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2014-05-14
WIP Standard
G14AB
This specification covers an EBSM melted titanium alloy in the form of sheet, and strip, ~0.005 inch (0.127 mm) through 0.156 inches (3.96 mm), inclusive, in nominal thickness.
2014-05-14
Standard
AMS6490H
This specification covers a premium aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.
2014-05-13
Article
Balluff’s BVS universal vision sensor offers 360° part position detection, defect finding, contour-based counting and matching, barcode reading (linear and 2-D DM), and optical character verification (OCV).
2014-05-09
Article
BMW is doubling down on its commitment to carbon fiber with major capacity increases at the plant that makes the material for its new i brand of lightweight electrified vehicles. The plant (located in Moses Lake, WA, and owned by a joint venture between BMW and SGL Group called SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers) currently operates two production lines, exclusively for BMW i, with annual output of about 3000 ton (2721 t).
2014-05-07
Standard
J3020_201405
This SAE Standard and its supplementary detail specifications cover the engineering requirements for the controlled shot peening of a medical device where shot peening is required for enhancement of a material's mechanical properties through the intentional creation of compressive residual stress.
2014-05-07
Standard
J2754_201405
This standard specifies a procedure for approximating the volume of materials contained in the grapple of bucket linkage operated grapples mounted to excavators. The volume ratings are based on the inside dimensions of the grapple and representative volumes extending beyond the grapple. The method employs the technique of dividing the complex shape of the material in the grapple into simple geometric forms to allow volume calculations of different grapple configurations. The rating method is intended to provide a consistent means of comparing grapple capacities. It is not intended to define actual capacities that might be observed in any specific application.
2014-05-07
Standard
J1702_201405
This SAE Standard establishes a method of disclosing the sweep-ability performance of self-propelled sweepers that use broom means for sweeping and collection, together with either a mechanical- or pneumatic-conveyance system for the transfer of “sweepings” into a collection hopper.
2014-05-07
Technical Paper
2014-36-0031
Timo Björk, Ilkka Valkonen, Jukka Kömi, Hannu Indren
Abstract The development of weldable high-strength and wear-resistant steels have made modern structures such as booms and mobile equipment possible. These sorts of novel and effective designs could not be constructed with traditional mild steel. Unfortunately, the use of these novel steels requires proper design, and there is no practical design code for these novel steels. This paper addresses stability issues, which are important considerations for designs with high-strength steels, and the properties of the heat-affected zone, which may require special attention. Fatigue design is also discussed in this paper, and the importance of the weld quality is highlighted, along with discussions on which details in the weld are the most important. By comparing the test results with the classical load limit solution, it is determined that full plastic capacity is reached and that the samples display good strain properties. Additionally, the reliability of the classical formulas is shown by comparing them to a recently proposed, novel formula.
2014-05-07
Standard
J429_201405
This SAE Standard covers the mechanical and material requirements for inch-series steel bolts, screws, studs, screws for sems , and U-bolts in sizes to 1-1/2 in. inclusive. The term “stud” as referred to herein applies to a cylindrical rod of moderate length threaded on either one or both ends or throughout its entire length. It does not apply to headed, collared, or similar products which are more closely characterized by requirements shown herein for bolts. The mechanical properties included in Table 1 were compiled at an ambient temperature of approximately 20 °C (68 °F). These properties are valid within a temperature range which depends upon the material grade used and thermal and mechanical processing. Other properties such as fatigue behavior, corrosion resistance, impact properties, etc., are beyond the scope of this document and responsibility for ensuring the acceptability of the product for applications where conditions warrant consideration of these other properties shall be borne by the end user.
2014-05-06
WIP Standard
AMS2406N
This specification covers the requirements for electrodeposited hard chromium plate.
2014-05-05
Standard
AMS5940D
This specification covers a cobalt-nickel-iron alloy in the form of bars, forgings, flash welded rings, and stock for forging, flash welded rings, or heading.
2014-05-05
Standard
AMS4477
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of coiled sheet supplied in the –T4 temper.
