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Viewing 31 to 60 of 20491
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2113
Raphael Reinhold
Resin transfer molding (RTM) is gaining importance as a particularly economical manufacturing method for composites needed in the automotive and aerospace industries. With this method, the component is first shaped with dry fiber reinforcements in a so-called “preforming process” before the mold is placed in a RTM tool, injected with resin and cured. In recent years, Brotje-Automation have been developing innovative product solutions that are specially designed for these preforming processes and suitable for industrial use. For the first time ever, Broetje’s Composite Preforming Cell (CPC) makes large-quantity serial production of complex and near-net-shape preforms for composite components using this RTM process possible. With the additional integration of the patented 3D Composite Handling System Broetje impressively demonstrates its service and product portfolio in the area of innovative composite manufacturing technology and its know-how as a complete system integrator.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2111
Juan Carlos Antolin-Urbaneja, Juan Livinalli, Mildred Puerto, Mikel Liceaga, Antonio Rubio, Angel San-Roman, Igor Goenaga
Gaps in composites structures can be more risky than metallic structures. For mechanically joined composite components, the geometrical conformance of the part can be problematic due to undesired or unknown re-distribution of loads within a composite component, typical in aeronautic assemblies. A shim is a thin piece of metal, plastic or composite used to fill in space between components, for adjustment or fit, in a mechanical assembly. To prevent unnecessary preloading of metallic structure, and the possibility of cracking and delaminations in composite structure, it is important to measure all gaps and then shim any gaps greater than 0.005 inches. A strategy to overcome the high relative tolerances for assemblies lies in the automatized shim manufacturing of the gaps previously predicted through the evaluation of their volumes via a simulation tool.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2110
Ilker Erdem, Peter Helgosson, Ashwin Gomes, Magnus Engstrom
The ability to adapt to rapidly evolving market demands continues to be the one of the key challenges in the automation of assembly processes in the aerospace industry. In order to meet this challenge industry and academia have made efforts to automate flexible fixturing. LOCOMACHS (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) – a European Union funded project with 31 partners – aims to address various aspects of aero-structure assembly with a special attention is directed to the development of a new build philosophy along with relevant enabling technologies. This paper aims to present the results on the developed wing box build philosophy and the integration of automated flexible tooling solutions into the prospective assembly process.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2108
Marc Fette, Kim Schwake, Jens Wulfsberg, Frank Neuhaus, Manila Brandt
The rising demand for civil aircraft leads to the development of flexible and adaptive production systems in aviation industry. Due to economic efficiency, operational accuracy and high performance these manufacturing and assembly systems must be technologically robust and standardized. The current aircraft assembly and its jigs are characterized by a high complexity with poor changeability and low adaptability. In this context, the use of industrial robots and standardized jigs promise highly flexible and accurate complex assembly operations. This paper deals with the flexible and adaptable aircraft assembly based on industrial robots with special end-effectors for shaping operations. By the development and use of lightweight gripper system made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics the required scaling, robustness and stiffness of the whole assembly system can be realized.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2106
Dan R.W. Vaughan, Otto J. Bakker, David Branson, Svetan Ratchev
Aircraft manufacturers desire to increase production to keep up with anticipated demand. To achieve this, the aerospace industry requires a significant increase in the manufacturing and assembly performance to reach the required output levels. This work therefore introduces the Variation Aware Assembly (VAA) concept and identifies its suitability for implementation into aircraft wing assembly processes. The VAA system concept focuses on achieving assemblies towards the nominal dimensions, as opposed to traditional tooling methods that aim to achieve assemblies anywhere within the tolerance band. It enables control of the variation found in Key Characteristics (KC), which will allow for an increase in the assembly quality and product performance. The concept consists of utilizing metrology data from sources both before and during the assembly process, to precisely position parts using motion controllers.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2130
Enkhsaikhan Boldsaikhan, Shintaro fukada, Mitsuo Fujimoto, Kenichi Kamimuki, Hideki Okada, Brent Duncan, Phuonghanh Bui, Michael Yeshiambel, Brian Brown, Alan Handyside
The Refill Friction Spot Joining (RFSJ) is an emerging solid-state spot welding technology that creates a molecular-level bond between the work-pieces through a thermo-mechanical processing. The RFSJ process does not consume any filler or foreign materials so that no additional weight is introduced to the assembly. As the solid-to-liquid phase transition is not involved in RFSJ in general, there is no fusion lack or material deterioration caused by liquefaction and solidification. Unlike the conventional friction stir spot welding, RFSJ produces a spot joint with a perfectly flush surface finish without a key or exit hole. Currently, the aerospace industry employs solid rivets for fastening the primary structures as they meet the baseline requirements and have well-established standards and specifications.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2129
