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Viewing 31 to 60 of 19641
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Roger Holden, Paul Lightowler, Simon Andreou, William Thomas, Jon Moran
Abstract Nikon Metrology's ARC (Adaptive Robot Control) has been in production now for more than eight years guiding robots to drill/fill holes to tolerances higher than 0.2mm. The key innovation was the tracking of multiple frame systems (patented by Airbus, but with commercialisation rights with Nikon Metrology). ARC tracks both the robot tool and the assembly jig holding the part - to guide the robot independent of any errors in the robots kinematic chain (including external axis) back to 3D CAD nominal (design intent). Figure 1 Adaptive Robot Control (ARC) The first deployments were using cooperating robots and large C-Frame drilling systems. For many years the market has been looking to more flexible deployable solutions. This presentation is on an innovative lightweight robotic assembly system for aerospace production. This work was a part of a two year programme called Structures Technology Maturity (STeM), a £12m collaborative research and development project led by GKN Aerospace partnered by Bombardier, Spirit and GE Aviation and part funded by UK government (TSB, BIS and the UK aerodynamics centre).
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Santiago Droll
In contemporary industries the demand for very accurate robots is continuously growing. Yet, robot vendors are limited in the achievable accuracy of their robots, as they have no means to provide a direct end-effector feedback. Therefore, most approaches aim to identify an accurate model of the robotic system, thus providing compensation factors to correct the deflections. Models, however, are unable to represent the real physical system in a sufficient manner for path correction. The non-linearities in robotic systems are difficult to model and the dynamics cannot be neglected. A better approach is, therefore, to use direct end-effector position and orientation feedback from an external sensor as, e.g. a Leica laser tracker. The measured data can directly be compared to the nominal data from the path interpolator. Hence, the data are independent of the kinematic robot model. The residual errors can be used to calculate correction values in Cartesian space, which are mapped to each individual robot joint, thus providing a fast path correction algorithm.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Nicholas Lum, Qun Luo
Abstract Electroimpact has designed and manufactured a flexible tooling system for the E7000-ARJ horizontal panel riveter. This tooling design accommodates panel sizes from 3.5m to 10m long, with a variety of straight and tapered curvatures. The tooling is re-configured manually and utilizes removable index plates that can be adapted to accommodate new panel types. This type of tooling is ideal for value-conscious applications where a single machine must process a large range of panel styles. Electroimpact is currently using this system to tool 17 different styles of pre-tacked panels on a single E7000-ARJ machine. This flexible system does not require large removable form boards or custom frames that index one type of panel. Instead it uses 4 form boards that are permanently mounted to the picture frame by linear rails, allowing them to index anywhere along the 10m working envelope. Each form board holds several rail mounted surface indexes that are adjusted to accommodate different panel curvatures.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Joseph R. Malcomb
Abstract Automated countersink measurement methods which require contact with the workpiece are susceptible to a loss of accuracy due to cutting debris and lube build-up. This paper demonstrates a non-contact method for countersink diameter measurement on CFRP which eliminates the need for periodic cleaning. Holes are scanned in process using a laser profilometer. Coordinates for points along the countersink edge are processed with a unique filtering algorithm providing a highly repeatable estimate for major and minor diameter.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Lutz Neugebauer
The demand of fulfilling increasing Prime Customer requirements forces Tier 1 suppliers to continually improve their system solutions. Typically, this will involve integration of “state of the art” tools to afford the Tier 1 supplier a throughput and cost advantage. The subject “Production Optimization Approach” addresses the machine and process optimization of automated fastening machines in operation at customer factories. The paper will describe and focus on the main aspects of production optimization of existing machines to meet and exceed the required customer production and reporting criteria. Furthermore, the paper will present existing examples based on use of the established diagnostic tools
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Thomas G. Jefferson, Svetan Ratchev, Richard Crossley
