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2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0483
Ryan R. Vadori, Debbie Mielewski, Amar Mohanty, Manjusri Misra
Ryan Vadori,1,2,3 Alper Kiziltas1, Deborah Mielewski1, Manju Misra2,3, Amar K. Mohanty2,3 1 Materials Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, 2101 Village Road, Dearborn, Michigan 48124 2 College of Physical and Engineering Science, School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 3 Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Recent environmental concerns have caused manufacturers to consider the entire life cycle of their products. Recycling materials from end-of-life products is very beneficial for producers and the environment. It has been found that Nylon 6,6 (PA6,6) can be recycled from different sources such as carpet. At the same time, automotive manufacturers are attempting to use lightweight materials for various applications. This has led to replacement of metallic parts with high performance plastics.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1703
Ryan A. Howell, Richard Gerth
FeMnAl is in a class of steels called Hadfield steel. This paper will present details, including ballistic performance, Johnson Cook coefficients, and other previously published and unpublished data for the specific alloy: Fe-30Mn-9Al-1Si-.9C-.5Mo. This particular alloy exhibits improved performance over Rolled Homogenous Armor (RHA) at equivalent aerial density. It has tunable ductility (>40% ductility) and corrosion resistance similar to 340 stainless steel. Because it has the equivalent volumetric ballistic properties to RHA at a reduced density, it can be introduced into current vehicles for any RHA component without changing part thickness or geometry. This allows current interfaces with other components to be maintained and achieve a 10% weight reduction without any change in ballistic performance. This makes introduction of this material as a weight reduction technology less costly than using a material that requires a different thickness to meet ballistic requirements.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0314
Lu Huang, Ming Shi, Patrick Russell
Fracture strain data provide essential information for material selection and serve as an important failure criterion in the computer simulations of crash events. Traditionally, the fracture strain was measured by evaluating the thinning at fracture using tools such as microscopes or a point micrometer. In the recent decades, digital image correlation (DIC) has evolved as a state-of-the-art optical system to record full-field strain history of materials. Using this method, a complete set of the fracture strains (including major, minor, and thinning strains) can be approximated for the material with the recorded data prior to a visible crack. However, results directly obtained with DIC can be dependent on experimental setup and evaluation parameters, which potentially introduce errors to the reported results.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0487
Daisuke Hyodo, Kiyohiro Suzuki, Toshiyuki Tsutsumi, Kuriyama Hideki
Rubber gaskets, for example O-rings, and rubber valves achieve their sealing performances when compressed rubber material fills in the gap between the gasket and the counter surface and a continuous contact is formed between them. Leaking is likely to occur at low temperature since it is difficult for the rubber gasket to deform along the roughness of counter surface because of decreasing in rubber elasticity. However, sticking to the counter surface prevents the gasket from ease removing from it due to sealing pressure and sealing fluid from leaking through the gap. It is considered that sticking affects sealing property of rubber gaskets at low temperature. Therefore we studied effects of rubber material, roughness of counter surface and temperature sequence on sealing property by measuring sticking force and observing contact area. The sealing property depended on sticking force at low temperature and enhancement of sticking force enabled to seal at higher pressure.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0254
Sudeep Chavare, Kevin Thomson, Nitin Sharma
Adopting parametric approach to optimize CAE models for various objectives is a common practice these days. Connection entities such as welds and adhesive play a very important role in overall performance matrix and hence adding them to the pool of design variables during an optimization exercise provides additional design space. This paper evaluates the possibility to use structural adhesives as patches rather than continuous lines. The method presented in this paper offers unique approach to parameterize adhesive lines. The paper discusses an optimization study with structural adhesives patches along with spot weld pitch as design variables. Body in White (BiW) and Trimmed Body in White (TBiW) models are used for analysis .The goal of the study is to reduce total length of structural adhesive as well as number of welds while maintaining baseline NVH performance as constraints.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0255
Mallikartheek Yalamanchili, Nitin Sharma, Kevin Thomson
The crashworthiness of body-in-white (BIW), plays a very vital role in the full vehicle crash performance. The structural integrity of BIW is controlled via strength of the spot welds and adhesives that are often considered as only entities to hold the parts together. However optimizing the welds and/or adhesives can not only reduce the number of connections but also improve the structural crashworthiness. This paper discusses the optimization of full vehicle structural performance and the length of adhesives in the BIW for the small overlap crash event. The variables included in the study were length of the adhesives and gage variables, defined in the front end structure of the vehicle. A parametric model was created using ANSA and iSight was used to generate design of experiments (DOE). Automated design generation using ANSA followed by automated script based post-processing was done. The optimization was done using metamodel generated for the crash event.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0326