Antonio Rubio, Luis Calleja, Javier Orive, Ángel Mújica, Asunción Rivero
Aluminum skin milling is a very challenging process due to the high quality requirements needed in the aeronautic and aerospace industries. Nowadays, on these markets, there are just two technological approaches able to face the manufacturing of this sort of wide thin blanks: chemical and mechanical milling by means of highly complex machines. Both solutions lead to a high investment requirement that affect directly on the application profitability on these industrial sectors. This paper presents a flexible machining system that allows milling skin shaped parts within required tolerances by means of an innovative universal holding fixture combined with an adaptive toolpath development. This flexible holding fixture can be adapted to the required shape and can hold uniformly the whole sheet surface. Besides, the solution includes an implementation that can adapt the machining toolpath by means of the skin thickness online measurement.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2123
Matthias Busch, Benedikt Faupel
The integration of omega stringers to panels made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) by adhesive bonding, which are joined together in an autoclave, must be subject to high quality standards. Defects such as porosity, kissing bonds, voids or inclusion must be detected safely to guaranty the functionality of the component. Therefore, an inspection system is required to verify these bonds and detect different kinds of defects. In this contribution, the advantages of a robotic inspection system, which will be achieved through continuous testing, will be introduced. The testing method is the active thermography. The active thermography has major advantages compared with other non-destructive testing methods. Compared to testing with ultrasonic there is no coupling medium necessary, thus testing will be significantly enhanced.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2121
Pavel Lykov, Rustam M. Baytimerov, Artem Leyvi, Dmitry Zherebtsov, Alexey Shultc
The Copper-Nickel alloys are widely used in various industries. The adding of nickel significantly enhances mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and thermoelectric properties of copper. The technology of producing Copper-Nickel composite micro-powders by gaseous deposition of Nickel on the surface of copper powder is proposed. The vaporization of nickel is implemented by using electric arc. The dependence between mode of processing and the ratio of phases in the powder is investigated. The possibility of the obtained composite powder application in additive technologies is investigated. The equipment used in the research: magnetron sprayer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical granulomorphometer Occhio 500 nano.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2125
Henry Hameister
This paper presents an approach to how existing production systems can benefit from Industry 4.0 driven concepts. This attempt is based on a communication gateway and a cloud-based system, that hosts all algorithms and models to calculate a prediction of the tool wear. Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding is a sub-section of friction welding, where a rotating tool that consists out of three parts is used to heat up material to a dough-like state. Since Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding produces a selective dot-shaped connection of overlapping materials, the production requirements are similar to riveting or resistance spot welding. In contrast to other bonding techniques, Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding can be integrated within the production process without major interferences or changes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2128
Henry Guo, Farid Ahdad, DeDong Xie
V-band joint is widely used in turbocharger industry. It is used to connect housings in turbocharger for both passenger vehicle and commercial vehicle applications, which can provide simple and robust solutions to replace bolt flanges. However, current issue for V-band joint in turbine side is the higher cost. The major cost for V-band joint comes from T-bolt which works in very hostile environment with high temperature and high vibration level. T-bolt is made from special stainless steel which takes around a half cost of total joint. This paper introduces a new V-band joint which replaces T-bolt from special bolt to standard bolt through changing bolt stress status from tension to compression, which provides possibility to reduce cost greatly. The prototype is made and performed static tests including anti-rotating torque test and salt spray test.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2124
Sara Nilsson, Jonas Jensen, Mats Björkman, Erik Sundin
For the aerospace industry carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) is one of the fastest developing materials right now. The material has a strength-to-weight ratio that is several times higher than aluminium and steel, which makes it a great fit for applications where a low weight is crucial while maintaining strength and stiffness. It is specifically CFRP in pre-impregnated form, so called pre-preg, which has made its way into the aircrafts. Pre-preg is an anisotropic material that lets the designer control its properties to a high level of detail. Analogously to the material becoming used more widely in the aerospace industry the costs have decreased as the manufacturing methods have developed to follow the demands. However, how material and manufacturing method change the requirements and affect a product's design and performance can be hard to determine.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2080
Carter L. Boad, Kevin Brandenstein