Abstract Aerospace assembly systems comprise a vast array of interrelated elements interacting in a myriad of ways. Consequently, aerospace assembly system design is a deeply complex process that requires a multi-disciplined team of engineers. Recent trends to improve manufacturing agility suggest reconfigurability as a solution to the increasing demand for improved flexibility, time-to-market and overall reduction in non-recurring costs. Yet, adding reconfigurability to assembly systems further increases operational complexity and design complexity. Despite the increase in complexity for reconfigurable assembly, few formal methodologies or frameworks exist specifically to support the design of Reconfigurable Assembly Systems (RAS). This paper presents a novel reconfigurable assembly system design framework (RASDF) that can be applied to wing structure assembly as well as many other RAS design problems. The framework is a holistic, hierarchical approach to system design incorporating reconfigurability principles, Axiomatic Design and Design Structure Matrices.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Ruiqiang Lu
Abstract With the development of many new technologies in aircraft manufacturing area and the increasing competition of the global market, aircraft manufacturing enterprises have to reduce their production time and increase the cost-efficiency, with the consideration of high speed response to the changes inside enterprises or in the environment. Production scheduling is a significant process in manufacturing, especially for complicated part or component processing. This paper proposes an agent based multi-objective optimization approach for production scheduling based on Genetic Algorithms. It aims to minimize the total production cost and simultaneously reducing the emission released during production, and the delivery time and equipment constraints are satisfied as well. The new approach is tested in a virtual plant for turbine blade manufacturing. Experimental results show that a group of Pareto optimal solutions are obtained, which can be provided to the decision maker of the manufacturer to select according to different actual conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Louis Columbus
Aerospace suppliers face the daunting task of constantly improving time-to-market, reducing cost of quality and turning compliance into a competitive advantage. Managing to these constraints while staying profitable is a challenge faced by the entire aerospace supply chain face today. The intent of this presentation is to share five lessons learned on how aerospace suppliers can optimize for these three constraints while growing their businesses. The first is electronically enabling traceability both within a multi-tier supply chains and throughout suppliers. Automating traceability at the shop floor improves quality management and accelerates compliance. Specific methodologies and metrics used to accomplish this will be provided. Second, lessons learned from implementing Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) showing how shop floor visibility has a direct effect on supplier performance is illustrated with case studies and metrics. Third, lessons learned in making compliance pay by benchmarking performance to AS9100C, ISO9001, and ITAR standards is provided.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Andreas Ginschel, Ortwin Mailahn
Abstract The global competition challenges aircraft manufacturers in high wage countries. The assembly of large components happens manually in fixed position assembly. Especially the completion of the inner fuselage structure is done 100% manually. The shells have to be joined with rivets and several hundred clips have to be assembled to connect the shell to the frames. The poise of the worker is not ergonomic so a lot of physical stress is added to the worker and minimizes the working ability. Aircraft manufacturers need a lot of different production resources and qualified persons for the production, which provokes higher costs. Due to these high costs there is a demand for automated reconfigurable assembly systems, which offer a high flexibility and lower manufacturing costs. The research project “IProGro” deals with this challenge and develops innovative production systems for large parts. On one hand the flexibility is reached by a reconfigurable fixture for the components on the other hand it is achieved by assistance systems, which guide staff during assembly processes.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Nelson W. Sorbo, Jason J. Dionne
Abstract The use of composite materials and composite stackups (CO-Ti or CO-Al) in aerospace and automotive applications has been and will continue to grow at a very high rate due to the high strength and low weight of the materials. One key problem manufacturers have using this material is the ability to efficiently drill holes through the layers to install fasteners and other components. This is especially true in stackups of CFRP and titanium due to the desire of drilling dry for the CFRP layer and the need for cooling when drilling the high strength Ti layer. By using CO2 through tool cooling, it is possible to protect both layers. Through work supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE) it is shown that CO2 through tool cooling productivity can be significantly increased while maintaining required hole tolerances in both the composite and Ti layers. Improvements in tool life have been demonstrated when compared to either emulsion or dry drilling.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