Samuel J. Tomlinson, Martin J D Fisher, Thomas Smith, Kevin Pascal
When sealing an application with a radial O-ring system design there is a balance between O-ring function and ease of assembly. Often times the assembly insertion force rises to the point of unacceptable manufacturing ergonomic practice. Designs are released into production with these high insertion forces while manufacturing operators struggle to assemble parts leaving opportunity for potential operator injury. Several variables impacting O-ring system insertion forces were tested to quantify the effects. Results were analyzed to identify design controls that could be implemented from an early design phase optimizing functionality and ease of assembly.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1705
Hua-Chu Shih, Dajun Zhou, Bruce Konopinski
The hole piercing is a simple but important task in manufacturing processes. The quality requirement of the pierced hole varies between different applications. It can be either the size or the edge quality of the hole. Furthermore, the pierced hole is often subject to a secondary forming process, in which the edge stretchability is of a main concern. The lately developed advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and ultra high strength steels (UHSS) have been widely used for vehicle weight reduction and safety performance improvements. Due to the higher strength nature of these specially developed sheet steels, the hole piercing conditions are more extreme and challenging, and the quality of the pieced hole can be critical due to their relatively lower edge stretching limits than those for the conventional low and medium strength steels. The stretchability of the as-sheared edge inside the hole can be influenced by the material property, die condition and processing parameters.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0283
Mohammad Alam, Navid Nazemi, Syed Saqib, Ruth Jill Urbanic, Afsaneh Edrisy
Laser cladding is a novel process of surface coating, and researchers in both academia and industry are developing additive manufacturing solutions for large, metallic components using this process. There are many interlinked process parameters (e.g. laser power, laser speed and powder feed rate) associated with laser cladding. These process parameters have a direct impact on the resultant bead geometry and the microhardness profile throughout the bead zone, dilution zone and heat affected zone (HAZ). A set of single bead laser cladding experiments were done using a 4 kW fibre laser coupled with a 6-axis robotic arm for 420 martensitic stainless steel. A design of experiments approach was taken to explore a wide range of process parameter settings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0470
Lunyu Zhang, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Xuming Su, Peter Friedman
Structural stress solutions for flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets with and without clearance hole (without and with gap) are investigated. Analytical structural stress solutions at the critical locations of FDS joints based on the analytical solutions for a rigid inclusion in a thin plate under various loading conditions are first obtained. Finite element analyses are then conducted to verify the analytical solutions. The fatigue life estimations of the FDS joints in lap-shear specimens with and without clearance hole (without and with gap) based on the structural stress solutions are in agreement with those of the experimental results.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0475
Catherine Amodeo, Jwo Pan
The mode I and mode II stress intensity factor solutions for the pre-existing cracks near continuous and discontinuous gas metal arc welds in lap-shear specimens are investigated. Two-dimensional, plane strain finite element analyses were carried out in order to obtain the computational stress intensity factor solutions for the idealized and realistic weld geometries as the references. Then the stress intensity factor solutions for continuous and discontinuous welds were obtained by three-dimensional finite element analyses. The computational results indicate that the distributions of the mode I and mode II stress intensity factor solutions for the discontinuous weld are quite different from those for the continuous weld.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0284
Sajjad Raeisi
Additive manufacturing has been a promising technique for producing sophisticated porous structures. The pore's architecture and infill density percentage can be easily controlled through additive manufacturing methods. This paper reports on development of polymer extruded cross sections ad lightweight materials manufactured using additivemanufacturing technology. In this study, three types of crosssections with same 2D porosity are generated by way of particular techniques. a) The regular cross section of hexagonal honeycomb, b) The heterogeneous pore distribution of closed cell aluminum foam cross section obtained from image processing and c) linearly patterned topology optimized 2D unit cell undercompressive loading condition. All the cross sections have the same cavity to matter ratio on their 2D configuration. The samples are extruded to produce 3D CAD model of honeycomb shape porous structure.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0338
Jeong Kyun Hong, Andrew Cox