The newest generation of automated fastening machines require a feed system that is smaller, more flexible, and faster than any currently available. The feed system must be compact enough to fit on a robot base, yet have a capacity large enough to support unmanned production for hours. A large variety of fasteners must be supported and the entire system must be reloaded or reconfigured in minutes to match the next work piece being assembled by the machine. When requested by the part program, the correct fastener must be released directly and immediately into the feed tube to minimize cycle time. This paper describes a new “plate cartridge” feed system developed to meet these needs.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2112
Hilmar Apmann
As a new material FML made by aluminum foils and Glasfibre-Prepreg is a real alternative to common materials for fuselages of aircrafts. Since experiences within A380 this material has some really good advantages and becomes status as alternative to Aluminum and composite structures. Main goal for an industrial application for a higher production rates of aircrafts (like for single aisle) is the automation of production processes inside the process chain for FML-parts like skins and panels for fuselages. To reach these goals for high production rates first steps of automation inside this process chain have been developed in the last two years. Main steps is the automated lay-up of metallic foils and Glasfibre-Prepreg and also for integration of the bond film. Over this there are some more steps within positioning of i.e. stringers and doublers by automatic integration and shorter process chain to reduce process cost significantly.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2085
Kyle Pritz, Brent Etzel, Zheng Wei
The automation cycle time of wing assembly can be shortened by the automated installation of single-sided temporary fasteners to provide temporary part clamping and doweling during panel drilling. Feeding these fasteners poses problems due to their complexity in design and overall heavy weight. In the past, Electroimpact has remotely fed these fasteners by blowing them through pneumatic tubing. This technique has resulted in occasional damage to fasteners during delivery and a complex feed system that requires frequent maintenance. Due to these issues, Electroimpact has developed a new fully automated single-sided temporary fastening system for installation of the LISI Clampberry fasteners in wing panels for the C919 wing factory in Yanliang, China. The feed system stores fasteners in gravity-fed cartridges on the end effector near the point of installation.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2082
Ralf Schomaker, Björn Knickrehm, Jürgen Langediers
In the frame of incremental product improvement, AIRBUS has developed and implemented a new innovative rapid decompression / pressure relieve concept for the cargo compartment area. The core change lays with detaching the complete cargo lining panels from the substructure in case of a rapid decompression in the cargo area instead of using dedicated blow in panels. In that way, pressure equilibrium can be achieved by air flow through the opened areas around the cargo lining panels rather than through specific blow out / blow in venting areas. The key for this is a self-detaching fastener AIRBUS has developed in an outstanding cooperation with ARCONIC Fastening Systems & Rings (former Alcoa Fastening Systems & Rings) in Kelkheim, Germany. These fasteners are installed to keep the cargo lining panels in place and tight against smoke in case of fire which is one of the main purposes for their use.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2081
Rodrigo Pinheiro, Robert Gurrola, Sead Dzebo
The installation of common threaded aerospace fasteners by the application of a torque to a nut or collar is made possible by an internal wrenching element or recess feature adapted to the threaded end of a pin, which accepts a mating anti-rotation key designed to partially balance the applied torque. In applications such as the mechanical joining of composite structures accomplished by wet clearance fit installations of permanent fasteners, high nut or collar seating torques not adequately opposed by frictional resistance at the contact surfaces of the fastener and joint members effectively shift a greater proportion of the torque reaction requirement onto the recess and mating anti-rotation key which in turn can experience high torsional stresses exceeding their design capability and result in frequent service failures.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2139
Hendrik Susemihl, Christian Moeller, Simon Kothe, Hans Christian Schmidt, Nihar Shah, Christoph Brillinger, Jörg Wollnack, Wolfgang Hintze
Highly growing production rates and the demand for efficient large-scale machining tools in aerospace industry have led to an increasing request for more flexible and productive manufacturing solutions. Robots are a promising solution, although there are some major disadvantages regarding the poor absolute accuracy, low structural stiffness, gear elasticity and limited workspace. Industry and research have shown a high ambition in optimizing industrial robots. Primary aircraft structures are commonly machined by portal, gantry or movable column machines of large dimensions. Due to high investment and time-consuming referencing processes, cost-effectiveness of these machines is often non-satisfying. With mobile robot-based solutions machining can be executed simultaneously which increases the productivity significantly. In this publication a mobile robotic machining system with enhanced absolute accuracy will be presented.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2126
Ali Mohamed Abdelhafeez, Sein Leung Soo, David Aspinwall, Anthony Dowson, Dick Arnold
