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Viewing 31 to 60 of 21019
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1663
Alan Druschitz, Christopher Williams, Erin Connelly, Bob Wood
Binder jetting of sand molds and cores for metal casting provides a scalable and efficient means of producing metal components with complex geometric features made possible only by Additive Manufacturing. Topology optimization software that can mathematically determine the optimum placement of material for a given set of design requirements has been available for quite some time. However, the optimized designs are often not manufacturable using standard metal casting processes due to undercuts, backdraft and other issues. With the advent of binder-based 3D printing technology, sand molds and cores can be produced to make these optimized designs as metal castings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1225
Jayaraman Krishnasamy, Martin Hosek
An advanced electric motor with hybrid-field topology has been developed for automotive traction applications. Departing from the conventional radial- and axial-field designs, the hybrid-field motor features three-dimensional magnetic flux paths in a geometry that maximizes the effective volume for magnetic flux flow. The three-dimensional flux paths are enabled by an isotropic soft magnetic material, which has been engineered to replace conventional laminated winding cores with solid isotropic components. The material is produced by a novel additive-manufacturing process based on spray forming. The paper introduces the spray-forming process for motor stator components and presents a conceptual design of the traction motor developed around them, including the motor topology, stator construction and rotor construction. The stator features a spray-formed core with three-dimensional magnetic flux paths, high-density windings and direct liquid cooling.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0284
Sajjad Raeisi
Additive manufacturing has been a promising technique for producing sophisticated porous structures. The pore's architecture and infill density percentage can be easily controlled through additive manufacturing methods. This paper reports on development of polymer extruded cross sections ad lightweight materials manufactured using additivemanufacturing technology. In this study, three types of crosssections with same 2D porosity are generated by way of particular techniques. a) The regular cross section of hexagonal honeycomb, b) The heterogeneous pore distribution of closed cell aluminum foam cross section obtained from image processing and c) linearly patterned topology optimized 2D unit cell undercompressive loading condition. All the cross sections have the same cavity to matter ratio on their 2D configuration. The samples are extruded to produce 3D CAD model of honeycomb shape porous structure.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0316
Kiran Mallela, Andrey Ilinich, S Luckey, Danielle Zeng, Yuan Gan
Aluminum extrusions are used in the automotive industry for body structure applications requiring cross-section design flexibility, high section stiffness, and high strength. Heat-treatable 6xxx series extrusion alloys have typically been used in automotive due to commercial availability, competitive cost, high strength, and impact performance. This paper presents a characterization study of mechanical properties of 6xxx series aluminum extrusions using digital image correlation (DIC). DIC has been used to capture spatial strain distribution and its evolution in time during material deformation. The materials of study were seamless and structural 6061 and 6082 extrusions. The alloys have been tensile tested using an MTS load frame with a dual optical camera system to capture the stereoscopic digital images. Notable results include the differing anisotropy of seamless and structural extrusions, as well as the influence of artificial aging on anisotropy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0255
Malli Kartheek Yalamanchili, Nitin Sharma, Kevin Thomson
The crashworthiness of body-in-white (BIW), plays a very vital role in the full vehicle crash performance. The structural integrity of BIW is controlled via strength of the spot welds and adhesives that are often considered as only entities to hold the parts together. However optimizing the welds and/or adhesives can not only reduce the number of connections but also improve the structural crashworthiness. This paper discusses the optimization of full vehicle structural performance and the length of adhesives in the BIW for the small overlap crash event. The variables included in the study were length of the adhesives and gage variables, defined in the front end structure of the vehicle. A parametric model was created using ANSA and iSight was used to generate design of experiments (DOE). Automated design generation using ANSA followed by automated script based post-processing was done. The optimization was done using metamodel generated for the crash event.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0476
Seiji Furusako, Masatoshi Tokunaga, Masanori Yasuyama
In order to reduce the weight of automobile body, application of high strength steel sheets is expanding. And also a middle and high carbon steel is expected to be used to lower the environmental impact and cost in the field of automobile steel sheet. However, it is necesarry for its realization to enhance the joint strengh of the steel sheets. In this study, hat-shape components were made by resistance spot welding or arc-spot welding using S45C steel sheet of 1.4mm in thick with strength of 1200MPa grade . Then dynamice three-point bending test was carried out on the components and crashworthiness of them was compared. Absorbed energy of the arc-spot welded component was higher than that of the resistance spot-welded one by 30%. Some spot welds fractured (separated) during the three-point bending test but arc-spot welds did NOT fractured. Arc-spot welding is therefore seemed to be effective to improve strength and toughness of weld for a middle and high carbon steel sheet.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0326
