Display:

Results

Viewing 61 to 90 of 20004
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0524
Maniraj Perumal, Baskar Anthonysamy, Ashokkumar Sundaramoorthy
This method and its special process are particularly suited for the production of Porous free combustion chamber prototype aluminium cylinder head casting. Current methods for producing porous free combustion chamber are graphite coating and CI/Cu metal chill which are moderately effective in achieving porous free combustion chamber. However, these current methods have serious drawbacks like high rejections due to blow holes/gas porosity generated from graphite coating and fine porosity due to prolonged cooling because of slow rate of cooling while peak temperature of metal chills. The present work shows how this goal can be achieved in cylinder head casting of single cylinder high speed engine. Fundamental micro structural investigations are shown as well as the results of tensile tests, high temperature strength, corrosion behavior and static and dynamic component testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0737
Sadegh Poozesh, Nelson Akafuah, Kozo Saito
Abstract Lack of a precise control over paint droplets released from current coating sprayers has motivated this study to develop an atomizer capable of generating a uniform flow of mono-dispersed droplets. In the current study, a numerical investigation based on CFD incorporating volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model has been developed to capture the interface between air and paint phases for a typical atomizer equipped with piezoelectric actuator. Effects of inlet flow rate and actuator frequency on ejected droplets' characteristics, droplet diameter and their successive spacing are studied in detail. It will be shown that for a determined flow rate of paint, there is an optimum actuator frequency in which droplet size is minimum. Besides, there exists a direct relationship between the inlet paint velocity and obtained optimal actuator frequency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0733
Nichole Verwys, Jesse Fritcher, Thomas DeMass
Abstract Dark, high gloss decorative finishes (i.e. piano black) are gaining increased application and demand in vehicle interiors; due to interior stylists' desire for this look. One significant concern with this trend is that scratches, and other appearance related defects such as orange peel (waviness), are more apparent to the customer. To address this issue, a highly scratch-resistant 2K clearcoat formulation was developed to minimize visible surface scratches, while also yielding minimal orange peel and exceptional DOI (distinctness of image); all while being applied using typical application techniques in the part finishing market. This output was accomplished by first benchmarking the consumer electronics market for appearance and scratch resistance, and then setting targets through that research.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1736
Justin Cartwright, Ahmet Selamet, Robert Wade, Keith Miazgowicz, Clayton Sloss
Abstract The heat rejection rates and skin temperatures of a liquid cooled exhaust manifold on a 3.5 L Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) engine are determined experimentally using an external cooling circuit, which is capable of controlling the manifold coolant inlet temperature, outlet pressure, and flow rate. The manifold is equipped with a jacket that surrounds the collector region and is cooled with an aqueous solution of ethylene-glycol-based antifreeze to reduce skin temperatures. Results were obtained by sweeping the manifold coolant flow rate from 2.0 to 0.2 gpm at 12 different engine operating points of increasing brake power up to 220 hp. The nominal coolant inlet temperature and outlet pressure were 85 °C and 13 psig, respectively. Data were collected under steady conditions and time averaged. For the majority of operating conditions, the manifold heat rejection rate is shown to be relatively insensitive to changes in manifold coolant flow rate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0238
Nick Smith
Abstract Manufacturing companies are benefiting from technology in most key areas of the flow from design through manufacture. This applies to the wire harness industry which is a key element of the modern automotive industry. Wire harness manufacturing engineering, however, is a critical path function that is under severe pressure and yet has been under-served by technology. In some respects it has become the weak link in the chain. Recent innovations in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology are set to change this situation. Software applications are now available to deliver transformational manufacturing engineering automation as well as being able to integrate with technology in other areas of the process. This will enable a digitally continuous data flow that can remove excessive cost, time, and pressure - while helping manufacturers meet the increasing demands of the industry.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0705
Koichi Taniguchi, Hiroshi Matsuda, Rinsei Ikeda, Kenji Oi
Abstract We have developed a new resistance spot welding process with “pulsed current pattern”, which consists of short-time high-current post-heating and short-time cooling to improve joint strength of ultra high strength steel (UHSS) sheets with a tensile strength over 980MPa. The high-current post-heating reheats the heat affected zone (HAZ) near the electrodes and that near the sheet-sheet interface rather than the center of the nugget, and this pulsed current pattern utilizes this procedure to improve the toughness of the nugget. In the case of 980MPa grade steel with a 1.6mm thickness, the pulsed current pattern improved cross tension strength (CTS) from 7.2kN to over 10kN and its failure mode from interface failure to plug failure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0318
