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Viewing 31 to 60 of 20282
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0334
Lucas e Silva, Tennakoon Mudiyanselage Tennakoon, Mairon Marques, Ana M. Djuric
A new trend in automation is integration of collaborative robots. A collaborative robot or cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing simple industrial tasks. Engineering Technology at Wayne State University offer several robotic courses, trainings and research in the advanced robotic lab. Recently we purchased a Baxter ® collaborative robot made by Rethink RoboticsTM. This Cobot is dual arm robot manipulator with vision based control. The goal of our research is to develop Matlab based toolbox for Baxter ®, which includes several modules: Kinematic, Jacobian matrix and singularity conditions, Dynamics of links, Dynamics of actuators and model based platform for control purposes. This Cobot has two arms and the calculation should be done for both arms. Doing the calculation for both arms individually, is very long and tedious process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1198
Pascal Schmalen, Peter Plapper, Wayne Cai
Laser welding of dissimilar metals such as Aluminum and Copper, which is required for Li-ion battery joining, is challenging due to the inevitable formation of the brittle and high electrical-resistant intermetallic compounds. Recent research has shown that by using a novel technology, called laser braze-welding, the Al-Cu intermetallics can be minimized to achieve superior mechanical and electrical joint performance. This paper investigates the robustness of the laser braze-welding process. Three product and process categories, i.e. choice of materials, joint configurations, and process conditions, are studied. It is found that in-process impacts such as sample cleanness and shielding gas fluctuations have a minor influence on the process robustness. Furthermore, many pre-process impacts, e.g. design changes such as multiple layers or anodized base material can be successfully welded by process adaption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0341
Jan-Friedrich Brand, Patrick Garcia, Laxman Nalage, Pradip Ithape
Among other, a company working culture is influenced by the business sector, the regional, cultural and the educational background of the people. Japanese companies have shown that a company working culture can be transferred from Japan to other countries, where only minor regional difference will remain. It becomes possible with a strong process oriented mind set and working style. This paper deals with the change of working culture within prototyping of exhaust systems in India. It required a shift from a fire fighting working style to a structured, projectable and reliable environment. Goal was to achieve increased in-time delivery, higher quality, higher flexibility, more innovation and reduced cost.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0353
Suleman Ahmad, Dimitry Sediako, Anthony Lombardi, C. (Ravi) Ravindran, Robert Mackay, Ahmed Nabawy
For many years, aluminum alloys have been replacing ferrous alloys in automotive applications to reduce the weight of vehicles. One significant area is engine blocks, which are commonly made of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys containing additions of Cu and Mg. These engine blocks typically contain cast-iron liners to improve wear resistance, however, they introduce residual stress due to thermo-mechanical mismatch. This stress has its highest magnitude in the cylinder bridge area and may lead to cylinder distortion or cracking. Several heat treatment processes are being used in industry to mitigate residual stress. One of these, artificial aging, has been found to be effective in reducing residual stress. In this study, neutron diffraction was used to measure the residual stress profiles along the cylinder bores of 319 Al engine blocks, treated to a T5 condition (aging from as-cast condition).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0344
Mohamed El-Sayed
Success in any lean implementation depends on the ability to discern and stream value from the voice of the customer throughout the new product development process. In addition to other lean principles the two principles of value and value streaming are the main factors in identifying and eliminating wastes. The challenge in discerning and streaming value with the current structure of product development processes, however, is that the external participations including participation of the customers are only to the voice of the customer provided during the planning phase at the beginning of the process. By shifting the process paradigm from planning, design, and manufacturing to viewing product development as mappings between the perceptual, virtual, and physical reality domains more external participations including participation of the customers can be facilitated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0294
Silvio César Bastos
The Excellence of Quality has been approached by companies seeking competitive advantage in the global automotive sector . Product characteristics and functions should meet the expectations of customers in terms of warranty and reliability . The objective of this paper is to present a method to improve the synchronization of customers´s products requirements with their suppliers in terms of production process control and prevention of failure modes for suppliers can achieve quality performance along customer . The improvement allows Suppliers to take preventive and corrective actions by application specifications knowledge of its components in engines and vehicles . The interfaces of components consideres in Production Control Plans with methods and important characteristics for the product assembly and functional are provided on Supplier portal that allows interaction between the Supplier Quality Engineering , supply chain and Quality Assurance .
