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Viewing 271 to 300 of 19849
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2234
Nelson W. Sorbo, Jason J. Dionne
Abstract The use of composite materials and composite stackups (CO-Ti or CO-Al) in aerospace and automotive applications has been and will continue to grow at a very high rate due to the high strength and low weight of the materials. One key problem manufacturers have using this material is the ability to efficiently drill holes through the layers to install fasteners and other components. This is especially true in stackups of CFRP and titanium due to the desire of drilling dry for the CFRP layer and the need for cooling when drilling the high strength Ti layer. By using CO2 through tool cooling, it is possible to protect both layers. Through work supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE) it is shown that CO2 through tool cooling productivity can be significantly increased while maintaining required hole tolerances in both the composite and Ti layers.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2250
Nicholas Lum, Qun Luo
Abstract Electroimpact has designed and manufactured a flexible tooling system for the E7000-ARJ horizontal panel riveter. This tooling design accommodates panel sizes from 3.5m to 10m long, with a variety of straight and tapered curvatures. The tooling is re-configured manually and utilizes removable index plates that can be adapted to accommodate new panel types. This type of tooling is ideal for value-conscious applications where a single machine must process a large range of panel styles. Electroimpact is currently using this system to tool 17 different styles of pre-tacked panels on a single E7000-ARJ machine. This flexible system does not require large removable form boards or custom frames that index one type of panel. Instead it uses 4 form boards that are permanently mounted to the picture frame by linear rails, allowing them to index anywhere along the 10m working envelope.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2252
Lucas Irving, Svetan Ratchev, Atanas Popov, Marcus Rafla
Abstract The replacement for the current single-aisle aircraft will need to be manufactured at a rate significantly higher that of current production. One way that production rate can be increased is by reducing the processing time for assembly operations. This paper presents research that was applied to the build philosophy of the leading edge of a laminar flow European wing demonstrator. The paper describes the implementation of determinate assembly for the rib to bracket assembly interface. By optimising the diametric and the positional tolerances of the holes on the two bracket types and ribs, determinate assembly was successfully implemented. The bracket to rib interface is now secured with no tooling or post processes other than inserting and tightening the fastener. This will reduce the tooling costs and eliminates the need for local drilling, de-burring and re-assembly of the bracket to rib interface, reducing the cycle time of the operation.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2248
Santiago Droll
In contemporary industries the demand for very accurate robots is continuously growing. Yet, robot vendors are limited in the achievable accuracy of their robots, as they have no means to provide a direct end-effector feedback. Therefore, most approaches aim to identify an accurate model of the robotic system, thus providing compensation factors to correct the deflections. Models, however, are unable to represent the real physical system in a sufficient manner for path correction. The non-linearities in robotic systems are difficult to model and the dynamics cannot be neglected. A better approach is, therefore, to use direct end-effector position and orientation feedback from an external sensor as, e.g. a Leica laser tracker. The measured data can directly be compared to the nominal data from the path interpolator. Hence, the data are independent of the kinematic robot model.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2249
Thomas G. Jefferson, Svetan Ratchev, Richard Crossley
Abstract Aerospace assembly systems comprise a vast array of interrelated elements interacting in a myriad of ways. Consequently, aerospace assembly system design is a deeply complex process that requires a multi-disciplined team of engineers. Recent trends to improve manufacturing agility suggest reconfigurability as a solution to the increasing demand for improved flexibility, time-to-market and overall reduction in non-recurring costs. Yet, adding reconfigurability to assembly systems further increases operational complexity and design complexity. Despite the increase in complexity for reconfigurable assembly, few formal methodologies or frameworks exist specifically to support the design of Reconfigurable Assembly Systems (RAS). This paper presents a novel reconfigurable assembly system design framework (RASDF) that can be applied to wing structure assembly as well as many other RAS design problems.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2257
Roger Holden, Paul Lightowler, Simon Andreou
Abstract The 30 month COMET project aims to overcome the challenges facing European manufacturing industries by developing innovative machining systems that are flexible, reliable and predictable with an average of 30% cost efficiency savings in comparison to machine tools. From a conceptual point of view, industrial robot technology could provide an excellent base for machining being both flexible and cost efficient. However, industrial robots lack absolute positioning accuracy, are unable to reject disturbances in terms of process forces and lack reliable programming and simulation tools to ensure right first time machining, once production commences. These three critical limitations currently prevent the use of robots in typical machining applications. The COMET project is co-funded by the European Commission as part of the European Economic Recovery Plan (EERP) adopted in 2008.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2256
Roger Holden, Paul Lightowler, Simon Andreou
Abstract The 30 month COMET project aims to overcome the challenges facing European manufacturing industries by developing innovative machining systems that are flexible, reliable and predictable with an average of 30% cost efficiency savings in comparison to machine tools. From a conceptual point of view, industrial robot technology could provide an excellent base for machining being both flexible and cost efficient. However, industrial robots lack absolute positioning accuracy, are unable to reject disturbances in terms of process forces and lack reliable programming and simulation tools to ensure right first time machining, once production commences. These three critical limitations currently prevent the use of robots in typical machining applications. The COMET project is co-funded by the European Commission as part of the European Economic Recovery Plan (EERP) adopted in 2008.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2255