Sonu Thomas, Krishnan Kutty, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu
Abstract Dense depth estimation is a critical application in the field of robotics and machine vision where the depth perception is essential. Unlike traditional approaches which use expensive sensors such as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) devices or stereo camera setup, the proposed approach for depth estimation uses a single camera mounted on a rotating platform. This proposed setup is an effective replacement to usage of multiple cameras, which provide around view information required for some operations in the domain of autonomous vehicles and robots. Dense depth estimation of local scene is performed using the proposed setup. This is a novel, however challenging task because baseline distance between camera positions inversely affect common regions between images. The proposed work involves dense two view reconstruction and depth map merging to obtain a reliable large dense depth map.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0531
Hiroyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Ueno, Hiroyuki Nakai, Takahiro Higaki
Abstract When the strain is temporarily stopped during tensile testing of a metal, a stress relaxation phenomenon is known to occur whereby the stress diminishes with the passage of time. This phenomenon has been explained as the change of elastic strain into plastic strain. A technique was devised for deliberately causing strain dispersion to occur by applying the stress relaxation phenomenon during stamping. A new step motion that pause the die during forming was devised; it succeeded in modifying the deep-draw forming limit by a maximum of 40%. This new technique was verified through tensile and actual stamping tests. It was confirmed that the use of step motion causes the strain to disperse, thereby modifying the deep draw forming limit. The degree to which the forming limit is modified is dependent on the stop time and the temperature.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0701
Anupam Vivek, Bert Liu, Daniel Sakkinen, Mark Harris, Glenn Daehn
Abstract Vaporizing Foil Actuators (VFA) are based on the phenomenon of rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils and wires, caused by passage of a capacitor bank driven current on the order of 100 kA. The burst of the conductor is accompanied with a high-pressure pulse, which can be used for working metal at high strain rates. This paper focuses on the use of VFA for collision welding of dissimilar metals, in particular, aluminum and steel. Aluminum alloy 6061 sheets of 1 mm thickness were launched to velocities in excess of 650 m/s with input electrical energy of 8 kJ into 0.0762 mm thick, dog-bone shaped aluminum foil actuators. Target sheets made from dual phase steel (DP780) were impacted with the aluminum flyer sheet, and solid state impact welds were created. During mechanical testing, many samples failed outside the weld area, thereby indicating that the weld was stronger than the parent aluminum.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0598
Xiaona Li, Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou, Xin Xie, Xu Chen, Yaqian Zheng, Thomas Ankofski, Rodrigue Narainen, Cedric Xia, Thomas Stoughton, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0435
S. Khodaygan, M. Hafezipour
Abstract Kinematic accuracy of the robot end-effector is decreased by many uncertainties. In order to design and manufacture robots with high accuracy, it is essential to know the effects of these uncertainties on the motion of robots. Uncertainty analysis is a useful method which can estimate deviations from desired path in robots caused by uncertainties. This paper presents an applied formulation based on Direct Linearization Method (DLM), for 3D statistical uncertainty analysis of open- loop mechanisms and robots. The maximum normal and parallel components of the position error on the end-effector path are introduced. In this paper, uncertainty effects of both linear and angular variations in performance of spatial open-loop mechanisms and robots are considered.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0514
Sugrib K. Shaha, Frank Czerwinski, Wojciech Kasprzak, Jacob Friedman, Daolun Chen
Abstract The uniaxial compression test was used to assess the influence of strain amount on the behavior of precipitates and texture of the Al-7%Si-1%Cu-0.5%Mg alloy, modified with micro-additions of V, Zr and Ti. As revealed through metallographic examinations, fracturing and re-orientation of the second-phase particles increased with increasing compression strain. However, the intermetallic particles experienced substantially more frequent cracking than the eutectic silicon. The crystallographic texture was measured and correlated with deformation behavior of the alloy. The weak texture of 11<211> and 111<110> components, detected after casting transformed to a mixture of 1<110>, 112<110> and 111<110> components after room-temperature compression deformation. The intensity of the texture components depended on the strain amount. It is concluded that the texture formation in the studied alloy is controlled by the precipitates formed during solidification of the alloy.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0512
Anthony D. Prescenzi
Abstract Ablation casting is an emerging technology which combines traditional sand molding techniques with rapid cooling due to the use of a water soluble binder. High cooling rates and control of solidification direction allows for exceptional mechanical properties and complex shapes. Through the use of ablation, six different body node castings have been manufactured for the 2016 NSX aluminum space frame. The high mechanical properties allowed these castings to be integrated into the crash structure for energy absorption. Using the traditional casting alloy A356, target mechanical properties were 190 Mpa Yield Strength, 280 Mpa Tensile Strength and 12% min elongation. The high elongation was achieved due to the refined eutectic microstructure produced by high cooling rates. The eutectic microstructure produced by ablation was found to be Level 5 or 6 on the AFS scale. Light weighting could also be achieved when compared to traditional GDC castings.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0510