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0325
Farhan Javed, Salman Javed
Additive manufacturing has experienced rapid growth over a span of 25 years. Additive manufacturing involves development of a three dimensional(3D) object by stacking layer upon layer. Conventional machining techniques involve the removal of material. However this technique differentiates itself from other techniques by means of addition of material. The integration of CAD with additive manufacturing has offered the ability to create complex structures. Despite its clear benefits additive manufacturing suffers from high initial investment. Average cost of an entry level commercial 3D printer is 600$. A low cost 3D printer has been designed and built for experimental investigation within a budget of 300$. The paramount process of 3D printing involves a combination of interpreting data from CAD files and controlling the motors using this data. The various design considerations while developing the 3D printer have been discussed.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0290
Kyoo Sil Choi, Erin Barker, Guang Cheng, Xin Sun, Joy Forsmark, Mei Li
Mg castings have found increasing applications in lightweight vehicles because magnesium and its alloys are the lightest metallic structure materials. However, a critical technical hurdle hindering the wider applications of Mg castings in vehicle applications is its limited ductility. Various microstructural features can influence the ductility of Mg alloys. The factors limiting the ductility of Mg castings can generally be categorized into two types: intrinsic (i.e., the phase composition, grain size, morphology, volume fraction and mechanical properties of the -Mg matrix and the eutectic phase, etc.) and extrinsic (i.e., porosity, segregation, incomplete fill, hot tear, cold shut, etc.). The specific alloy design and casting process parameters determine both factors which in turn influence the ductility of the final cast.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0296
Monika Minarcin
Increasing electrification of the vehicle as well as the demands of increased connectivity presents automotive manufacturers with formidable challenges. Automakers and suppliers likely will encounter three practices that will influence how they develop and manufacture highly connected vehicles and future e-mobility platforms: 1) hierarchical production processes in fixed footprints that do not share data freely; 2) lack of real-time, in-line quality inspection and correction processes for complex miniaturized electronic components; and 3) floor to enterprise resource and execution systems that can collect, analyze and respond to rapidly changing production needs.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0338
R.J. Urbanic, Ana M. Djuric
The ‘boundary of space’ model representing all possible positions which may be occupied by a mechanism during its normal range of motion (for all positions and orientations) is called the work envelope. In the robotic domain, it is also known as the robot operating envelope or workspace. Several researchers have investigated workspace boundaries for different degrees of freedom (DOF), joint types and kinematic structures utilizing many approaches. However, this work envelope based work is limited as it does not contain relevant information regarding the relationships between the robot, or mechanisms within a system. This includes the general kinematic structures within the system, the location of the working part(s), tools, process parameters and other operation related parameters. Here an operation is defined as consisting of the travel path, manipulator/end-effector or working tool, tool and part location, and orientation, and any other related process related parameters.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0337
Ana M. Djuric, R.J. Urbanic, J.L. Rickli
Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (cobots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. Cobots, unlike traditional robots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although cobots have the potential to become standard in production systems, there is no strong foundation for systems design and development. The focus of this research is to provide a foundation and four tier framework to facilitate the design, development and integration of ‘cobots’. The framework consists of the system level, workcell level, machine level, and worker level. Sixty-five percent of traditional robots are installed in the automobile industry and it takes 200 hrs to program (and reprogram) them.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0336
R.J. Urbanic, R. Hedrick, Ana M. Djuric
Current manufacturing systems typically fabricate several products or product variants, and are expected to meet high productivity and quality levels. This has led to the adoption of cellular manufacturing that contain 6 axis industrial robots, computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining centers, and sophisticated material transportation systems. This factory automation design strategy allows for rebalancing of tasks and reduces the physical redesign of stations when changeovers due to new requirements are introduced. There are many challenges when developing a travel path for serial 6 degree of freedom (DOF) robot based systems. The kinematic structure, and the behaviour of robot based on the configuration, need to be considered in order to determine whether a travel path is feasible as exceeding the travel or joint limit reach may be an issue.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0361
Takeki Matsumoto, Nan Li, Xin Shi, Jianguo Lin