Joseph R. Malcomb
Abstract Automated countersink measurement methods which require contact with the workpiece are susceptible to a loss of accuracy due to cutting debris and lube build-up. This paper demonstrates a non-contact method for countersink diameter measurement on CFRP which eliminates the need for periodic cleaning. Holes are scanned in process using a laser profilometer. Coordinates for points along the countersink edge are processed with a unique filtering algorithm providing a highly repeatable estimate for major and minor diameter.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2274
Riley HansonSmith, Alan Merkley
Abstract The Boeing Company is striving to improve quality and reduce defects and injuries through the implementation of lightweight “Right Sized” automated drill and fasten equipment. This has lead to the factory adopting Boeing developed and supplier built flex track drill and countersink machines for drilling fuselage circumferential joins, wing panel to spar and wing splice stringers. The natural evolution of this technology is the addition of fastener installation to enable One Up Assembly. The critical component of One Up Assembly is keeping the joint squeezed tightly together to prevent burrs and debris at the interface. Traditionally this is done by two-sided machines providing concentric clamp up around the hole while it is being drilled. It was proposed that for stiff structure, the joint could be held together by beginning adjacent to a tack fastener, and assemble the joint sequentially using the adjacent hole clamp up from the previous hole to keep the joint clamped up.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2273
James Cunov, Charles J. Habermann
Abstract The ever increasing use of composites for aircraft components presents opportunities for new ways to process these parts. There are myriad benefits for use of composites in achieving aircraft performance goals. However, composites come with unique challenges as well. Some of these challenges impact the ability to produce accurate parts. Traditionally, such parts have been trimmed only while clamped in dedicated rigid tools that secure the part in the nominal shape. This results in significant investment in tooling design, production, maintenance, storage and, handling. As an alternative, PaR has developed its Adaptive Manufacturing System that incorporates a Robotic Fixture and Precision Motion Machine with an Integrated Process Head. The Robotic Fixture allows the entire family of parts to be managed with one fixture that remains within the machine footprint.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2265
Lutz Neugebauer
The demand of fulfilling increasing Prime Customer requirements forces Tier 1 suppliers to continually improve their system solutions. Typically, this will involve integration of “state of the art” tools to afford the Tier 1 supplier a throughput and cost advantage. The subject “Production Optimization Approach” addresses the machine and process optimization of automated fastening machines in operation at customer factories. The paper will describe and focus on the main aspects of production optimization of existing machines to meet and exceed the required customer production and reporting criteria. Furthermore, the paper will present existing examples based on use of the established diagnostic tools
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2270
Jason Rediger, Joseph Malcomb, Craig Sylvester
Abstract A new portable floor drilling machine, the 767AFDE, has been designed with a focus on increased reach and speed, ease-of-use, and minimal weight. A 13-foot wide drilling span allows consolidation of 767 section 45 floor drilling into a single swath. A custom CNC interface simplifies machine operations and troubleshooting. Four servo-driven, air-cooled spindles allow high rate drilling through titanium and aluminum. An aluminum space frame optimized for high stiffness/weight ratio allows high speed operation while minimizing aircraft floor deflection. Bridge track tooling interfaces between the machine and the aircraft grid. A vacuum system, offline calibration plate, and transportation dolly complete the cell.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2267
George Nicholas Bullen
Abstract Rapid advances in cloud-based computing, robotics and smart sensors, multi-modal modeling and simulation, and advanced production are transforming modern manufacturing. The shift toward smaller runs on custom-designed products favors agile and adaptable workplaces that can compete in the global economy. This paper and presentation will describe the advances in Digital Manufacturing that provides the backbone to tighten integration and interoperability of design methods interlinked with advanced manufacturing technologies and agile business practices. The digital tapestry that seamlessly connects computer design tools, modeling and simulation, intelligent machines and sensors, additive manufacturing, manufacturing methods, and post-delivery services to shorten the time and cost between idea generation and first successful product-in-hand will be illustrated.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2253
Ralf Schomaker, Richard Pedwell, Björn Knickrehm
Abstract As a result of the increasing use of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) components in a modern commercial aircraft, manufacturers are facing new challenges - especially with regards to the realisation of significant build rates. One challenge is the larger variation of the thickness of FRP components compared with metal parts that can normally be manufactured within a very narrow thickness tolerance bandwidth. The larger thickness variation of composite structures has an impact on the shape of the component and especially on the surfaces intended to be joined together with other components. As a result, gaps between the components to be assembled could be encountered. However, from a structural point of view, gaps can only be accepted to a certain extent in order to maintain the structural integrity of the joint. Today's state of the art technologies to close gaps between FRP structures comprise shimming methods using liquid and solid shims.