Joy Hines Forsmark, Zachary Dowling, Kelsey Gibson, Caroline Mueller, Larry Godlewski, Jacob Zindel, James Boileau
Abstract Magnesium die-cast alloys are known to have a layered microstructure composed of: (1) An outer skin layer characterized by a refined microstructure that is relatively defect-free; and (2) A “core” (interior) layer with a coarser microstructure having a higher concentration of features such as porosity and externally solidified grains (ESGs). Because of the difference in microstructural features, it has been long suggested that removal of the surface layer by machining could result in reduced mechanical properties in tested tensile samples. To examine the influence of the skin layer on the mechanical properties, a series of round tensile bars of varying diameters were die-cast in a specially-designed mold using the AM60 Mg alloy. A select number of the samples were machined to different final diameters. Subsequently, all of the samples (as-cast as well as machined) were tested in tension.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0519
Susumu Maeda, Atsushi Kobayashi, Yuichiro Shimizu, Masao Kanayama, Masato Yuya, Hideki Imataka
Abstract A new nitriding technology and material technology have been developed to increase the strength of microalloyed gears. The developed nitriding technology makes it possible to freely select the phase composition of the nitride compound layer by controlling the treatment atmosphere. The treatment environment is controlled to exclude sources of supply of [C], and H2 is applied as the carrier gas. This has made it possible to control the forward reaction that decomposes NH3, helping to enable the stable precipitation of γ′-phase, which offers excellent peeling resistance. A material optimized for the new nitriding technology was also developed. The new material is a low-carbon alloy steel that makes it possible to minimize the difference in hardness between the compound layer and the substrate directly below it, and is resistant to decline in internal hardness due to aging precipitation in the temperature range used in the nitriding treatment.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0518
Hirokuni Fuchigami
Abstract In this research, a new wire material made using surface-reforming heat treatment was developed in order to enhance the corrosion fatigue resistance of suspension springs. The aim of surface reforming is to improve hydrogen embrittlement characteristics through grain refinement and to improve crack propagation resistance by partial softening of hardness. The grain refinement method used an α'→γ reversed transformation by rapid short-term heating in repeated induction heating and quenching (R-IHQ) to refine the crystal grain size of SAE 9254 steel spring wire to 4 μm or less. In order to simultaneously improve the fatigue crack propagation characteristics, the possibility of reducing the hardness immediately below the spring surface layer was also examined. By applying contour hardening in the second IHQ cycle, a heat affected zone (HAZ) is obtained immediately below the surface.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0530
Mikko Joonas Kähkönen, Emmanuel De Moor, John Speer, Grant Thomas
Abstract Quenching and partitioning (Q&P) is a novel heat treatment to produce third generation advanced high-strength steels (AHSS). The influence of carbon on mechanical properties of Q&P treated CMnSi-steels was studied using 0.3C-1.5Mn-1.5Si and 0.4C-1.5Mn-1.5Si alloys. Full austenitization followed by two-step Q&P treatments were conducted using varying partitioning times and a fixed partitioning temperature of 400 °C. The results were compared to literature data for 0.2C-1.6Mn-1.6Si, 0.2-3Mn-1.6Si and 0.3-3Mn-1.6Si Q&P treated steels. The comparison showed that increasing the carbon content from 0.2 to 0.4 wt pct increased the ultimate tensile strength by 140 MPa per 0.1 wt pct C up to 1611 MPa without significantly decreasing ductility for the partitioning conditions used. Increased alloy carbon content did not substantially increase the retained austenite fractions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0537
Hong Tae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Yung-Li Lee, Mingchao Guo, Chonghua Jiang, Zhen Li
Abstract Due to magnesium alloy's poor weldability, other joining techniques such as laser assisted self-piercing rivet (LSPR) are used for joining magnesium alloys. This research investigates the fatigue performance of LSPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31 and AM60. Tensile-shear and coach peel specimens for AZ31 and AM60 were fabricated and tested for understanding joint fatigue performance. A structural stress - life (S-N) method was used to develop the fatigue parameters from load-life test results. In order to validate this approach, test results from multijoint specimens were compared with the predicted fatigue results of these specimens using the structural stress method. The fatigue results predicted using the structural stress method correlate well with the test results.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0522
Robert Cryderman, Danielle Rickert, Kelly Puzak, John Speer, David Matlock, Michael Burnett
