load of about 2250N was obtained. Joint interface is very clean no inter metallic compound is observed at the Al/Fe interface.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Sumeet Mishra, Piyush Priyadarshi, Kaustubh Kulkarni, N. P. Gurao, Prasad Phale, Suhail Mulla
Abstract The effect of different cold- rolling and cryo-rolling routes on the strength and ductility of Al-6061 alloy was thoroughly investigated. Rolling decreased the grain size and increased the strength according to the Hall-Petch relationship. However subjecting the samples to ageing at different temperatures and for different time period increased the strength and improved the ductility. The ductility was improved due to the rearrangement and even decrease in dislocation density due to recovery and recrystallization during ageing while the strength was maintained due to ageing. Evolution of microstructure was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary hardness measurements coupled with tensile tests indicate the improvement of both yield strength and ductility. The disparity in ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and the elongation to failure with different ageing temperatures and for different time period is determined and discussed.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
A. R. Kumbhar, S. A. Kulkarni, J. M. Paranjpe, N. V. Karanth
Abstract New process development of forging component require lot of process knowledge and experience. Even lots of trial-and-error methods need to be used to arrive at optimum process and initial billet dimensions. But with help of reliable computer simulation tools, now it is possible to optimize the complete process and billet dimensions without a single forging trial. This saves lot of time, energy and money. Additionally, simulation gives much more insight about the process and possible forging defects. In this paper, a complete forging process was needed to be designed for a complex component. With the help of computer simulation, the complete conventional forging process and modified forging process were simulated and optimized. Forging defects were removed during optimization of the process. Also billet weight optimization was carried out. Deciding the pre-forming shape of the billet was the main challenge. With use of computer simulation, an innovative pre-forming shape was arrived resulting in reducing billet input weight.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
M.J. Rathod, T.R. Karale
Abstract Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding technology specially used for joining non ferrous alloys like aluminium-alloys, magnesium alloy etc. FSW have various advantages over conventional welding method like low distortion of material, lower loss of alloying materials, high strength of joint, energy efficient, environment friendly, and versatile. The present studies aimed to understand microstructural changes and associated mechanical properties of the joints produced by using FSW. In this work aluminium alloy Al6061-T6 and Al5052 sheets of thickness 3mm were used for joining. Parameters changed for joining were tool rotational speed, traverse speed and tool geometry with conical pin and hexagonal pin. These process parameters were optimized using design of experiment technique. The welded joints were tested for tensile properties and impact toughness. Metallographic observations of joints were carried out using optical microscopy; scanning electron microscopy. Hardness profile and residual stress were also investigated
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Ingrid Rasquinha, Reji Koshy Daniel
Abstract Environment, energy and safety concerns for vehicles have made improving strength-to-weight ratio of vehicles an imperative issue for the automobile industry. Tube hydroforming (THF) is an innovative forming technology, which can efficiently reduce the weight of a component or assembly, and at the same time, increase the part strength. THF produces parts with a high degree of part complexity (various cross-sections in a single piece) and dimensional stability. Tube hydroforming involves the expansion and sizing of tubes in a closed die under dynamic action of pressurized fluid, with simultaneous axial or radial compression. Best forming results can be achieved by the optimized combination of process parameters (internal pressure, feed, friction, load, blank thickness) and material properties (yield strength, tensile strength, n-value, r-value, elongation).With the help of case studies, this thesis presents how tube hydroforming has been used to shave mass off some conventionally produced auto components like chassis cross-members, trailing arms, crash members and exhaust housings.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Pradip K Patra, Srimanta Sam, Mrigandra Singhai, Neel Kant
Abstract Automobile manufacturers have started using ultra high strength steel (UHSS) in lower thicknness to reduce the weight of their car and improved passenger safety. As a result steel manufacturers are facing continuous challenges to develop Ultra high strength steels (UHSS) in lower thicknesses with suitable formability. In line with this, Indian steel manufacturers has also started developing different UHSS which includes hot rolled DP540/DP590/DP780/SPF590 etc. for automotive wheel rim applcation and S500MC/S650MC for automotive log and cross member application. ALM650 is one such UHSS grade recently developed whose yield strength (YS) requirement is >650 MPa, tensile strength (UTS) requirement is >700 MPa and total elongation >14%. This newly developed UHSS, conforms to the specification of S650MC as per EN-10149-2. Chemistry and rolling parameters were designed taking into consideration of mechanical properties requirement including fatigue strength, suitable microstructure to achieve this combination of properties as well as the CSP process characteristics.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
N. P. Gurao
Abstract Formability of metals and alloys in general and aluminium alloys and steels in particular is of paramount importance in sheet metal forming in automobile industry. It is well understood that the evolution of preferred crystallographic orientation of crystallites or texture during prior thermo-mechanical processing of sheets plays an important role in determining formability. The formability of sheet is measured in terms of the Lankford parameter or the plastic strain ratio which is defined as the ratio of strain in width direction to that in the thickness direction (R = εw/εt). The variation of Lankford parameter with the rolling direction and standard and ΔR value is widely used in industry as a standard for estimating the formability of the rolled sheets. In the present investigation, we have used the viscoplastic self-consistent simulations to theoretically calculate the variation of the Lankford parameter with rolling direction for different crystallographic texture in model face centre cubic and body centre cubic material.
Technical Paper
2014-04-28
Yathish Rao
Abstract An important use of axle shaft is to transmit the power between two parallel planes. Axle shaft can experience severe impact load when there is sudden drop in clutch pedal during the vehicle operation under loaded condition. Insufficient case depth and lower core hardness could cause the low subsurface shear strength of the material. This would result in torsional permanent deformation, phenomenon called Twist in the axle shaft. In order to improve the metallurgical property of the material, the axle shaft is redesigned & strengthened by suitable heat treatment process. The surface of the shaft is induction hardened and the core is toughened (hard & tempered) which would enhance the subsurface & core property of the material particularly shear strength of the material. The correlation between the applied shear stress & material inherent shear strength is used to determine the optimum shaft diameter. The current shaft is modified for increase in case depth, core hardness, shaft diameter & subjected to Ultimate Torsional bench Test.
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