George Nicholas Bullen
Abstract Constant swirls of innovative ideas are starting to push composites and hybrid metal-composite components for use in an ever expanding circle of products. Recent discoveries of Graphene/Au composites have invigorated innovations for its application to aerospace and space products. Attributes such as a low CTE, stiffness, and light weight attract other manufacturers of smaller products to use composites for enhanced performance and durability. The uses and economics of composites is an enormously broad subject. Examples of composite materials will be described in this paper to provide samples of applications selected for their far reaching potential to enhance product performance. Examples will also be presented to explain the application of carbon based composites where the product performance or application would not be possible without special materials. This paper will also describe emerging materials such as graphene and some of its applications to enhance the performance of current technologies It is easy become enamored with the composite big parts built for trains, planes, automobiles, ships, and wind turbine blades.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Yanbin Yao
Drilling plays a significant process in the aircraft manufacturing. This paper develops a robot automatic drilling system for processing the titanium alloy, aluminum alloy and laminated composites component of aircraft. The accurate robot drilling system is comprised of ABB IRB6640-235 robot, drilling end-effector, end-effctor control system and vision system. Experimental results show that the system absolute location precision is within 0.3mm, and the drilling efficiency can be up to four holes per minute. The drilling efficiency and quality of the aircraft component can be increased immensely by the developed robot automatic drilling system.
Technical Paper
2014-09-01
Zachary A. Collier, Steve Walters, Dan DiMase, Jeffrey M. Keisler, Igor Linkov
Counterfeit electronic components entering into critical infrastructure and applications through the global supply chain threaten the economy and national security. In response to the growing threat from counterfeits, the Society of Automotive Engineers G-19 Committee is developing AS6171. This aerospace standard is focused on testing facilities with a goal of standardizing the process of counterfeit detection. An integral part of the standard is a semi-quantitative risk assessment method. This method assigns risk scores to electronic components based on a number of relevant criteria, and places the components into one of five risk tier levels corresponding to an appropriate level of laboratory testing to ensure the authenticity of the component. In this way, the methodology aims at standardizing the risk assessment process and bases the identified risk as guidance for commensurate testing protocols. This paper outlines the risk assessment method contained within AS6171 and briefly explores other complementary efforts and research gaps within the G-19 and electronics community.
Article
2014-08-20
KUKA Aerospace, a developer of automated manufacturing systems for aircraft manufacturing and assembly, is locating its first U.S. facility outside of Michigan in Everett, WA. The 29,000-ft² center will provide a service and maintenance hub close to KUKA Aerospace customers on the West Coast and help support current expansion.
Article
2014-08-20
A soon-to-be-published SAE International standard, AS6500, is designed to encourage suppliers and OEMs to put more focus on manufacturability during the early phases of a product’s life cycle. The objective: more reliable, affordable, and on-schedule weapon systems.
Standard
2014-08-20
This document covers all metal, self-locking wrenching nuts, plate nuts, shank nuts, and gang channel nuts made from a corrosion and heat resistant steel of the type identified under the Unified Numbering System as UNS S66286 and of 160 ksi tensile strength at room temperature, with maximum test temperature of parts at 1200 °F.
WIP Standard
2014-08-20
This SAE Standard includes only those towing winches commonly used on skidders and crawler tractors. These winches are used on self-propelled machines described in SAE J1057; J1116; and J1209. Specifically excluded are those winches used for hoisting operations. This document classifies the major types of winch and establishes nomenclature for major winch components. Examples used here are not intended to include all existing winches nor to be descriptive of any particular winch.
Standard
2014-08-20
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) identifies the requirements for mitigating counterfeit products in the Authorized Distribution supply chain by the Authorized Distributor. If not performing Authorized Distribution, such as an Authorized Reseller, Broker, or Independent Distributor, refer to another applicable SAE standard.
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