Even under uniaxial loading, seemingly simple welded joint types can develop multi-axial stress states, which must be considered when evaluating both the fatigue strength and failure location. Two well established examples of this are a hollow tube through a flat plate and a flat plate with an angled attachment plate. The stress distribution at these weld failure locations show significant in-plane shear stress in addition to the usual normal stress. Previously the author noted that when only the normal structural stress is considered for these joints the predictions of both the fatigue failure location and the fatigue life using the master S-N curve approach are inaccurate because the in-plane shear stress plays a significant role in the development of the crack.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0227
Omar Al-Shebeeb, Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan
Process planning, whether generative or variant, can be used effectively as through the incorporation of computer aided tools that enhance the evaluator impact of the dialogue between the design and manufacturing functions. Expert systems and algorithms are inherently incorporated into the software tools used herein. This paper examines the materials related implications that influence design for manufacturing issues. Generative process planning software tools are utilized to analyze the sensitivity of the effectiveness of the process plans with respect to changing attributes of material properties. The shift that occurs with respect to cost and production rates of process plans with respect to variations in specific material properties are explored. The research will be analyzing the effect of changes in material properties with respect to the design of a specific product that is prismatic and is produced exclusively by machining processes.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0478
Pai-Chen Lin, WeiNing Chen
ABSTRACT Fatigue analysis of swept friction stir clinch (Swept-FSC) joints between 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and S45C steel (Fe) sheets was conducted through experimental approaches. Before fatigue tests, the welding tool was first modified to eliminate the hook structure inside the Swept-FSC joint. A parameter study for the indentation depth and re-indentation depth was conducted to obtain appropriate process parameters and improve the mechanical properties of Swept-FSC joints. After the lap-shear (LP) and cross-tension (CT) specimens were made, a series of quasi-static and fatigue tests were conducted. The fatigue data of Swept-FSC joints were recorded. The fatigue behavior of Swept-FSC joints in LP and CT specimens were examined through optical and scanning electron microscopes. Experimental results indicated that LP specimens have three failure modes, while CT specimens have only one failure mode.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0295
Silvio César Bastos
Automotive industries has been seeking quality excellence as a key factor of competitiveness. Product characteristics and functions should meet the expectations of customers in terms of warranty and reliability. The objective of this paper is to present a method to improve the synchronization of customer´s products requirements with their suppliers in terms of key performance indicators. The improvement allows suppliers to take corrective and preventive actions through knowledge of components application in engines and vehicles. Engines assembly lines maintain records and daily meeting to explore trends of productivity and supplier quality performance is measured based on engines failure instead parts supplied. This methodology results integration between Lean Manufacturing and Supplier Quality Engineering and respective targets communizing efforts toward Quality Assurance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0225
Gabriela Guerra, Ulises Figueroa-López PhD, Andrea Guevara-Morales
The rapid growth of the emerging markets has pushed the automotive original equipment manufacturers to relocalize production to reduce manufacturing and logistic costs. To ensure an efficient and flexible supply chain, local suppliers are appointed. However, the characteristics of materials available in each region may have minor differences, and when geometry and process design recommendations that were developed for certain materials are implemented for materials under a different regional standard, different results are obtained. Such is the case of the clutch disc spacer bolt, in which its compression during riveting has a direct effect in the noise and vibration isolation of the vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1706
Sandeep Bhattacharya, Daniel Green, Raj Sohmshetty, Ahmet Alpas
Automobile body panels made from advanced high strength steel (AHSS) provide high strength-to-mass ratio and thus AHSS are important for automotive light-weighting strategy. However, in order to increase their use, the significant wear damage that AHSS sheets cause to the trim dies should be reduced. The wear of dies has undesirable consequences including deterioration of trimmed parts' edges. In this research, die wear measurement techniques that consisted of white-light optical interferometry methods supported by large depth-of-field optical microscopy were developed. 1.4 mm-thick DP980-type AHSS sheets were trimmed using dies made from AISI D2 steel. A clearance of 10% of the thickness of the sheets was maintained between the upper and lower dies. The wear of the upper and lower dies was evaluated and material abrasion and chipping were identified as the main damage features at the trim edges.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1278
Keisuke Isomura
