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Viewing 31 to 60 of 20089
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2502
Jeremy Jallageas, Matthieu Ayfre, Mehdi Cherif, Jean-Yves K'nevez, Olivier Cahuc
Abstract This study investigates the self-adjusted cutting parameter technique to improve the drilling of multi-stacked material. The technique consists in changing the cutting strategy automatically, according to the material being machined. The success of this technique relies on an accurate signal analysis, whatever the process setting. Motor current or thrust force are mostly used as incoming signals. Today, analyses are based on the thresholding method. This consists in assigning lower and upper limits for each type of material. The material is then identified when the signal level is stabilized in between one of the thresholds. Good results are observed as long as signal steps are significantly distinct. This is the case when drilling TA6V-CFRP stacks. However, thrust force level remains roughly unchanged for AA7175-CFRP stacks, leading to overlapping thresholds. These boundary limits may also change with tool geometry, wear condition, cutting parameters, etc.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2515
Adlai Felser, Peter B. Zieve, Bryan Ernsdorff
Abstract A new style of rivet injector is in production use on a variety of fastening machines used by major aircraft manufacturers. In this injector the opposing sides of the rivet guide blocks are attached to the arms of a parallel gripper. We have implemented the parallel gripper in both vertical axis and horizontal axis riveting applications. It is equally effective in both orientations. We have implemented the parallel gripper rivet injector on headed rivets, threaded bolts, ribbed swage bolts and unheaded (slug) rivets.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2494
Benjamen D. Hempstead, Scott Smith
Aircraft assembly systems which require tooling or machinery to pulse or move between multiple positions within a factory can be positioned with high repeatability without high performance foundations or sweeping out large areas of floorspace. An example shows a system of large left and right-hand frames which are positioned at 3 sequential manufacturing steps and then recirculated to the start of production via a central return aisle. The frames are 41 ton actual weight and are 72’ long, similar to a rail car. The system achieves rectangular motion for the recirculation path. The supporting and moving system incorporates low-cost rail in a floor with minimal preparation and simple to use controls. The system is also easily reconfigured if the manufacturing system needs to be altered to meet rate or flow requirements.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2492
Michael Assadi, Samuel Dobbs, Brian Stewart, Sean Hollowell, Joseph Elsholz
Abstract Developing the most advanced wing panel assembly line for very high production rates required an innovative and integrated solution, relying on the latest technologies in the industry. Looking back at over five decades of commercial aircraft assembly, a clear and singular vision of a fully integrated solution was defined for the new panel production line. The execution was to be focused on co-developing the automation, tooling, material handling and facilities while limiting the number of parties involved. Using the latest technologies in all these areas also required a development plan, which included pre-qualification at all stages of the system development. Planning this large scale project included goals not only for the final solution but for the development and implementation stages as well. The results: Design/build philosophy reduced project time and the number of teams involved.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2491
Paul Haworth, Donald Peterson, Curtis Hayes
Abstract A new high speed forming process for fatigue rated index head rivets used in wing panel assembly using ball-screw based servo squeeze actuation has been developed. The new process is achieved using a combination of force and position control and is capable of forming to 40,000 lbs at rates of up to 200,000 lbs/second whilst holding the part location to within +/− 10 thousandths of an inch. Multi-axis riveting machines often have positioning axes that are also used for fastener upset. It is often the case that while a CNC is used for positioning control, another secondary controller is used to perform the fastener upset. In the new process, it has been possible to combine the control of the upset process with the machine CNC, thus eliminating any separate controllers. The fastener upset force profile is controlled throughout the forming of the rivet by using a closed loop force control system that has a load cell mounted directly behind the stringer side forming tool.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2608
Joshua Cemenska, Todd Rudberg, Michael Henscheid
Abstract In many existing AFP cells manual inspection of composite plies accounts for a large percentage of production time. Next generation AFP cells can require an even greater inspection burden. The industry is rapidly developing technologies to reduce inspection time and to replace manual inspection with automated solutions. Electroimpact is delivering a solution that integrates multiple technologies to combat inspection challenges. The approach integrates laser projectors, cameras, and laser profilometers in a comprehensive user interface that greatly reduces the burden on inspectors and decreases overall run time. This paper discusses the implementation of each technology and the user interface that ties the data together and presents it to the inspector.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2489
Philippe Le Vacon, Thomas Buisson, Fabien Albert