To reduce the fuel consumption as well as to improve the crash safety of vehicles, the usage of hot stamping parts is increasing dramatically in recent years. Aisin Takaoka has produced hot stamping parts since 2001 and has developed various technologies related to Hot Stamping. In an actual hot stamping process, occasionally low strength parts have been obtained even in the proper forming conditions at prototyping phase. In order to understand these phenomena, phase transformations of boron steel during various cooling rate are investigated within the effects of isothermal strain conditions. The uniaxial tensile test with 1.6mm thickness 22MnB5 specimen at strain rates of 0.1-5.0/s, strain level of 0-0.3 and strain applied temperature of 650-800°C are conducted. Dilatometer is used to measure the dimensional changes of the specimen to realize the phase transformation.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0360
Cédric Georges, Xavier Vanden Eynde, Frank Goodwin
Advanced high strength steels used in automotive body and structure applications are exposed to hydrogen during several steps of their processing. For galvanized sheet steel, one of these is the continuous galvanizing process, during which the sheet is prepared for coating in a H2-N2 furnace. This paper shows the relationship between hydrogen uptake in DP600 and DP980 grades, together with an IF steel control composition, and galvanizing process conditions. Hydrogen uptake is strongly dependent on furnace atmosphere and the amount of martensite in the steel but has little dependence on soaking time, humidity of the furnace atmosphere, or temperature within the usual intercritical annealing range. Rapid outgassing was observed during overageing prior to zinc dipping. Slow strain rate tests showed that there was no loss of ductility in galvanized samples that had been treated in a 5% H2 atmosphere or that had been overaged before galvanizing.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0359
Jeff Wang, Charles Enloe, Jatinder Singh, Curt Horvath
Impact toughness (or resistance to fracture) is a critical material property for press hardened steel because hot-formed steel components are often used to construct the safety cage of vehicle body structures. Prior austenite grain size, as controlled by the hot stamping process, is a key microstructural feature that influences impact toughness of press hardening steel. In this paper, a special Charpy V-notch impact test is developed to quantify the impact toughness of press hardened steel of varying prior austenite grain size by stacking a number of thin sheets via mechanical riveting. Both the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and upper shelf energy are analyzed in an effort to establish a correlation between impact toughness and prior austenite grain size. Based on this result, impact performance variation of a hot-formed component can be better understood and quantitatively characterized.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0356
Hua-Chu Shih
Prephosphated steel was developed by applying phosphate coating on zinc coated sheet steel to increase the lubricity in the automotive stamping process. The phosphate coating was also found can further absorb the lubricant which can reduce excess amount of lubricant dripping on the die surface and the press floor. Due to its enhanced lubricity characteristic, the applications have grown rapidly including the lately developed advanced high strength steels (AHSS). For the applications of the AHSS, due to the high strength property, it is crucial to understand their performance under more extreme forming conditions such as higher die temperature, contact pressure and sliding speed, etc. The intent of this study is to investigate the tribological performance and die wear behavior of the prephosphated AHSS under these forming conditions in the die tryout and production conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0371
Wenkai Li, Carlos Engler-Pinto, Haitao CUI, Weidong Wen, Xuming Su
In this paper, fatigue tests on a cast aluminum alloy (AS7GU-T64) were performed under different frequencies and humidity levels. Tests conducted under conventional frequency in laboratory air have been compared to tests conducted under ultrasonic frequency in dry air, saturated humidity and in distilled water. It was observed that the highest and lowest fatigue lives corresponded to ultrasonic fatigue tests in dry air and in distilled water, respectively. Unlike specimens tested at conventional frequency, all of the specimens tested under ultrasonic frequency presented a large amount of slip facets on the crack propagation fracture surface.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0363
HaiYan Yu, ZeZhen He, JiaYi Shen
The work-hardening response of TRIP780 steel subjected to strain-path changes was investigated using two-stage tension experiments. Large specimens were prestrained and then sub-sized samples were subjected to tension along various directions. The influence of strain-path changes on flow stress and work hardening performance was discussed in detail. The specific plastic work was calculated to compare the kinematic hardening behaviour after strain-path changes.The results showed that transient hardening was observed for TRIP780 sheets subjected to orthogonal strain-path change. The strain-hardening exponent (n-value) was influenced by prestraining levels and the strain path. The n-value exhibited a greater decrease under an orthogonal strain-path change. Prestraining can delay the onset of high work hardenability of TRIP steels. It is meaningful for the safety design of vehicles.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0374
Zhigang Wei, George zhu, Litang Gao, Limin Luo
Many welded vehicle exhaust components and systems exhibit multiple failure modes under fatigue loadings. For example, a hanger can fail at rod-to-rod, rod-bend, and rod-to-pipe. Hangers are used to connect the exhaust system and the vehicle body. How to analyze the fatigue test data and validate a product with multiple failure modes is a significant challenge. Recent studies show that the combination of finite element analysis (FEA), structural stress (a stress recovery method), and Bayesian statistics can reasonably assess simple welded structures such as pipe-to-pipe and flange-to-pipe with closed-end welds. However, these tools cannot satisfactorily predict the fatigue life at hangers with open welds, because of not only multiple failure modes, but also complex loading conditions and simplified geometrical representation at the weld ends. In fact, the current structural stress concept cannot be directly applied to the solid hanger rods.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0420