Samuel J. Tomlinson, Martin J D Fisher, Thomas Smith, Kevin Pascal
When sealing an application with a radial O-ring system design there is a balance between O-ring function and ease of assembly. Often times the assembly insertion force rises to the point of unacceptable manufacturing ergonomic practice. Designs are released into production with these high insertion forces while manufacturing operators struggle to assemble parts leaving opportunity for potential operator injury. Several variables impacting O-ring system insertion forces were tested to quantify the effects. Results were analyzed to identify design controls that could be implemented from an early design phase optimizing functionality and ease of assembly.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0536
William Goodwin, Claudio Mancuso, Nicolas Brown
The development of automotive embedded software and calibrations presently involves an expensive development cycle in terms of both time and cost. A primary reason is the associated expense and time require to apply the various technologies needed for software testing and calibration development. Early in the design cycle software-in-the-loop (SIL) and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) systems are typically employed. Later stages use costly engine and vehicle hardware as part of the software test and calibration development process. During this phase propulsions systems may initially utilize dynamometers and eventually migrate to vehicle level testing. All these technologies contribute to large budgets and design times required for embedded software and calibration development.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0340
Li Lu, Jane Zhou, Ram Iyer, Jeffrey Webb, Derren Woods, Thomas Pietila
Injection molding tools are expensive and the fatigue failure during production would result in very costly rework on tool and downtime. Currently mold designs are mostly based on expert experience without a careful stress analysis and the mold set life cycle relies largely on a rough estimates. There are three major causes of mold damage: 1) Thermal stress due to rapid heating and cooling (thermal shock); 2) Mold deflection due to injection pressure imbalance; 3) Clamping force induced stress inside mold blocks. The industry state of the art applies averaged temperature change and peak pressure load on the mold tool and static analysis is performed. Mold temperature history and thermal shock are not considered in the durability analysis. In the developed integrated CAE tool, a transient thermal analysis of the tool is performed in conjunction with the injection molding process simulation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1703
Ryan A. Howell, Richard Gerth
FeMnAl is in a class of steels called Hadfield steel. This paper will present details, including ballistic performance, Johnson Cook coefficients, and other previously published and unpublished data for the specific alloy: Fe-30Mn-9Al-1Si-.9C-.5Mo. This particular alloy exhibits improved performance over Rolled Homogenous Armor (RHA) at equivalent aerial density. It has tunable ductility (>40% ductility) and corrosion resistance similar to 340 stainless steel. Because it has the equivalent volumetric ballistic properties to RHA at a reduced density, it can be introduced into current vehicles for any RHA component without changing part thickness or geometry. This allows current interfaces with other components to be maintained and achieve a 10% weight reduction without any change in ballistic performance. This makes introduction of this material as a weight reduction technology less costly than using a material that requires a different thickness to meet ballistic requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0248
Fabian Jorg Uwe Koark, Arvind Korandla
Motivation - Ambiguous product targets, access to global markets, innovation pressures, quick product penetration and feedback (less recovery time for corrective measures). Additionally, the major issue with limited resources describe the current situation for engineering management in most R&D organizations. "Do-It-Once and Do-It-Right is the norm in the industry today". Achieving complex global objectives with limited resources comes down to the question of performance. International engineering sites are established globally to push the capacity limits and to increase the productivity by accessing big employment markets of engineering talents - also for lower costs. The combination of complex engineering challenges, globally distributed work packets combined with management directions to optimize resources (availability, cost, performance) - leads to an organizational challenge - global co-engineering.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1529
Nicholas Simmonds, John Pitman, Panagiotis Tsoutsanis, Karl Jenkins, Adrian Gaylard, Wilko Jansen
Cooling drag has traditionally proven to be a difficult flow phenomenon to predict using computational fluid dynamics. With the advent of grille shutter systems, the need to accurately pre-dict this quantity during vehicle development has become more pressing. A comprehensive study is presented in the paper of three automotive models with different cool-ing drag deltas using the commercial CFD solver STARCCM+. The notchback DrivAer model with under-hood cooling provides a popular academic benchmark alongside two fully-engineered production cars; a large saloon (Jaguar XJ) and an SUV (Land Rover Range Rover). Previous studies detail the differences in the flow field; highlighting the interaction between the exiting under-hood cooling flow, and the wheel and base wakes for open and closed grilles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0244
Joshua Lyon, Junheung Park, Yakov Fradkin, Jeff Tornabene