Abstract Fracture split forged steel connecting rods are utilized in many new high performance automotive engines to increase durability. Higher strength levels are needed as the power density increases. Fracture splitting without plastic deformation is necessary for manufacturability. Metallurgical design is a key for achieving the required performance levels. Several medium carbon steels containing 0.07 wt pct P, 0.06 wt pct S and various amounts of Mn, Si, V, and N were produced by vacuum induction melting laboratory heats and hot working the cast ingots into plates. The plates were cooled at varying rates to simulate typical cooling methods after forging. Microstructures were generally ferrite and pearlite as evaluated by light optical and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were determined by standard tensile tests, high strain rate notched tensile tests, and Charpy V-notch impact tests to assess “splittability”.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0525
Constantin Chiriac, Ming F. Shi
Abstract Automotive structural parts made out of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) are often produced in a multistage forming process using progressive dies or transfer dies. During each forming stage the steel is subjected to work hardening, which affects the formability of the steel in the subsequent forming operation. Edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching operations are forming modes that are typically employed in the last stage of the multistage forming processes. In this study, the multistage forming process was simulated by pre-straining a DP980 steel in a biaxial strain path with various strain levels followed by edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching. The biaxial prestrains were obtained using the Marciniak stretch test and edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching were accomplished by the hole expansion test using a flat punch and a conical punch, respectively.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0602
Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Mohammed Yusuf Ali, Jagadish Sorab, Cagri Sever
Abstract In this paper, the evolution equation for the active yield surface during the unloading/reloading process based on the pressure-sensitive Drucker-Prager yield function and a recently developed anisotropic hardening rule with a non-associated flow rule is first presented. A user material subroutine based on the anisotropic hardening rule and the constitutive relation was written and implemented into the commercial finite element program ABAQUS. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis of a crankshaft section under fillet rolling was conducted. After the release of the roller, the magnitude of the compressive residual hoop stress for the material with consideration of pressure sensitivity typically for cast irons is smaller than that without consideration of pressure sensitivity.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0604
Jibrin Sule, Supriyo Ganguly
Abstract In a multi-pass weld, the development of residual stress to a large extent depends on the response of the weld metal, heat affected zone and parent material to complex thermo-mechanical cycles during welding. Previous investigations on this subject mostly focused on mechanical tensioning or heat treatment to modify the residual stress distribution in and around the weld. In this research, microstructural refinement with modification of residual stress state was attempted by applying post weld cold rolling followed by laser processing. The hardening of the weld metal was evaluated after welding, post weld cold rolling and post weld cold rolling followed by laser processing. The residual stress was determined non-destructively by using neutron diffraction. Hardness results showed evidence of plastic deformation up to 4 mm below the weld surface.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0708
Catherine M. Amodeo, Jwo Pan
Abstract In this paper, mode I and mode II stress intensity factor solutions for gas metal arc welds in single lap-shear specimens are investigated by the analytical stress intensity factor solutions and by finite element analyses. Finite element analyses were carried out in order to obtain the computational stress intensity factor solutions for both realistic and idealized weld geometries. The computational results indicate that the stress intensity factor solutions for the realistic welds are lower than the analytical solutions for the idealized weld geometry. The computational results can be used for the estimation of fatigue lives in a fatigue crack growth model under mixed mode loading conditions for gas metal arc welds.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0706
Zheng-Ming Su, Pai-Chen Lin, Wei-Jen Lai, Jwo Pan
Abstract In this paper, failure modes of dissimilar laser welds in lap-shear specimens of low carbon steel and high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel sheets are investigated based on experimental observations. Micro-hardness tests across the weld zones of dissimilar laser welds were conducted. The hardness values of the fusion zones and heat affected zones are significantly higher than those of the base metals. The fatigue lives and the corresponding failure modes of laser welds as functions of the load ranges are then examined. Optical micrographs of the laser welds before and after failure under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are then examined. The failure modes and fatigue behaviors of the laser welds under different loading conditions are different. Under quasi-static loading conditions, a necking failure occurred in the upper low carbon steel sheet far away from the laser weld.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1754
Wei-Jen Lai, Jwo Pan