Frank Anthony Cuccia, James Pineault, Mohammed Belassel, Michael Brauss
It is well known that manufacturing operations produce material conditions that can either enhance or debit the fatigue life of production components. One of the most critical aspects of material condition that can have a significant impact on fatigue life is residual stress (RS) [1,2]. When springs are manufactured, the spring stock may undergo several operations during production. Additional operations may also be introduced for the purpose of imparting the spring with beneficial surface RS to extend its fatigue life and increase its ability to execute the task it was designed to perform. The resultant RS present in production springs as a result of the various fabrication and processing operations applied can be predicted and modeled, however, RS measurements must be performed in order to quantify the RS state with precision.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0504
Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan
New analytical stress intensity factor solutions for spot welds in lap-shear specimens under clamped loading conditions are developed based on the beam bending theory to account for the bending moment on the clamped grips and the closed form solutions for rigid inclusions in thin plates under various loading conditions. The analytical solutions for selected ratios of the specimen width to the nugget diameter are compared with the computational solutions based on three-dimensional finite element analyses. Analytical stress intensity factor solutions as functions of the ratio of the specimen width to the nugget diameter for both the pinned connected and clamped loading conditions are compared and presented for future engineering applications. The analytical solutions can include the effects of the weld gap, weld bend, and load offset due to the spacer arrangement at the specimen edges.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0505
Pai-Chen Lin, Shihming LO
A novel friction stir clinching (FSC) process, which combines the “traditional" FSSW process and clinching process, was proposed to join Alcad 2024-T3 aluminum sheets. A FSC tool with a smooth probe and a flat shoulder and a FSC die with a circular cavity and a round groove were used together to make the joint. The failure loads of FSC joints made by different indentation depths, rotational speeds, and dwelling times, were first examined to obtain the preliminary processing parameters. The fatigue lives of FSC joints made by different indentation depths, probe lengths, and corner radii were then examined to modify the design of the tool and die. Pictures and micrographs of the FSC joints before and after failure were examined. The results indicated that the design of the tool and die could significantly affect the mechanical locking structure and Alclad layer distribution, which correlate to the failure load, fatigue life, and failure mode of FSC joints.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1258
Tatsuya Iida, Hiroya Mitani, Mamoru Sato
Inside a paint booth in which automobile bodies or bumpers (called works) are painted, air whose temperature and humidity are adjusted by air-conditioning equipment is sent by supply fan through filter to remove dust and to become laminar flow, and it is supplied from top to the bottom of the pain booth. Traditionally, paint which did not attach to the works during spraying (called paint mist) flows at high speed through a slit opening called Venturi scrubber with a mixture of air and water, and thus the paint mist is collected. This paint mist collecting Venturi scrubber system has two main issues which are requiring large space and large amount of energy from pressure loss. We have adopted a new principle for paint mist collection to develop a new system which has target size of 1/2 and energy consumption of 40% reduction compared to the conventional equipment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0340
Tina Hull, Monika A. Minarcin
Technology advances in industrial robotics has opened up new opportunities for collaborative operation. Collaborative operation may include either industrial or collaborative robots, depending on its application. Current defined modes of collaborative operation include hand guiding, speed and separation monitoring, safety-rated monitored stop, and power and force limiting. A machine system’s hazard zone is any space in proximity to the machinery where an operator has the potential to be injured when contact is made. Defining the safeguarding space is dependent on the hazard zone and determining what protective measures to use and their location so the hazards cannot be reached by the operator. Applications utilizing industrial robotics have typically led to establishing a safeguarded space encompassing a wide radius around the industrial robot. This area includes machinery associated with the system’s process, and tooling and fixturing controlled by the industrial robot.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0364
Guobiao Yang, Tian Bai, Wan Xu, Junrui Li, Lianxiang Yang, DAJUN ZHOU, Changqing Du
