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Viewing 61 to 90 of 20378
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
AMS5350K
This specification covers a corrosion and moderate heat-resistant steel in the form of investment castings.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
AMS5357D
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of investment castings.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
AMS2374F
This specification covers quality assurance sampling and testing procedures used to determine conformance to applicable material specifications of corrosion and heat-resistant steel and alloy forgings.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
AMS5442B
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of bars, forgings, flash welded rings, and stock for forging or flash welded rings.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
AMS5540P
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of sheet, strip, and plate.
2016-04-05
WIP Standard
AMS4940C
This specification covers one grade (Grade 1) of commercially-pure titanium in the form of sheet, strip, and plate up through a thickness of 1.000 inch (25.40 mm).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0306
Heeseung Yang, Hyunkwon Jo, Hyunchul Lee, Hyunmin Park, JaeMin Park
Abstract The Automotive Interior Parts offer convenience and riding comfort for passengers. One of its main features is that it is placed in a conspicuous place. Therefore, automotive interior part manufacturer attach importance to appearance quality. Additionally, appearance quality of Interior Parts is more important as the senses of passenger heighten. Most Automotive Interior Parts manufactured by Injection Molding to mass produce it with complex geometry. But there are numerous defects in method of Injection Molding. Especially, large products like automotive interior parts are disadvantage. A typical example of defects is weld line, sink mark, short shot. These are having an adverse effect on the appearance quality as well as another quality like BSR (Buzz Squeak Rattle) and Side impact performance. In order to improve problem, molding has been modified and spray coating has been done over the past.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0296
Monika Minarcin
Abstract Increasing electrification of the vehicle as well as the demands of increased connectivity presents automotive manufacturers with formidable challenges. Automakers and suppliers likely will encounter three practices that will influence how they develop and manufacture highly connected vehicles and future e-mobility platforms: 1) hierarchical production processes in fixed footprints that do not share data freely; 2) lack of real-time, in-line quality inspection and correction processes for complex miniaturized electronic components; and 3) floor to enterprise resource and execution systems that can collect, analyze and respond to rapidly changing production needs.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0340
Tina Hull, Monika A. Minarcin
Abstract Applications using industrial robotics have typically led to establishing a safeguarded space encompassing a wide radius around the robot. Operator access to this hazard zone was restricted by a combination of means, such as hard guarding, safeguarding, awareness means, and personal protective equipment. The introduction of collaborative robots is redefining safeguarding requirements. Many collaborative robots have inherently safe designs that enable an operator and a robot to work within a shared, collaborative workspace. New technology in industrial robotics has opened up opportunities for collaborative operation. Collaborative operation could include either industrial or collaborative robots, depending on its application. The current defined modes of collaborative operation are hand guiding; speed and separation monitoring; safety-rated monitored stop; and, power and force limiting.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0338
R.J. Urbanic, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract The ‘boundary of space’ model representing all possible positions which may be occupied by a mechanism during its normal range of motion (for all positions and orientations) is called the work envelope. In the robotic domain, it is also known as the robot operating envelope or workspace. Several researchers have investigated workspace boundaries for different degrees of freedom (DOF), joint types and kinematic structures utilizing many approaches. The work envelope provides essential boundary information, which is critical for safety and layout concerns, but the work envelope information does not by itself determine the reach feasibility of a desired configuration. The effect of orientation is not captured as well as the coupling related to operational parameters. Included in this are spatial occupancy concerns due to linking multiple kinematic chains, which is an issue with multi-tasking machine tools, and manufacturing cells.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0342
Rushil Batra, Sahil Nanda, Shubham Singhal, Ranganath Singari
Abstract This research is an attempt to investigate the significance of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) in the lean transformation of manufacturing units (largely automotive) and then apply the same in a tool room. It is an essential tool used to interpret both material and information flow in a system. The tool room under study specializes in production of a large variety of high precision tools for the automotive industry. A product family is chosen to map and analyze various stages of its production process, starting from the raw material (R/M) to the finished goods’ (F/G) stage. VSM is then implemented in the tool room to correctly identify wastes and thus improvement areas to bridge gaps between current and future states. Both current and future state maps are drafted along with usage of other lean tools to justify its implementation in a small setup like tool room.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0341
Jan-Friedrich Brand, Patrick Garcia, Laxman Nalage, Pradip Ithape