Despite the increasing use of carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites, titanium and aluminium alloys still constitute a significant proportion of modern civil aircraft structures, which are primarily assembled via mechanical joining techniques. Drilling of fastening holes is therefore a critical operation, which has to meet stringent geometric tolerance and integrity criteria. The paper details the development of a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model for drilling aerospace grade aluminium (AA7010-T7451 and AA2024-T351) and titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloys. The FE simulation employed a Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) technique. The cutting tool was modelled according to a Lagrangian formulation in which the mesh follows the material displacement while the workpiece was represented by a non-translating and material deformation independent Eulerian mesh.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2119
Gergis W. William, Samir N. Shoukry, Jacky C. Prucz, Mariana M. William
Air cargo containers are used to load freight on various types of aircrafts to expedite their handling. Fuel cost is the largest contributor to the total cost of ownership of an air cargo container. Therefore, a better fuel economy could be achieved by reducing the weight of such containers. This paper aims at developing innovative, lightweight design concepts for air cargo containers that would allow for weight reduction in the air cargo transportation industry. For this purpose, innovative design and assembly concepts of lightweight design configurations of air cargo containers have been developed through the applications of lightweight composites. A scaled model prototype of a typical air cargo container was built to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of creating such a container from fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials. The paper is the authoritative source for the abstract.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2120
David Judt, Kevin Forster, Helen Lockett, Craig Lawson, Philip Webb
In the civil aircraft industry there is a continuous drive to increase the aircraft production rate, particularly for single aisle aircraft where there is a large backlog of orders. One of the bottlenecks is the wing assembly process which is largely manual due to the complexity of the task and the limited accessibility. The presented work describes a general wing build approach for both structure and systems equipping operations. A modified build philosophy is then proposed, concerned with large component pre-equipping, such as skins, spars or ribs. The approach benefits from an offloading of the systems equipping phase and allowing for higher flexibility to organize the pre-equipping stations as separate entities from the overall production line. Its application is presented in the context of an industrial project focused on selecting feasible system candidates for a fixed wing design, based on assembly consideration risks for tooling, interference and access.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2103
Eric Barton
This technical paper details an optimized Drivmatic machine design delivered to a Tier 1 aero structure supplier to automate drilling and installation of rivets, hi-loks, lockbolts & swage collars for individual fuselage panel assemblies with high throughput & strict quality requirements. While certain robot solutions continue to be explored for specific applications at many Tier 1 aero structure suppliers, robot payload capacity has limitations beyond certain criteria, which often times point towards an alternative machine design as in this case study. A typical approach for adding more automation is to allocate shop floor space based on the solution's foot print, however contrary to most approaches this solution had to be designed to fit within a pre-determined factory footprint over a geographic location with a high water table that would not permit a foundation.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2089
Jose Guerra cEng, Miguel Angel Castillo
During the year 2003 Aernnova decided to invest in automated machines procuring and installing a Broetje automatic machine (known in Aernnova as CIMPA) in Aernnova Berantevilla facility in order to perform operations such as drilling, countersinking or riveting in aircraft structures during its assembly. Due to the high load of work at that time in Aernnova mainly due to work packages from Embraer and Sikorsky, a solution was needed in order to assemble all the products required by our customer and deliver them on properly in terms of time and good quality. Several ideas came to our engineering team always having in mind the idea of reducing time being more competitive specially in repetitive operations and at the same time keeping good quality. Finally after a depth search, the option selected was an automated machine from Broetje that after some adjustments and customizations regarding our purposes could provide us the best solution.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8138
Pranav Shinde, K Ravi, Nandhini Nehru, Sushant Pawar, Balaji Balakrishnan, Vinit Nair
Body in white forms a major structure in any automobile. It is responsible in providing structural rigidity to vehicle, safety, frame and a skeleton to support all body parts of vehicle. When it comes to judge the performance of vehicle, BIW is analyzed not only for its strength and shape but also weight. Light weight BIW structures have seen to be developed rapidly in order to fulfill requirement of best vehicle performance in dynamic conditions. Since then lot of efforts have been put into CAE, materials research, advanced manufacturing process and joining methods, each plays a critical role in BIW functionality. Constructional designing, development of light materials with improved strength and special manufacturing practices for BIW are few research areas with never ending questions. This paper attempts to review various factors studied for weight reduction and solutions provided so far. Some of the major findings are briefly discussed and suggestions are made for future research.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8137