This paper describes a tool developed by Ford Motor Company to help business analysts revise sourcing plans when business conditions change. A common scenario is demand increasing beyond installed capacity – how should the business respond? Likewise, how should production change when demand is lower than expected? Sometimes the company can move production to different locations or outsource parts in order to reduce costs. This paper focuses on making such decisions for stamped sheet-metal parts. We describe an optimization tool used to periodically reassess where to stamp parts. The tool uses mathematical optimization to balance logistic and outsourcing costs. An important component is the user interface, which allows stamping experts to adjust the model in real time to reflect different constraints and competing objectives. This allows the algorithm to efficiently seek alternative solutions while the business expert guides for nuances that may be hard to represent mathematically.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1708
Saeid Nasheralahkami, Sergey Golovashchenko, Collin Malek, Erika Rugh, Daniel Kowalsky, Weitian Zhou
In recent years, dual phase (DP) Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS) are considered as prominent materials in the automotive industry due to superior structural performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. However, these materials are often sensitive to trimmed edge cracking if stretching along sheared edge occurs in such processes as stretch flanging. Another major issue in the trimming of UHSS is tool wear because of higher contact pressures at the interface between cutting tools and sheet metal blank caused by UHSS’s higher flow stresses and the presence of a hard martensitic in the microstructure. The objective of the current paper is to study the influence of trimming conditions and tool wear on the quality of trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheet. For this purpose, mechanically trimmed edges were characterized for DP980 steel and compared with other steels such as HSLA350 and BH210.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1709
Zhigang Wei, Sarat Das, Ryan Barr, Greg Rohrs, Robert Rebandt, Xiao Wu, HongTae Kang
Recent stringent government regulations on emission control and fuel economy drive the vehicles and their associated components and systems to the direction of lighter weight. However, the achieved lightweight must not be obtained by sacrificing other important performance requirements such as manufacturability, strength, durability, reliability, safety, noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Additionally, cost is always a dominating factor in the lightweight design of automotive products. Therefore, a successful lightweight design can only be accomplished by better understanding the performance requirements, the potentials and limitations of the designed products, and by balancing many conflicting design parameters. The combined knowledge-based design optimization procedures and, inevitably, some trial-and-error design iterations are the practical approaches that should be adopted in the lightweight design for the automotive applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1321
Meisam Mehravaran, Yi Zhang
Degas Bottles have been extensively used in vehicles in order to act as an air pillow on top of the cooling loop and provide space for expansion. One of the important characteristics of the bottle which defines if it will work in a certain loop is the so called “capacity” of the bottle which defines the flowrate that degas bottle would be able to pass through without any foaming. Considering the complex geometry of degas bottle and the foaming phenomena, predicting the behavior of coolant in the bottle passages is challenging which requires costly tests. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been extensively used in simulating multi-phase flows in automotive components. In the current project, CFD has been used to simulate the behavior of flow in bottle chambers and to provide guidelines for the design team in order to increase the bottle performance/capacity. The CFD guidelines were in agreement with test results and lead to improving the degas bottle capacity.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1240
Koki Matsushita
Demands for improving fuel economy and reducing carbon dioxide emmision in automobiles have been increasing rapidly. Since the ratio of alternator loss to entire loss of automobile is high, reducing the alternator loss is effective for fuel economy improvement. The alternator loss consists of three main losses; copper loss, iron loss and rectification loss. Above all, the ratio of rectification loss to the alternator loss, which is approximately 30%, is relatively high. DENSO has developed “MOS rectifier” to reduce the rectification loss. The MOS rectifier is a commutating device which has MOSFETs as rectifying devices instead of diodes. The MOS rectifier contributes to fuel economy improvement of automobiles by reducing rectification loss with low On-Resistance(Ron) MOSFET. Since the MOS rectifier is exposed to severe temperature environment from -40 °C to 120 °C, temperature stress on solder and Aluminium wire is large.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0224
Zhangxing Chen, Yi Li, Yimin Shao, Tianyu Huang, Hongyi Xu, Yang Li, Wei Chen, Danielle Zeng, Katherine Avery, HongTae Kang, Xuming Su
Due to the increasing demand for vehicle light-weighting, chopped carbon fiber SMC(Sheet molding compound) as a promising material has attracted a lot of attentions. However, there exist few open data and researches on the property of this material as well as lack the method to predict the property. For these reasons, an RVE model for chopped carbon fiber SMC is proposed to predicting the material property.Voroni method are used to create the RVE model and fiber orientation tensor and fiber tow information for the RVE model are extracted from the different layer of material images.DIC test is also conducted to obtain the modulus of the materials.And the results of the RVE are filled into a tensile bar FEA model to compare with the experimental results,Great consistency can be seen between the model and experimental results which mean the proposed model can be used as a way to predict the property of this material.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0296