2014-05-05
Standard
AMS2770L
This specification specifies the engineering requirements for heat treatment, by part fabricators (users) or their vendors or subcontractors, of parts (See 8.8.1). It also covers heat treatment by warehouses or distributors converting raw material from one temper to another temper (See 1.3 and 8.5). It covers the following aluminum alloys: 1100, 2004, 2014, 2017, 2024, 2098, 2117, 2124, 2219, 2224, 3003, 5052, 6013, 6061, 6063, 6066, 6951, 7049, 7050, 7075, 7149, 7178, 7249, 7475
2014-04-30
Standard
AMS6945B
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of sheet, strip, and plate. These products have been used typically for parts requiring strength up to 750 °F (400 °C), but usage is not limited to such applications.
2014-04-30
Standard
AMS6946C
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of sheet, strip, and plate.
2014-04-30
WIP Standard
AIR5479B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the performance of platings and coatings for landing gear that potentially provide environmental compliance benefits versus the current baseline processes. The hazardous systems addressed in this version of the document include cadmium plating, chromated primers, and high VOC (volatile organic compounds) topcoats. Available data are presented for various standard tests in order to compare the replacement candidates. Conclusions are made as to the best performer(s) for each test section presented. These conclusions are not to be regarded as recommendations for or against any of the candidates. The AIR applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms for all types of civil and military aircraft. The potential replacements apply to both original equipment manufacturer (OEM) hardware and overhaul of in-service landing gears.
2014-04-30
Standard
AMS5390G
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of investment castings.
2014-04-29
Standard
AMS5388K
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of investment castings.
2014-04-29
Standard
AMS5391H
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of investment castings.
2014-04-29
Standard
AMS5396F
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of investment castings.
2014-04-29
Standard
AMS5755G
This specification covers a corrosion and heat-resistant nickel alloy in the form of bars, forgings, flash welded rings, and stock for forging or flash welded rings.
2014-04-29
Standard
ARP1967B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) recommends design and test criteria for reusable shipping and storage containers for aircraft engines and modules, weapon systems and components, etc. The containers are to provide water-vaporproof and physical protection.
2014-04-28
Article
ATK reached agreement on a $178 million contract award as part of the U.S. Air Force's Phase 1 Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) buy from United Launch Alliance (ULA). The order value includes hardware for both of the cur-rent Air Force EELV launch vehicles, the Atlas V and Delta IV.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0041
A. R. Kumbhar, S. A. Kulkarni, J. M. Paranjpe, N. V. Karanth
Abstract New process development of forging component require lot of process knowledge and experience. Even lots of trial-and-error methods need to be used to arrive at optimum process and initial billet dimensions. But with help of reliable computer simulation tools, now it is possible to optimize the complete process and billet dimensions without a single forging trial. This saves lot of time, energy and money. Additionally, simulation gives much more insight about the process and possible forging defects. In this paper, a complete forging process was needed to be designed for a complex component. With the help of computer simulation, the complete conventional forging process and modified forging process were simulated and optimized. Forging defects were removed during optimization of the process. Also billet weight optimization was carried out. Deciding the pre-forming shape of the billet was the main challenge. With use of computer simulation, an innovative pre-forming shape was arrived resulting in reducing billet input weight.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0040
Vinand V. Arabale
Abstract Superplastic forming is a process designed for sheet material allowing elongation of several hundred percent. In superplastic forming process material is formed at particular strain rate at particular temperature with the application of pressure. The target strain rate is maintained by the varying the pressure during the forming process. The most challenging part of superplastic forming is the prediction of range of variation of pressure to maintain the target strain rate. Though several analytical models, such as Dutta equation, for predicting the pressure are available, FEA simulation with the help of MSC Marc offers great advantage of predicting the pressure accurately. FEA simulation study also helps in predicting the thinning that occurs during forming. One can also study the effect of friction on the thinning characteristics. The present paper discusses FEA simulation results of superplastic forming of Aluminium alloy. The FEA results are used for predicting the range of variation of pressure required to maintain the target strain rate during superplastic forming.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0030