The NC template developed by AIRBUS GROUP Innovations, is a light and low cost five axis drilling machine, dedicated to the assembly of hybrid (CFRP/Al/Ti) aircraft structure. This solution aims to replace the current process where operators move the drilling units from one hole to another. It’s providing a high level of flexibility compared to drilling templates with a special interest during the ramp up phase of new A/C program, because it has just to be reprogrammed if fasteners positions change. The NRC can also be reduced due to limitation of operators, because one operator can manage several grids. The architecture of the machine is made up of a Cartesian table having a tool holder carriage on which is fixed a normality module with a standard ADU (Advanced Drilling Unit). The normality module has 3 axes (Z and two rotations) which give the capability to operate on double convex curvatures, flat up to 1500 mm radius.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2618
Bernd-Michael Wolf, Christian Meiners
SCALE is a modular, non-contact, in-line measurement system. It measures the diameter of the countersink directly after the drilling, the amount and distribution of sealant in the open hole, and the head height of the fastener as well as pressed out sealant. The system is fast and reliable and the out coming information is reliable and trustworthy. Until now the system could not measure the inner diameter of the hole. The reason for this is that it is not possible to detect the inner diameter with a camera that looks only at the top of the component. But as our customers make the request to us, we decidedto develop an optical hole probe system which is fully integrated in the auto fastening process. We think that a mechanical system cannot fulfill the customer expectations in terms of reliability, low maintenance, precision and speed.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2600
Gustavo Franco Barbosa, Elton Candia Cordeiro, Fábio Rodrigues Costa
This paper presents a full automated solution that uses robots for manufacturing business jets primary parts. The purpose of this technological innovation is to increase productivity, improve the quality of final product, reduction of costs with maintenance and consumable materials, in addition to meet the requirements of ergonomics, occupational health and safety. So, it has been sought better results in terms of process efficiency and technological innovation faced to competitive market requirements related to industrial automation. The aim is to improve the manufacturing processes of the furniture parts, striving for excellence in every step by further adding value and reducing wastes in order to reduce manufacturing costs and enable greater customer satisfaction.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2551
Ephraim Suhir, Alain Bensoussan
In some today’s and future optoelectronic packaging systems, including those intended for aerospace applications, the package (system’s component containing active and/or passive devices and interconnects) is placed (“sandwiched”) between two substrates, which, in an approximate analysis, could be considered identical. Such a system is bow-free. This might be an important merit that could be helpful in maintaining high coupling efficiency in warpage-sensitive optical devices. The highest thermal stresses in such a tri-component (one inner and two outer components) bi-material (the composite material of the inner component - package and of the material of the outer components - substrates) assembly occur at low temperature conditions, are caused by the thermal contraction mismatch of the dissimilar materials of the assembly components and include normal stresses acting in the cross-sections of the components, and interfacial shearing and peeling stresses.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2598
Gustavo Lasierra Ferrer
Composites are becoming a common material for aero structures, and that means new manufacturing processes with new problems and new challenges that have to be solved. Our engineering Team has recently developed and patented a new end effector for Robots that is able track any kind surface ( even if the surface is moving, swinging, bending....which usually happens when working with big composite parts.) and carry out a task. This new feature has enabled robots to automate manual tasks that hadn´t been automated jet like sanding, cleaning, polishing, applying solvents, applying release and cleaning agents……not only on aerostructures but also on its molds. The solution is based on a set of sensors, a postprocessor which runs a software, and a mechanical compensation gadget. As a result, we can keep all the parameters of a certain process fully under control even if the part we are working on is not stable and it moves swings and bends.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2614
Hideki Okada, Kenichi Kamimuki, Syuhei Yoshikawa, Shintaro Fukada
In the recent aircraft manufacturing, the cost reduction, the manufacturing time redaction and the weight saving of aircraft are strongly demanded. Refill Friction Spot Joining (FSJ, other word FSSW, Friction Stir Spot Welding) , which is one of innovative joining process based on friction stir welding, is a promising technology as the replacement for rivet and fastener, and this technology is expected to realize cost reduction and weight saving. Because Refill FSSW uses no additional materials such as Rivet, which contributes to reduce the weight. Also it needs no drilling and deburring process. It means easy to realize a high rate manufacturing, easy to use automation. Additionally, it helps to flexible designing of structures since it allows the closer joint pitch/edge distance than Rivet. In a previous report, the higher shear strength in comparison with Resistance spot welding was shown as well as it was comparable to Rivet.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2594
Thomas G. Jefferson, Panorios Benardos, Svetan Ratchev