Heretofore, the interest in prevention of global warming is high in the automobile industry. And the development of the green cars (HV, EV etc.) advances rapidly to reduce CO2 (carbon dioxide) discharge when running. In the announcement of "Toyota environmental challenge 2050", we were committed to continuing toward the year 2050 with steady initiatives in order to realize sustainable development together with society. As it is declared here, our responsibilities aren’t only to reduce CO2 discharge when running but to reduce life cycle CO2 discharge and use resources effectively by refusing, reducing, reusing and recycling (4R). Although the green cars decrease CO2 discharge when running, most of those increase CO2 discharge when manufacturing and increase resources risks (price fluctuations, deflection of the resource production, depletion etc.). For example, the driving motor uses the magnet including rare-earths (Nd, Dy etc.).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1267
Zeyao Chen, Zhe Wang, Xian Wu
In this paper, a new type of negative Poisson's ratio lattice material is constructed. By using the theoretical method, the relative density and effective elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of the material are firstly analyzed. Then, the compression mechanical properties of the negative Poisson's ratio lattice materials are studied by using the finite element software LS-Dyna, which include the quasi-static compression property and the dynamic impact characteristics. For the quasi-static compression analysis, the results show that the material had a wide range of stress plateau area, the lower first peak stress, a enhanced plateau stress and a wide range of the high ideal energy absorption efficiency. Therefore, the material has the excellent impact energy absorption properties. For the dynamic impact characteristics analysis, the material shows insensitivity to impact velocity and the stable property under different impact energy levels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0310
Wei Wu, Dajun Zhou, Donald Adamski, Darryl Young, Yu-Wei Wang
The die wear properties were investigated in real production condition using a prog-die with up to 70,000 hits using DP1180 steel. In total, 14 die inserts with the combination of 6 die materials and 5 coating methods of surface treatment were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the surface condition of formed (flanged) part. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert after 70,000 hits were characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in successful stamping production using next generation AHSSs. Keywords: Die wear; Roughness; AHSS; Stamping, Die Surface Treatment, Die Steel
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0468
Raj S. Roychoudhury
Plastic hollow articles are used in automotive applications such as high pressure fluid bottles, active globe box knee airbags, etc. Welding of plastic hollow articles to create a pressure vessel is a challenge. The weakest points are usually the weld seam where the part tends to separate under internal pressure. The reason for the weakness is that the weld is configured as an L-shaped joint and the loading is in peel. The L-shaped weld joint is the result of the injection molding limitations such as die lock and also the welding process adopted with its perceived design limitations. A new weld design to form plastic hollow articles is conceived. Its design is T-shaped such that the joint loading under pressure is no longer in peel but in tension, vertically to the weld surface. This weld design can be easily achieved, overcoming the limitation of die lock in injection molding and by the hot plate weld design adopted for this welding.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0476
Seiji Furusako, Masatoshi Tokunaga, Masanori Yasuyama
In order to reduce the weight of automobile body, application of high strength steel sheets is expanding. And also a middle and high carbon steel is expected to be used to lower the environmental impact and cost in the field of automobile steel sheet. However, it is necesarry for its realization to enhance the joint strengh of the steel sheets. In this study, hat-shape components were made by resistance spot welding or arc-spot welding using S45C steel sheet of 1.4mm in thick with strength of 1200MPa grade . Then dynamice three-point bending test was carried out on the components and crashworthiness of them was compared. Absorbed energy of the arc-spot welded component was higher than that of the resistance spot-welded one by 30%. Some spot welds fractured (separated) during the three-point bending test but arc-spot welds did NOT fractured. Arc-spot welding is therefore seemed to be effective to improve strength and toughness of weld for a middle and high carbon steel sheet.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0536
William Goodwin, Claudio Mancuso, Nicolas Brown
The development of automotive embedded software and calibrations presently involves an expensive development cycle in terms of both time and cost. A primary reason is the associated expense and time require to apply the various technologies needed for software testing and calibration development. Early in the design cycle software-in-the-loop (SIL) and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) systems are typically employed. Later stages use costly engine and vehicle hardware as part of the software test and calibration development process. During this phase propulsions systems may initially utilize dynamometers and eventually migrate to vehicle level testing. All these technologies contribute to large budgets and design times required for embedded software and calibration development.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0625
Yen-Chung Liu, Brian Sangeorzan, Alex Alkidas