Sagar Bajaj, Deepak Wakode, Gopal Musale
Abstract In an era of exceptional digital computation and immense indulgence in the theoretical behavior of sheet metal during its manufacturing process, the simulation of sheet metal forming becomes the most feasible and viable option for every OEM to consider this prior to its manufacturing. This paper contains a methodology for using an optimizing tool like Hyper Study to get the best formed part by incorporating forming benchmarked parameters like FLD (forming limit diagram), percentage thinning and plastic strains as responses by building up expressions among various variables and thus optimizing the forming process parameters like blank holding pressure, sliding friction, and Draw bead restraining force effectively to meet the formability requirements. This would reduce the time and effort of a forming engineer to reiterate among these parameters to get the desired result effortlessly.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0027
Pradip K Patra, Srimanta Sam, Mrigandra Singhai, Neel Kant
Abstract Automobile manufacturers have started using ultra high strength steel (UHSS) in lower thicknness to reduce the weight of their car and improved passenger safety. As a result steel manufacturers are facing continuous challenges to develop Ultra high strength steels (UHSS) in lower thicknesses with suitable formability. In line with this, Indian steel manufacturers has also started developing different UHSS which includes hot rolled DP540/DP590/DP780/SPF590 etc. for automotive wheel rim applcation and S500MC/S650MC for automotive log and cross member application. ALM650 is one such UHSS grade recently developed whose yield strength (YS) requirement is >650 MPa, tensile strength (UTS) requirement is >700 MPa and total elongation >14%. This newly developed UHSS, conforms to the specification of S650MC as per EN-10149-2. Chemistry and rolling parameters were designed taking into consideration of mechanical properties requirement including fatigue strength, suitable microstructure to achieve this combination of properties as well as the CSP process characteristics.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0024
Swapnil Pawar, Sandip Patil, Suhas Joshi, Rajkumar Singh
Abstract Tapping is an important process in assembly of aircraft structures because on an average one millions of tapped holes are made on an aircraft structure. However, sudden breakage of the tap is the most undesirable event frequently encountered during the tapping process. In particular, this can mostly occur when small diameter internal threads are made in a ‘difficult-to-cut’ material like titanium. For this reason, it has been a topic of industrial interest in the manufacturing sector for many years. The ultrasonic vibrations assisted tapping (UVAT) is a novel manufacturing technology, where ultrasonic vibrations are provided to the work piece in the axial direction. The present work is a comprehensive study involving experimental characterization. The experimentation shows that UVAT reduces the torque during tapping as compared to that of in conventional process. There is a 19.1% reduction in torque and about 20.3% reduction in cutting temperature in UVAT over that of in CT. The experimental analysis of UVAT process also shows that the superior surface and better machinability in UVAT over that of in CT.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0039
Christiane Fourment, Julien Barlier, Mickael Barbelet, Patrice Lasne, David Cardinaux
Abstract Virtual forming tools based on Finite Element simulation are routinely used in order to improve process design and to reduce time to market. However, with the growing requirements with regards to in-use properties of forged components, not only the forming processes must be simulated but the entire process chain, including the heat treatment processes that are carried out to improve the mechanical properties of the final part. In order to meet these needs, new heat treatment features have been introduced into the commercial code FORGE®. This paper presents an application of induction hardening to an industrial component. This application demonstrates the strategic capabilities of FORGE® commercial software to achieve production challenges.
2014-04-28
Technical Paper
2014-28-0033
N. P. Gurao
Abstract Formability of metals and alloys in general and aluminium alloys and steels in particular is of paramount importance in sheet metal forming in automobile industry. It is well understood that the evolution of preferred crystallographic orientation of crystallites or texture during prior thermo-mechanical processing of sheets plays an important role in determining formability. The formability of sheet is measured in terms of the Lankford parameter or the plastic strain ratio which is defined as the ratio of strain in width direction to that in the thickness direction (R = εw/εt). The variation of Lankford parameter with the rolling direction and standard and ΔR value is widely used in industry as a standard for estimating the formability of the rolled sheets. In the present investigation, we have used the viscoplastic self-consistent simulations to theoretically calculate the variation of the Lankford parameter with rolling direction for different crystallographic texture in model face centre cubic and body centre cubic material.
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