2014-09-16
Journal Article
2014-01-2272
Todd Rudberg, Justin Nielson, Mike Henscheid, Joshua Cemenska
Abstract The Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) machine layup run time in large scale AFP layup cells consumes approximately 30% of the entire part build time. Consequentially, further reductions to the run time of the AFP machine part programs result in small improvements to the overall cycle time. This document discusses how Electroimpact's integrated system and cell design reduces the overall cycle time by reducing the time spent on non-machine processes.
2014-09-12
Article
High-performance metamaterial antennas could be compact, lightweight, conformable, and stealthy.
2014-09-11
Standard
AMS4351
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of plate products from from 1.000 to 6.000 inches (152.40 mm) in thickness. 7065-T7651 may be used in aerospace applications requiring high strength and good fracture toughness, good resistance to stress-corrosion cracking and to exfoliation corrosion, but usage is not limited to such applications.
2014-09-11
Standard
AMS4361
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of plate. This specification covers plate from 1.000 to 6.000 inches (25.40 to 152.40 mm) in thickness.
2014-09-11
Standard
AS4228C
Scope is unavailable.
2014-09-09
Standard
J176_201409
This SAE Standard applies to off-road self-propelled work machines as categorized in SAE J1116. Fast fill fueling typically applies to self-propelled machines with a fuel capacity over 380 L, although fast fill fueling can be used on machines with smaller fuel capacity.
2014-09-09
WIP Standard
J78
This SAE Standard covers the dimensional and general specifications, including performance requirements, for carbon steel self-drilling tapping screws suitable for use in general applications. It is the objective of this document to insure that carbon steel self-drilling tapping screws, by meeting the mechanical and performance requirements specified, shall drill a hole and form or cut mating threads in materials into which they are driven without deforming their own thread and without breaking during assembly. Appendix A is included to provide a recommended technique for measuring the case depth on the screws.
2014-09-09
WIP Standard
ARP1917B
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) clarifies terms used in Aerospace materials and process specifications. The terms clarified in this ARP are not intended to supersede those terms for which clarification is already provided in existing specifications.
2014-09-08
Article
The Walmart Advanced Vehicle Experience is a prototype tractor-trailer developed to demonstrate the possibilities of future transport, and the truck is not the only place where innovation reigns. The trailer body is built almost exclusively with carbon fiber, and it incorporates other technologies such as advanced adhesives and low-profile LED lighting.
2014-09-05
Article
Days before Tesla on Sept. 4 announced it has selected Nevada as the state in which it will build a large "Gigafactory' battery plant, Lux Research opined that the savings in lithium-ion battery costs owing to high-volume efficiencies will not be as much as the automaker expects it to be.
2014-09-05
Standard
AMS3217/7A
This specification covers a high strength fluorosilicone (FVMQ) rubber stock in the form of molded test slabs.
2014-09-05
Standard
AS291F
This standard provides a method of applying surface roughness, waviness and lay control. The data included herein also covers the method of applying surface roughness symbols and related designations to drawings and specifications of parts when applicable. This standard is based on the Arithmetical Average (AA) method of instrumentation. Data compiled are based on current manufacturing practices. It also includes a summary of data published in the latest issue of the American Standards Association publication ASA B46.1.
2014-09-03
WIP Standard
AMEC14AC
This appendix establishes the procedures, guidelines and requirements for qualification and quenching of parts produced from the alloys listed in AMS2759/2, Table 2 using inert pressure gas in vacuum furnaces.
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