Abstract Several factors influence a company working culture including its industry, its geographical region, as well as the cultural and the educational background of its employees. Despite these, Japanese companies have successfully transferred a company’s working culture from Japan to other countries [2], so that only minor regional differences in productivity remain. Such transfer is possible with a strong process oriented mind set and working style. This paper examines the change in a working culture associated with the prototyping of exhaust systems in India. That change required a shift from a reactive “firefighting” mode of working to a structured, projectable and reliable working environment. The goal was to achieve increased in-time delivery, higher quality, greater flexibility, more innovation and reduced cost. The same process approach may be transferred from India to other parts of the world, while allowing for country-specific influences on a company’s working culture.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0346
Patrick Garcia, Jiri Radous, Artur Krol, Jacek Bosek, Caroline Baeten
During the 4 last years, Lean has been successfully implemented in one of the Tenneco’s Business Units: Ride Performance. This paper reflects on the results and more specifically on the third principle of Lean [1] “How to make flow” and on the fifth principle “To strive for perfection” obtained in the fields of “Product Development” related to Processes, Tools and People. Processes and Hard Tools. How to improve the flow in the engineering processes? It will be shown that In general standardized processes supported by some integrated tools and, more specifically Some workload leveling in testing, CAD Departments, Standardization in design processes, testing procedures and prototypes development processes and Standardization and availability of components and parts for prototype building are key enablers to enhance flow in the Product Development.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0344
Mohamed El-Sayed
Abstract Success in lean product realization depends on the ability to specify value from the voice of the customer at the beginning of the process. Value streaming, is therefore essential for assuring that the specified value is being pursued and achieved throughout the process. During lean implementation, however, it is usually assumed that nothing but value will be streamed if wastes are eliminated using value stream mapping. While waste elimination is necessary to make the process leaner and facilitate value streaming it is not sufficient for assuring that specified value is being streamed without structured and formalized participation of customers. With current structure of product realization processes, the voice of the customer is provided during the planning phase at the beginning of the process and customer satisfaction feedback is provided after product launch.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0348
Nan Wang, Sergey Golovashchenko
Abstract Stamping die design recommendations attempt to limit the production of burrs through accurate alignment of the upper and lower trimming edges. For aluminum automotive exterior panels, this translates to a clearance less than 0.1 mm. However, quality of sheared edge and its stretchability are affected by stiffness of the cutting tool against opening of the clearance between the shearing edges. The objective of the study is to investigate the influence of stiffness of trimming or piercing dies against opening of the cutting clearance on sheared edge stretchability of aluminum blanks 6111-T4. For experimental study, one side of the sample had sheared surface obtained by the trimming process while the other side of the sample had a smooth surface achieved by metal finish. Burr heights of the sheared edge after different trimming configurations with 10% clearance were measured.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0353
Suleman Ahmad, Dimitry Sediako, Anthony Lombardi, C. (Ravi) Ravindran, Robert Mackay, Ahmed Nabawy
Abstract Aluminum alloys have been replacing ferrous alloys in automotive applications to reduce the weight of vehicles. The engine block is a striking example of weight reduction, and is made of Al-Si-Cu-Mg (319 type) alloys. The wear resistance in the engine block is enabled by cast iron liners, and these liners introduce tensile residual stress due to a thermo-mechanical mismatch. Typically, an artificial aging treatment effectively reduces residual stress. In this study, neutron diffraction was used to measure the residual stress profiles along the cylinder bridge of a T5 treated 319 aluminum alloy engine block. Results indicated high tensile residual stresses (200-300 MPa) in the hoop and axial orientation at depths of 50-60 mm below the head deck. The high residual stresses were likely due to a combination of minimal stress relief during artificial aging and stress development during post process cooling.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0355
Takashi Iwama
Abstract Although reduction of the thickness of materials used in the automobile body is important for weight reduction, reducing the thickness of outer panels deteriorates dent resistance and surface distortion. To investigate the potential for weight reduction, the factors which influence the surface distortion and dent resistance properties were evaluated quantitatively with the aim of securing these properties. The materials used in these experiments were a tensile strength (TS) 340MPa grade bake hardenable (BH) steel sheet, which is often used in door outers, and a TS 440MPa grade BH steel sheet for outer panels. Surface distortion increases as a result of higher yield point (YP). It is possible to suppress the increase in surface distortion by increasing the blank holding force (BHF) in press forming. However, because this reduces the BHF range to the forming limit, application of low YP material is considered to be more advantageous for suppressing surface distortion.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0356
Hua-Chu Shih