Current assembly systems that deal with large, complex structures present a number of challenges with regard to improving operational performance. Specifically, aerospace assembly systems comprise a vast array of interrelated elements interacting in a myriad of ways, resulting in a deeply complex process that requires a multi-disciplined team of engineers. The current approach to ramp-up production rate involves building additional main assembly fixtures which require large investment and lead times up to 24 months. Within Airbus Operations Ltd there is a requirement to improve the capacity and flexibility of assembly systems, thereby reducing non-recurring costs and time-to-market. Recent trends to improve manufacturing agility advocate Reconfigurable Assembly Systems (RAS) as a viable solution. Yet, adding reconfigurability to assembly systems further increases both the operational and design complexity.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2619
Karl-Otto Strömberg, Stefan Borgenvall, Mohamed Loukil, Bertrand Noharet, Carola Sterner, Magnus Lindblom, Orjan Festin
LWPT (Lightweight Production Technology) is today a well-established technology in the automotive industry. By introducing light weight fixtures manufactured from Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP), new production processes have been developed in the automotive industry. This has resulted in increased productivity, reduced investment costs and increased flexibility. The next step is to introduce this technology in the aerospace industry. Aircraft components are complex and large products having small tolerance windows. Fixtures manufactured in FRP materials allow integration of health monitoring sensors directly into the structure. This means that information on displacements can be recorded both when the fixture is stationary, while work is being performed, as well as in a pulsed production line when the fixture is moving between the assembly stations.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2615
Donald Jasurda
The aerospace industry is continually becoming more competitive. With an aircraft’s large number of components, and the large supplier base used to fabricate these components, it can be a daunting task to manage the quality status of all these parts in an accurate, timely and actionable manner. This paper focuses on an aircraft door assembly case study monitoring the process capability of machined parts at an aircraft OEM and their supply chain. Through the use of standardized measurement plans and statistical analysis of the measured output, the paper will illustrate how stakeholders can understand the process performance details at a workcell level, as well as overall line or plant performance in real time, in addition to automating standardized reporting. This ideal process begins in the product engineering phase using simulation to analyze the tolerance specifications and assembly process strategy, with one of the outputs being a production measurement plan.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2616
Richard Lindqvist, Tobias Jansson
The scope and purpose of this paper is to give input and propose solutions to the creation of an efficient and productive geometrical measurement planning process. The case study outline what is important and how to identify and determine the preconditions and input data which is required to start the preparation and planning activities of geometrical measurements. That is why the following three main research and development questions should be answered: Firstly; What is the need and why does an efficient and productive geometrical measurement planning process contribute to decrease cost upstream as well as downstream in terms of reduced lead times in measurement planning process work? Secondly; Why are reduced uncertainties related to geometrical; functionality, specification and verification, important? And how are they linked to each other and how can they be theoretically modeled and defined in terms of uncertainties?
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2517
Sean Holt, Rider Clauss
Abstract Electroimpact has developed a novel method for accurately drilling and countersinking holes on highly convex parts using an articulated arm robotic drilling system. Highly curved parts, such as the leading edge of an aircraft wing, present numerous challenges when attempting to drill normal to the part surface and produce tight tolerance countersinks. Electroipmact's Accurate Robot technology allows extremely accurate positioning of the tool point and the spindle vector orientation. However, due to the high local curvature of the part, even a small positional deviation of the tool point can result in a significantly different normal vector than expected from an NC program. An off-normal hole will result in an out of tolerance countersink and a non-flush fastener.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2606
Andreas Bjornsson, Jan-Erik Lindback, Daniel Eklund, Marie Jonsson
Abstract With an increased use of composite materials within the aerospace industry follows a need for rational and cost-effective methods for composite manufacturing. Manual operations are still common for low to medium manufacturing volumes and complex products. Manual operations can for example be found in material handling, when picking prepreg plies from a cutter table and stacking them to form a plane laminate in preparation for a subsequent forming operation. Stacking operations of this kind often involves a great number of different ply geometries and removal of backing paper and other protecting materials like plastic. In this paper two different demonstrator cells for automated picking of prepreg plies and stacking of plane laminates are presented. One demonstrator is utilizing a standard industrial robot and an advanced end-effector to handle the ply variants. The other demonstrator is using a dual arm robot which allow for simpler end-effector design.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2611