In auto engineering field there are lot of component place to be punched into holes. The good quality of punched hole will be great effective in auto manufacture and also lead to huge beneficial result. The edge quality of punched hole is relative to hole diameter size, piercing force, withdraw force, clearance effect, and so on. In fact there are also some problems in punching holes technology, for example, edge crack, spring back etc. Some researchers have already carried on this study for a certain time. Though there are also some achievements to be obtained, the some key points have not been solved yet, which include clearance effect, piercing force, withdraw force etc. This paper presents new method for punching, especially with different conical tip angle punch head(7 degree and 14 degree) from traditional flat punch head, piercing force, withdraw force, clearance effect will not only be obtained, but also conical tip angle effect and stretching release effect can be obtained.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0335
Samuel M. Odeyinka, Ana M. Djuric
Path planning and re-planning for serial 6 degree of freedom (DOF) Fanuc robotics family is challenging due to complex kinematic structure and application conditions which affects the robot’s tool frame position, orientation and different possible configurations. These characteristics represent the key elements for production planning and layout design of the automated manufacturing systems. The robot trajectory represents a series of connected points in 3D space. Each point is defined with its position and orientation related to the robot’s base frames or predefined user frame. The robot will move from point to point using the desired motion type (linear, arc, or joint). This motion requires the inverse kinematic solution. This paper presents a detailed inverse kinematic solution for Fanuc 6R (Rotational) robot family using a well-known geometric method. Each joint angular position has been geometrically analyzed and all possible solutions are included in the decision equations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1366
Sivanandi Rajadurai, Guru Prasad Mani
Tube bends are critical in exhaust systems. The acceptability of tube bends is based on the induced level of shape imperfections considered. An analysis is presented for the performance tuning of the genetic algorithm including the importance of raw material selection, ovality and elongation property. This study is an attempt to analyze the ovality effect of STAC 60/60 material. CAE tools are essential to exploit the design of experiments and find out the optimum values of the design parameters in comparison with full factorial designs. Especially, the effects of materials, dimensions and geometry shape of the ultimate strength were discussed by both CAE and experiments. The ultimate strength of steel tube was evaluated at least 20-30% as a local strain independent of the materials. The dependency of ultimate bending angle on original centre angle of the tube bend was clarified.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1560
Bo Lin, Chinedum E. Okwudire
Ball nut assemblies (BNAs) are used in a variety of applications, e.g., automotive, aerospace and manufacturing, for converting rotary motion to linear motion (or vice versa). In these application areas, accurate characterization of the dynamics of BNAs using low-order models is very useful for performance simulation and analyses. Existing low-order contact load models of BNAs are inadequate, partly because they only consider the axial deformations of the screw and nut. This paper presents a low-order load distribution model for BNAs which considers the axial, torsional and lateral deformations of the screw and nut. The screw and nut are modeled as finite element beams, while Hertzian Contact Theory is used to model the contact condition between the balls and raceways of the screw and nut. The interactions between the forces and displacements of the screw and nut and those at the ball-raceway contact points are established using transformation matrices.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-1344
Koushi Kumagai, Masaaki Kuwahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Norimasa Koreishi
This paper describes development of FE model for Laser Screw Welding (LSW) fracture and validation of the model with test results. LSW was developed and introduced to vehicles on market by Toyota Motor Corporation in 2013, and this technology is propagating to production vehicles globally. LSW has advanced features such as productivity and large gap allowance. Although the authors had developed the fracture FE model for resistance spot weld, fracture model for the LSW has not been developed. Many comprehensive tests were conducted to develop the fracture model. The results showed that the LSW have two times more variation in fracture mode, compare to traditional resistance spot welding. And the bifurcation fracture mode, which due to clearance between welded plates, was also observed. In order to analyze the fracture phenomenon of the LSW in crash analysis, detailed model using fine solid elements was developed. The model can materialize both case of minimum and maximum clearance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0348
Nan Wang, Sergey Golovashchenko
Stamping die design recommendations attempt to limit the production of burrs through accurate alignment of the upper and lower trimming edges. For aluminum automotive exterior panels, this translates to a gap less than 0.1 mm. However, quality of sheared edge and sheared edge stretchability are affected by stiffness of trimming tool and cutting edge condition. The objective of the study is to investigate the influences of trimming tool stiffness and trimming edge condition on sheared edge stretchability of aluminum blanks 6111-T4. For experimental study, one side of the sample had sheared surface obtained by the trimming process while the other side of the sample had a smooth surface by metal finish. Burr heights of the sheared edge after different trimming configurations with 10% clearance were measured. Subsequently, sheared edge stretchability of the specimens was evaluated by measuring major strains of 2 mm circle grids electro-etched on the surface of the samples.
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