Oberti Dos Santos Almeida
One of the biggest challenges for the Product Development Engineers is to have a clear understanding of the Quality Principles and Disciplines they should follow while they are engineering. In general, the current Product Development System guides of the Automakers companies are mostly focused on provide guidance for the Engineers on the following areas: Design Efficiency; Design Rules for Product Robustness; Design Validation; Product Reliability; Testing Procedures. The introduction of a new/advanced technology system alone does not mean low incidence of customer complaints. The only way to get that is plan/execute Consumer Driven Design with excellence. Global Vehicles are more sensitive to Quality since they must satisfy diverse cultural customers without compromise reliability. When a new vehicle is being developed to be sold in many markets around the world – Global Product - this problem is even bigger. Different markets mean different customer expectations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1664
Yong Tak Kim, Yeongpyo Kim, Namyeul Ryu
Vehicle brake friction output is influenced by the performance of many brake corner system components. For the highest and most table friction output, each component needs to work properly. For each component of the brake corner system, there are many factors related to the final corner friction value. This paper focuses on the relationship between the chemical composition of a cast iron brake rotor chemical contents and the friction output value. Alloying elements have complex interaction effects. In this paper, a numerical analysis tool is applied to dyno bench test results to forecast braking friction values for specific cast rotor chemical compositions. To see why some rotors can achieve high friction values, the rotor microstructure is analyzed. An optimal rotor casting chemical composition recipe, based on set formula and DFSS method, is recommended.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0283
Mohammad K. Alam, Navid Nazemi, Ruth Jill Urbanic, Syed Saqib, Afsaneh Edrisy
Laser cladding is a novel process of surface coating, and researchers in both academia and industry are developing additive manufacturing solutions for large, metallic components using this process. There are many interlinked process parameters (e.g. laser power, laser speed and powder feed rate) associated with laser cladding. These process parameters have a direct impact on the resultant bead geometry and the microhardness profile throughout the bead zone, dilution zone and heat affected zone (HAZ). A set of single bead laser cladding experiments were done using a 4 kW fibre laser coupled with a 6-axis robotic arm for 420 martensitic stainless steel. A design of experiments approach was taken to explore a wide range of process parameter settings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0312
ZiQiang Sheng, Pankaj Mallick
Based on findings from micromechanical studies, a Ductile Failure Criterion (DFC) was proposed. The proposed DFC treats localized necking as failure and critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness. Under linear strain path assumption, a method to predict Forming Limit Curve (FLC) is derived from this DFC. With the help of predetermined effect functions, the method only needs a calibration at uniaxial tension. The approach was validated by predicting FLCs for sixteen different aluminum and steel sheet metal materials. Comparison shows that the prediction matches quite well with experimental observations in most cases.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0307
Xiaohua Hu, Xin Sun, Sergey Golovashchenko, Constantin Chiriac
The hole stretchability of two Aluminum Alloys (AA6111 and AA6022) are studied by using a two stages integrated finite element framework where the edge geometry and edge damages from the hole piercing processes were considered in the subsequent hole expansion processes. Experimentally it has been found that AA6022 has higher hole expansion ratios than those of AA6111. This observation has been nicely captured by finite element simulations. The main cause of differences have been identified to the volume fractions of the random distributed second phase hard particles which play a critical role in determining the fracture strains of the materials.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0313
Praveen Balaj Balakrishnan, Girish Kumar Rajendiran, Ravi Purnoo Munuswamy
In recent years the need of having parts with high strength with low weight has grown exponentially and automotive industry has relied heavily on hot stamping technology to achieve this. Hot stamped parts can provide high strength and very good shape fixability for reduced weight compared to cold formed parts. This paper does a detail investigation Boron steel 22MnB5 and the different thermal parameters such as quenching rate, forming temperature, and quenching force that governs the phase transformation of the material, which in turn will decide the components’ strength and hardness. The paper also will investigate the role of part geometry in phase transformation. Optimizing the above mentioned parameters to achieve a minimum manufacturing time per part is one of the objectives of this paper.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0499
Mingde Ding, Jiancai Liu PhD, Jianbo Su Sr, Zhiyuan He Sr, Benhong Tan Sr, Ligang Wang