Amrut A. Patki
The overall cost of ownership of a product is dependent on life of the product and cost. To keep the cost of ownership down, it is important to understand how to increase life of product and lower down the required cost at the same time. We are also challenged to reduce the carbon footprint, improved energy requirements to become more sustainable and green. How to achieve both of these necessities? “Remanufacturing” is a simple answer to this complex question. Remanufacturing can improve the useable life of a part or product by multiple times. It is cost effective compare to new part production and reasonably cheaper to end customer. The required energy for remanufacturing is lesser compare to its original manufacturing. Remanufacturing reuses/salvages most of the original contain. Design for Remanufacturing is a fundamental change in design engineering process to meet remanufacturing requirements.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2090
Sergey Lupuleac, Margarita Petukhova, Julia Shinder, Alexander Smirnov, Mariia Stefanova, Nadezhda Zaitseva, Tatiana Pogarskaia, Elodie Bonhomme
Perspective way of solving the problem of aircraft assembly optimization is global simulation of junction process using efficient numerical algorithms. Specialized software complex [1] was developed within the framework of cooperation between Airbus SAS and Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University. This tool allows engineers to simulate the aircraft assembly process and solve the number of tasks: • Calculation of resulting gap under given initial disposition of riveted parts and distribution of fastening elements; • Determination of fastening element pattern that provides sufficient quality of assembly; • Shimming prediction; • Evaluation of stresses caused by assembly. The tool is based on special approach that necessitates solving contact problem arising when aircraft parts are being joined. This problem can be described by several simplifying assumptions such as ommiting tangential displacements and friction from consideration and creating substructure for junction area.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1996
David R. Markham, J. Michael Cutbirth
Abstract Modern military electronics systems are generating increasingly higher heat loads, necessitating larger capacity thermal management systems (TMSs). These high-capacity TMSs must meet the strict size and weight requirements of these advancing platforms. Commercially available compressor technology can generate sufficient cooling for these systems; however, they are too heavy and expansive. Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a compact, lightweight, high-speed screw compressor that can provide a large cooling capacity with a small package envelope. The compressor housing material is light-weight with a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), allowing a wide operating temperature range. The compressor, with a nominal cooling capacity from 20 kW to 60 kW, was tested over a range of saturated suction conditions, pressure ratios, rotational speeds, and oil lubrication conditions.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2063
Beata I. Wawrzyniak, Jagadeesh Tangudu
Abstract Induction machines (IM) are considered work horse for industrial applications due to their rugged, reliable and inexpensive nature; however, their low power density restricts their use in volume and weight limited environments such as an aerospace, traction and propulsion applications. Given recent advancements in additive manufacturing technologies, this paper presents opportunity to improve power density of induction machines by taking advantage of higher slot fill factor (SFF) (defined as ratio of bare copper area to slot area) is explored. Increase in SFF is achieved by deposition of copper in much more compact way than conventional manufacturing methods of winding in electrical machines. Thus a design tradeoff study for an induction motor with improved SFF is essential to identify and highlight the potentials of IM for high power density applications and is elaborated in this paper.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-2060
Vijay Jagdale, Jagadeesh Tangudu
Abstract It is desired to reduce stator end winding length and mass to reduce associated resistive losses, increase efficiency and power density of an induction motor. With recent advancements in additive manufacturing technology, it is possible to deposit copper conductive paths and insulation layers in a selective controlled manner. This enables more compact end winding designs. The objective of this paper is to present a topology optimization based approach for design of stator end winding to minimize its overall length, volume and mass. Design approach and parametric study results for a representative stator design are presented in this paper. By reducing length of end winding, efficiency and power density of the induction motor can be increased enabling benefit realization for weight critical aerospace applications, incorporation in electric vehicle market and potentially reducing rare-earth dependency.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1957
Seonho Lee, Heejae Kang, Ohchul Kwon, Chirl Soo Shin
A trend in automotive parts development is the pursuit of long life, high quality and reliability. The increase in service life of automotive wheel bearings, by improving the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of bearing steels, was investigated. Conventional studies of bearing steels and heat treatments have dealt with quenching and tempering (Q/T) in 52100 steel. This study is a new trial to increase the strength of bearing steels by special austempering in phases after general Q/T heat treatments.
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