Prephosphated steels have been developed by applying the phosphate coating on zinc coated sheet steels to increase the lubricity in the automotive stamping process and adding extra corrosion protection. The prephosphate coating was also found to be able to further absorb the lubricant, which can reduce the oil migration and excessive amount of lubricant dripping on the die surface and the press floor. Due to its enhanced lubricity characteristic, the applications have been expanded to more-recently developed advanced high strength steels (AHSS). Because of the higher strength of AHSS, it is crucial to understand their performance under more extreme forming conditions such as higher die temperature, contact pressure and sliding speed, etc. The intent of this study is to investigate the tribological performance and die wear behavior of prephosphated AHSS in the die tryout and production conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0359
Jeff Wang, Charles Enloe, Jatinder Singh, Curt Horvath
Abstract Impact toughness (or resistance to fracture) is a key material property for press hardened steel used in construction of the safety-critical elements of automotive body structures. Prior austenite grain size, as primarily controlled by the incoming microstructure and austenitization process, is a key microstructural feature that influences the impact toughness of press hardened steel. In this paper, a special Charpy V-notch impact test is developed to quantify the impact toughness of press hardened steel sheets with various prior austenite grain sizes, by stacking a number of thin sheets via mechanical riveting. Both the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and upper shelf energy are analyzed in an effort to establish a correlation between impact toughness and prior austenite grain size. Within tested conditions, impact performance shows only a slight decrease as the prior austenitic grain size increases from 18 to 38 microns.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0358
Saeid Nasheralahkami, Sergey Golovashchenko, Kaicen Pan, Lindsay Brown, Bindiya Gugnani
Abstract In recent years, implementation of dual phase (DP) Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS) is increasing in automotive components due to their superior structural performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. However, these materials are often sensitive to trimmed edge cracking if stretching along sheared edge occurs in such processes as stretch flanging. Tool wear is another major issue in the trimming of UHSS because of higher contact pressures at the interface between cutting tools and sheet metal blank caused by UHSS’s higher flow stresses and the presence of a hard martensitic in the microstructure. The objective of the present paper is to study the influence of trimming conditions and tool wear on quality of trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheet. For this purpose, mechanically trimmed edges were characterized for DP980 steel, sheared with six different cutting clearances (from 4% to 40% of the sheet thickness).
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0317
Yuanzhan Wang, Jason B. Siegel, Anna G. Stefanopoulou
Abstract This paper addresses scheduling of quantized power levels (including part load operation and startup/shutdown periods) for a propane powered solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybridized with a lithium-ion battery for a tracked mobile robot. The military requires silent operation and long duration missions, which cannot be met by batteries alone due to low energy density or with combustion engines due to noise. To meet this need we consider an SOFC operated at a few discrete power levels where maximum system efficiency can be achieved. The fuel efficiency decreases during transients and resulting thermal gradients lead to stress and degradation of the stack; therefore switching power levels should be minimized. Excess generated energy is used to charge the battery, but when it’s fully charged the SOFC should be turned off to conserve fuel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0325
Farhan Javed, Salman Javed
Abstract Additive manufacturing has experienced rapid growth over a span of 25 years. Additive manufacturing involves the development of a three-dimensional (3D) object by stacking layer upon layer. Conventional machining techniques involve the removal of material. However, this technique differentiates itself from other techniques by means of addition of the material. The integration of CAD with additive manufacturing has offered the ability to create complex structures. Despite its clear benefits, additive manufacturing suffers from a high initial investment. An average cost of an entry level commercial 3D printer is 600$. A low-cost 3D printer has been designed and built for experimental investigation within a budget of 300$. The paramount process of 3D printing involves a combination of interpreting data from CAD files and controlling the motors using this data. The various design considerations while developing the 3D printer have been discussed.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0328
Scott Curran, Paul Chambon, Randall Lind, Lonnie Love, Robert Wagner, Steven Whitted, David Smith, Brian Post, Ronald Graves, Craig Blue, Johney Green, Martin Keller
Abstract Rapid vehicle powertrain development has become a technological breakthrough for the design and implementation of vehicles that meet and exceed the fuel efficiency, cost, and performance targets expected by today’s consumer. Recently, advances in large scale additive manufacturing have provided the means to bridge hardware-in-the-loop with preproduction mule chassis testing. This paper details a case study from Oak Ridge National Laboratory bridging the powertrain-in-the-loop development process with vehicle systems implementation using big area additive manufacturing (BAAM). For this case study, the use of a component-in-the-loop laboratory with math-based models is detailed for the design of a battery electric powertrain to be implemented in a printed prototype mule. The ability for BAAM to accelerate the mule development process via the concept of computer-aided design to part is explored.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0329