The purpose of this research was to measure and correlate the area-average heat transfer coefficients for free, circular upward-impinging oil-jets onto two automotive pistons having different undercrown shapes and different diameters. For the piston heat transfer studies, two empirical area-average Nusselt number correlations were developed. One was based on the whole piston undercrown surface area with the Nusselt number based on the nozzle diameter, and the other was based on the oil-jet impingement area with the Nusselt number based on the oil-jet effective impingement diameter. The correlations can predict the 95% and 94% of the experimental measurements within 30% error, respectively. The first correlation is simpler to use and can be employed for cases in which the oil jet wets the whole piston undercrown. The latter may be more useful for larger pistons or higher Prandtl number conditions in which the oil jet wets only a portion of the undercrown.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0472
Gyoko Oh
To prevent the corrosion of the inlet part with aqueous ammonia injection, high chromium corrosion-resistant materials have been applied for the welded joints. The bending fatigue strengths of the flange-pipe welded joint samples were defined by the fatigue experiments,  modeling that high fluctuating stresses exist in the inlet and outlet flange-pipes of the muffler caused by the vibration of a moving vehicle. The factors that caused the fatigue to failure such as the welding bead shape and metallographic structure have been identified by the local stress measurement, FEM stress simulation, microscopic observation, and SEM-EDS composition analysis. By comparing the sample A having a smaller flank angle with the sample B having a larger flank angle, the result suggested that the difference of the bending fatigue strengths at 2x105 cycles was 24% when based on the nominal stress, and the difference was 10% when based on measured maximum stress.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1277
Jakobus Groenewald, Thomas Grandjean, James Marco, Widanalage Widanage
Circular economy principles are becoming increasingly important to ensure sustainable growth of Electric Vehicle (EV) uptake predicated to be up to 15% of new vehicle sales by 2025 in the EU alone. In order to extend retention of key resources within the supply chain and extract maximum value from them, the battery’s End-of-Life (EoL) performance evaluation requires careful consideration. International standards and best-practice guides exist, which address the performance evaluation of both EV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle battery systems. However, a common theme is that the test duration can be excessively time consuming. The aim of this paper is to present a novel accelerated test strategy by increasing the charge/discharge rates and reducing wait times between charge/discharge events for energy capacity and impedance measurement of Li-ion traction battery modules currently available on the market.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0306
Brandon M. Hance
Until now the hole expansion ratio has been generally regarded as a relative “local formability” parameter with limited application to edge-cracking analysis and prediction. In this study a constrained statistical hole expansion test data analysis methodology is introduced, where the lower-bound hole expansion ratio is the basis for three practical edge-cracking failure criteria. The Maximum Edge Stretch Criterion is directly compatible with CAE simulation. The Edge Thinning Limit Criterion and the Critical Thickness Criterion are more useful in field work and post mortem laboratory failure analysis. Several case studies are described, where hole expansion test data are used to analyze edge cracking of Advanced High Strength Steels in real-world applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0467
Wei Yuan, Brian Jordon, Bita Ghaffari, Harish Rao, Shengyi Li, Min Fan
Lightweight metals such as Al and Mg alloys have been increasingly used for both structural and non-structural applications in transportation industries for reducing mass. Joining these lightweight materials using traditional fusion welding is a critical challenge for achieving optimum part performance, due to degradation of the constituent materials properties. Friction stir welding (FSW), a solid-state joining technique, has emerged as a promising technique by demonstrating great versatility to adopt these lightweight materials. High joining efficiency has been achieved for FSW of various Al alloys and Mg alloys separately. Recent work on FSW of various dissimilar lightweight materials also show promising results based on quasi-static shear performance. To bring friction stir welding of dissimilar alloys to automotive applications, satisfactory performance under complex loading is essential.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1225
Martin Hosek, Jayaraman Krishnasamy
An advanced electric motor with hybrid-field topology has been developed for automotive traction applications. Departing from the conventional radial- and axial-field designs, the hybrid-field motor features three-dimensional magnetic flux paths in a geometry that maximizes the effective volume for magnetic flux flow. The three-dimensional flux paths are enabled by an isotropic soft magnetic material, which has been engineered to replace conventional laminated winding cores with solid isotropic components. The material is produced by a novel additive-manufacturing process based on spray forming. The paper introduces the spray-forming process for motor stator components and presents a conceptual design of the traction motor developed around them, including the motor topology, stator construction and rotor construction. The stator features a spray-formed core with three-dimensional magnetic flux paths, high-density windings and direct liquid cooling.
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