Samuel Baha II
Abstract The use of composite materials in aircraft manufactures increases more and more with the need of light weight and efficient airplanes. Combining composite materials with an appropriate joining method is one of the primordial ways of exploiting its light weight potential. Since the widely-established mechanical fastening, which originally, was developed for metallic materials, is not a suitable joining method for composite materials because of its low bearing strength, the adhesively bonding technology might be an appropriate alternative. However, adhesively bonding in the aircraft manufacturing, especially for joining of primary structures is liable to certification requirements, such as testing of every bond up to limit load before the operation begins or non-destructive testing of every bond before the operation begins as proof of the joint characteristics, which cannot be fulfilled with the current state of the art.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2610
Patrick Land, Richard Crossley, David Branson, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract There is a growing demand for composites to be utilised in the production of large-scale components within the aerospace industry. In particular the demand to increase production rates indicates that traditional manual methods are no longer sufficient, and automated solutions must be sought. This typically leads to automated forming processes where there are a limited number of effective options. The need for forming typically arises from the inability of layup methods to produce complex geometries of structural components. This paper reviews the current state of the art in automated forming processes, their limitations and variables that affect performance in the production of large scale components. In particular the paper will focus on the application of force and heat within secondary forming processes. It will then review the effects of these variables against the structure of the required composite component and identify viability of the technology.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2595
Darren Winter, Paul Ashton-Rickardt, Carwyn Ward, Paul Gibbons, Chris Mcmahon, Kevin Potter
Abstract This paper reports on a methodology for risk reduction, developed and tested at a brand new aerospace manufacturing facility, producing high value aero-structures. The facility was formed as part of a ‘Risk Sharing Partnership’ between Airbus and GKN for production of the Airbus A350 ‘Fixed Trailing Edge’ (FTE). Whilst operating in New Product Introduction (NPI), the challenge for GKN was to increase production volume for each successive year of operations. At the time of writing, the facility was producing FTE structures at a rate of 4 per month i.e. Rate 4, and attempting to transition to Rate 6. The ultimate aim was to produce FTE structures at Rate 13 within an 8 year period whilst concurrently engineering the product and improving its processes. For schedule adherence, elimination of process failures was critical and often manifested at the final stage of assembly (integration cell).
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2601
Zhejun Yao, Wiltrud Weidner, Robert Weidner, Jens Wulfsberg
Abstract Despite the increasing application of automated systems, manual tasks still plays an important role in industrial production. The intelligence and flexibility of human enable quick response and adaptive production for the individual requirements and the changes in market. Moreover, some manufacturing tasks with sensible and high-value components (e.g., in electronic and aircraft production) requires attentive manual handling. Regarding the requirement of increasing productivity as well as ergonomic improvement and the aging of the employees, there is a significant need for technologies which support the staff individually by performing tasks. Human Hybrid Robot, a hybrid system with direct coupling (serial and/or parallel) of human and mechatronic elements, is a new trend in application of robotic technologies for supporting manual tasks. It realizes a synchronous and bidirectional interaction between human and mechatronic and/or mechanic elements in the same workspace.
2015-09-02
Standard
J1236_201509
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to establish guidelines for the automatic transmission and hydraulic systems engineer to design cast iron sealing rings and select acceptable width, thickness, coatings, and other accepted design details.
2015-09-01
Magazine
2015-09-01
Standard
AMS4229G
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of sand, permanent mold, and composite mold castings.
2015-09-01
Standard
AMS4242C
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of castings.
2015-09-01
Magazine
Driving EVs toward lower cost The race is on to reduce battery and electric-drive systems costs while improving efficiency. Seeking ways to make better computer crashes New models and simulations help improve safety as software and hardware provide more realism to iterate designs more quickly. Evaluating aluminum bonds Adhesively joined aluminum alloy sheets present challenges that steel-adhesive joints do not. Ford researchers present a modified technique to inspect Al-adhesive joints in lab and production environments. Leading the attack on engine pumping losses Cylinder deactivation delivers real-world fuel economy gains, helping vehicles to meet and exceed their sticker numbers. That's why the downsized/boosted guys now want it on their engines.
2015-08-31
Standard
AMS4223E
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of castings.
2015-08-28
Standard
ARP1532B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers procedures or methods to be used for fabricating, handling, testing, and installation of oxygen lines in an aircraft oxygen system.
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