Piyush Bubna, Michael P. Humbert, Marc Wiseman, Enrico Manes
Abstract Conventional car manufacturing is extremely capital and energy-intensive. Due to these limitations, major auto manufacturers produce very similar, if not virtually identical, vehicles at very large volumes. This limits potential customization for different users and acts as a barrier to entry for new companies or production techniques. Better understanding of the barriers for low volume production and possible solutions with innovative production techniques is crucial for making low volume vehicles viable and accelerating the adoption of new production techniques and lightweight materials into the competitive marketplace. Additive manufacturing can enable innovative design with minimal capital investment in tooling and hence should be ideal for low and perhaps high volume parts. For this reason, it was desired to evaluate potential opportunities in manufacturing automotive parts with additive techniques.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0333
Pavel Lykov, Rustam Baytimerov, Sergey Vaulin, Evgeny Safonov, Dmitry Zherebtsov
Abstract Due to its unique physical properties (high thermal and electric conductivity) copper is one of the most interesting materials in point of view of additive manufacturing in particular of Selective Laser Melting (SLM). But because of the low laser radiation absorption, low melting point and high thermal conductivity it is difficult to fabricate of copper components without pores. Results of many research have been shown that for successful Selective Laser Melting of copper powder is needed high laser power (more than 300 W) and high laser scanning speed (more than 600 mm/s). However now most SLM machines are equipped with laser plants with output power up to 200 W.In this research, SLM machine with 200 W maximum power CO2 laser has been used. For determination of the influence of SLM process parameters on quality of copper parts cubic specimens have been fabricated. The point distance, exposure time and base plate preheating temperature have been changing.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0334
Lucas e Silva, Tennakoon Mudiyanselage Tennakoon, Mairon Marques, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract A collaborative robot or cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing industrial tasks. The ability to work alongside humans has increased the importance of collaborative robots in the automation industry, as this unique feature is a much needed property among robots nowadays. Rethink Robotics has pioneered this unique discipline by building many robots including the Baxter Robot which is exclusive not only because it has collaborative properties, but because it has two arms working together, each with 7 Degrees Of Freedom. The main goal of this research is to validate the kinematic equations for the Baxter collaborative robot and develop a unified reconfigurable kinematic model for the Left and Right arms so that the calculations can be simplified.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0335
Samuel M. Odeyinka, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract Inverse kinematic solutions of six degree of freedom (DOF) robot manipulation is a challenging task due to complex kinematic structure and application conditions which affects and depend on the robot’s tool frame position, orientation and different possible configurations. The robot trajectory represents a series of connected points in three dimensional space. Each point is defined with its position and orientation related to the robot’s base frames or users teach pendant. The robot will move from point to point using the desired motion type (linear, arc, or joint). This motion requires inverse kinematic solution. This paper presents a detailed inverse kinematic solution for Fanuc 6R (Rotational) robot family using a geometrical method. Each joint angular position will be geometrically analyzed and all possible solutions will be included in the decision equations. The solution will be developed in a parametric manner to cover the complete Fanuc six DOF family.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0336
R.J. Urbanic, R. Hedrick, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract When performing trajectory planning for robotic applications, there are many aspects to consider, such as the reach conditions, joint and end-effector velocities, accelerations and jerk conditions, etc. The reach conditions are dependent on the end-effector orientations and the robot kinematic structure. The reach condition feasibility is the first consideration to be addressed prior to optimizing a solution. The ‘functional’ work space or work window represents a region of feasible reach conditions, and is a sub-set of the work envelope. It is not intuitive to define. Consequently, 2D solution approaches are proposed. The 3D travel paths are decomposed to a 2D representation via radial projections. Forward kinematic representations are employed to define a 2D boundary curve for each desired end effector orientation.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0337
Ana M. Djuric, R.J. Urbanic, J.L. Rickli
Abstract Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (CoBots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. CoBots, unlike traditional CoBots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although CoBots have the potential to become standard in production systems, there is no strong foundation for systems design and development. The focus of this research is to provide a foundation and four tier framework to facilitate the design, development and integration of CoBots. The framework consists of the system level, work-cell level, machine level, and worker level. Sixty-five percent of traditional robots are installed in the automobile industry and it takes 200 hours to program (and reprogram) them.
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