Recently, for automotive industry, weight reduction is increasingly needed to improve fuel efficiency and to meet emission requirement. Substituting heavy metallic materials with strong and light composites seems to be the most viable choice to achieve vehicle weight reduction. Because of a high level of styling flexibility and simple process, injection molding is the concern of OEMS. However, injection molding part especially for large part would have large deformation. Therefore, the deformation must be controlled within the requirement during development. According with topology optimization result, we get the structure of IP carrier. The result of moldflow analysis showed that the largest deformation in X direction is 19.4mm, in Y direction is 9.5mm, in Z direction is 13.7mm, which were not satisfy the deformation requirement that was the deformation of the core area must be less than 3mm. By structure optimization, the deformation reduction was obviously.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1264
Gregory L. Talbert, Edward John Vinarcik
6061-O temper extruded rod may be used as feed stock in forming processes for automotive pressure vessel applications. Key parameters for forming are the strength and hardness of the material. The purpose of this paper was to reduce variation in hardness to achieve a process capability index of 1.33 or greater. Among the process steps affecting hardness, annealing is the most critical. Initially, the process showed unacceptable hardness variation. Initial anneal recipes called for a 4-hour soak at 775°F. Initial process capability for hardness was a Cpk of 1.12, with tensile strength readings very close to the upper specification limit. Initial temperature uniformity surveys of the anneal oven showed a large variation in temperature distribution, with some areas of the oven staying below 650°F. Initial improvement efforts focused on soak time. While this did greatly improve the material, the improvement did not have enough of an effect on hardness to achieve a good capability.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0396
Guobiao Yang, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Hao Wang, Elizabeth Lekarczyk, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract Vehicle weight reduction is a significant challenge for the modern automotive industry. In recent years, the amount of vehicular components constructed from aluminum alloy has increased due to its light weighting capabilities. Automotive manufacturing processes, predominantly those utilizing various stamping applications, require a thorough understanding of aluminum fracture predictions methods, in order to accurately simulate the process using Finite Element Method (FEM) software or use it in automotive engineering manufacture. This paper presents the strain distribution of A5182 aluminum samples after punch impact under various conditions by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system, its software also measured the complete strain history, in addition to sample curvature after it was impacted; therefore obtaining the data required to determine the amount of side-wall-curl (Aluminum sheet springback) present after formation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1625
Rajeev Kalamdani, Chandra Jalluri, Stephen Hermiller, Robert Clifton
Use of sensors to monitor dynamic performance of machine tools at Ford's powertrain machining plants has proven to be effective. The traditional approach to convert sensor data to actionable intelligence consists of identifying single features from cycle based signatures and setting thresholds above acceptable performance limits based on trials. The thresholds are used to discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable performance during each cycle and raise alarms if necessary. This approach requires a significant amount of resource & time intensive set up work up-front and considerable trial and error adjustments. The current state does not leverage patterns that might be discernible using multiple features simultaneously. This paper describes enhanced methods for processing the data using supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods. The objective of using these methods is to improve the prediction accuracy and reduce up-front set up.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0293
Tina Hull
Advances in technology allow machine safeguarding to shift from a system that completely shuts down the hazardous part of a machine regardless of the action, to one with a controlled response. It can be based on conditions such as the type of task, how it is performed, entry and exit locations, and operator movement within the hazard zone. A variety of options are available using existing principles with enhanced safety features. Component reliability data is used to calculate predicted failure rates. When it is used as part of a preventative maintenance program to replace components before they fail, it becomes a tool to reduce the probability of operators requiring increased future access into the hazard zone. Programming techniques such as function block to monitor component usage can be used to track actual system use and adjust reliability calculations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0290
Veera Aditya Yerra, Srikanth Pilla
The advancements in automation, big data computing and high bandwidth networking has expedited the realization of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). IIoT has made inroads into many sectors including automotive, semiconductors, electronics, etc. Particularly, it has created numerous opportunities in the automotive manufacturing sector to realize the new aura of platform concepts such as smart polylemma of production technologies. The stringent CAFE standards set forth by the Obama administration has pushed the automotive industry to radically revolutionize and design lightweight systems using advanced materials such as composites. Despite several outstanding benefits, advanced materials often come with additional costs. Minimizing physical infrastructure and improving efficiency will make the use of these materials affordable. This paper provides a thought provoking application of IIoT in automotive composites body shop.
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