Abstract In this paper, the analytical stress intensity factor and J integral solutions for welds in lap-shear specimens of two dissimilar sheets based on the beam bending theory are first reviewed. The solutions are then presented in the normalized forms. Next, two-dimensional finite element analyses were selectively conducted to validate the analytical solutions based on the beam bending theory. The interface crack parameters, the stress intensity factor solutions, and the J integral solutions for welds in lap-shear specimens of different combinations of steel, aluminum, and magnesium, and the combination of aluminum and copper sheets of different thickness ratios are then presented for convenient fracture and fatigue analyses. The transition thickness ratios for critical crack locations for different combinations of dissimilar materials are then determined from the analytical solutions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1311
Leland Decker, James Truskin
Abstract As CAFE requirements increase, automotive OEMs are pursuing innovative methods to lightweight their Body In Whites (BIWs). Within FCA US, this lightweighting research and development activity often occurs through Decoupled Innovation projects. A Decoupled Innovation team comprised of engineers from the BIW Structures Group, in collaboration with Tier 1 supplier Magna Exteriors, sought to re-design a loadbearing component on the BIW that would offer significant weight savings when the current steel component was replaced with a carbon fiber composite. This paper describes the design, development, physical validation and partnership that resulted in a composite Rear Package Shelf Assembly solution for a high-volume production vehicle. As the CAFE requirements loom closer and closer, these innovation-driven engineering activities are imperative to the successful lightweighting of FCA US vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1316
Hwawon Lee, Parvath Police, Lisa Koch, Rajmouli Komarivelli, Brice Willis
Abstract Spot weld separation in vehicle development stage is one of the critical phenomena in structural analyses regarding quasi-static test condition, like roof strength or seat/belt pull. It directly reduces structural performance by losing connected load path and occasionally introduces tearing on surrounding sheet metals. Traditionally many efforts have been attempted to capture parent metal ductile fracture, but not applied to spot weld separations in automotive FEA simulations. [1,2,3] This paper introduces how to develop FFLD failure criteria from a series of parametric study on ultra high strength sheet steel and deals with failure criteria around spot weld and parent metal. Once the fracture strains for sheet steels are determined, those developed values were applied to traditional spot weld coupon FEA simulations and tests. Full vehicle level roof strength FEA simulations on a typical automotive body structure were performed and verified to the physical tests.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1319
Eitaro Koya, Yukihide Fukuda, Shinya Kitagawa, Mitsunori Murakami, Atsushi Kawauchi, Sadanori Furue
Abstract When using aluminum for vehicle body parts to reduce weight, the high pressure die casting (HPDC) is widely applied due to its adaptability to thin-wall products, near-net-shape castability, and short casting cycle time. Since a hollow construction is advantageous to increase stiffness of body parts, there has been a need of development of techniques for casting of hollow parts by HPDC. So far, hollow casting by HPDC has been realized for small parts using sand cores. When applying that method to large parts, however, it is necessary to increase filling speed. When the filling speed is increased, the core tends to break. In this project, we have developed a method to estimate changes of pressure distribution when filling molten metal by the casting simulation in order to analyze damages to the core. Through the analysis, we discovered occurrence of impulsive pressure waves.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1611
Wei Liu, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Jiafan Li, Yuanqi Gao, Wei Li
Abstract The hydraulic retarder is the most stabilized auxiliary braking system [1-2] of heavy-duty vehicles. When the hydraulic retarder is working during auxiliary braking, all of the braking energy is transferred into the thermal energy of the transmission medium of the working wheel. Theoretically, the residual heat-sinking capability of the engine could be used to cool down the transmission medium of the hydraulic retarder, in order to ensure the proper functioning of the hydraulic retarder. Never the less, the hydraulic retarder is always placed at the tailing head of the gearbox, far from the engine, long cooling circuits, which increases the risky leakage risk of the transmission medium. What's more, the development trend of heavy load and high speed vehicle directs the significant increase in the thermal load of the hydraulic retarder, which even higher than the engine power.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1722
Edmond Ilia, Giorgio Lanni, Kevin Tutton, Doug Sinclair
The advent of more efficient direct injection turbocharged engines has increased the need for higher performance connecting rods, able to withstand in particular higher compressive loads in operation. In this respect, new high strength materials for powder forged connecting rods were developed and introduced in production with excellent results. Among them, HS170M is currently used to manufacture connecting rods for several high performance engines, which not only have higher strength, but have less variation in their mechanical properties. The results of numerous benchmark studies have shown that powder forged connecting rods manufactured with HS170M are stronger than their steel forged counterparts manufactured with microalloyed steels, are easier to machine and fracture split, and represent a cost effective way to manufacture this important high reliability automotive component.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 20004

Filter