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2015-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9083
Salah A. Elmoselhy
In order to strike a balance between cost and availability, the present study presents the strategic implementation of the hybrid lean-agile manufacturing system. The proposed implementation is based on literature review and statistical analysis. The study presents short term and long term proposed plans for implementing this newly developed system in a sustainable way. It shows how the strategic facet of the hybrid lean-agile manufacturing system addresses the key manufacturing competitive dimensions. The paper presents as well a cost-benefit analysis in comparison with the lean manufacturing system and agile manufacturing system based on the net present value. The study shows that the expectedly most efficient among the manufacturing systems is the Hybrid Lean-Agile Manufacturing System with normalized comparative improvement of about 58% and 42%, respectively.
2015-05-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9082
Branislav Sredanovic, Djordje Cica
Abstract The most efficient way to reduce friction and heat generation at the cutting zone is to use advanced cooling and lubricating techniques. In this paper, an experimental study was performed to investigate the capabilities of conventional, minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) and high pressure cooling (HPC) in the turning operations. Process parameters (feed, cutting speed and depth of cut) are used as inputs to the developed artificial neural network (ANN) and the adaptive networks based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) model for prediction of cutting forces, tool life and surface roughness. Results obtained by the models have been compared for their prediction capability with the experimentally determined values and very good agreement with experimental results was observed.
2015-04-17
Article
Delcam will launch in May the 2015 R2 version of its PowerSHAPE Pro software, which includes new options for reverse engineering as well as improvements to speed up and simplify the editing of product designs to make them more suitable for manufacture.
2015-04-16
Article
mycon developed a new coating system that is suitable for coating and painting longer parts, e.g., wires, belts, tubes, rods, and profiles.
2015-04-16
WIP Standard
AMS6440S
This specification covers a low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.
2015-04-16
WIP Standard
AMS6444M
This specification covers a premium aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.
2015-04-16
WIP Standard
AMS6479D
This specification covers a special aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock.
2015-04-15
WIP Standard
AMS2451/9C
This specification covers the requirements for brush plating of zinc-nickel by electrodeposition.
2015-04-15
Standard
AIR5367
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information related to machining of composite materials, components and structures. This document is intended to supplement the machining processes and guidelines provided in OEM repair manuals and structural repair manuals. It is not intended to supersede the approved data provided in OEM repair documents.
2015-04-15
Book
“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Just how prevalent is the problem of counterfeit electronic parts? What are the consequences of using sub-par components in safety or mission critical systems? The Federal Aviation Administration estimates that 2% of the 26 million airline parts installed each year are counterfeit, accounting for more than 520,000 units, maybe more.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1371
Samuel T. Bartlett
Abstract With the many model variations produced on the same production line because of increasing power train options, fuel efficiency targets, performance and customer demands we saw limitations with our existing suspension mount equipment. Layout options were limited due to guided shifts and transfers. Large supporting frame work took up valuable floor space. Model wheelbase sizes and suspension pallets were limited to the model requirements of the original equipment. We needed an adaptable system to install the engine/front suspension assemblies and the rear suspension assemblies. We found a solution by utilizing the capabilities of 6-axis industrial robots to make the core components of the equipment simpler; many of the functions of a traditional machine can now be accomplished by the robot. We were able to vary install position to optimize handling characteristics and accommodate the model-to-model varieties on the same production line.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0435
S. Khodaygan, M. Hafezipour
Abstract Kinematic accuracy of the robot end-effector is decreased by many uncertainties. In order to design and manufacture robots with high accuracy, it is essential to know the effects of these uncertainties on the motion of robots. Uncertainty analysis is a useful method which can estimate deviations from desired path in robots caused by uncertainties. This paper presents an applied formulation based on Direct Linearization Method (DLM), for 3D statistical uncertainty analysis of open- loop mechanisms and robots. The maximum normal and parallel components of the position error on the end-effector path are introduced. In this paper, uncertainty effects of both linear and angular variations in performance of spatial open-loop mechanisms and robots are considered.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0459
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Hesham Ezzat, Anil Sachdev, James Quinn, Ronald Krupitzer, Xin Sun
Abstract This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0475
Truong Nguyen, John Bell
Abstract Modern automotive electrical and electronic architecture is comprised of the battery and charging system, power distribution boxes, electronic control units, electrical devices, grounds, and the means of connecting all of these together - the wire harness or Electrical Distribution System (EDS). As automotive electrical content and complexity increases, it becomes imperative to optimize the weight, size, cost, and manufacturability of a vehicle [1]. In terms of an EDS, the most potential gain can be realized if the EDS supplier and vehicle Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) work together during the advanced electrical & electronic architecture development and packaging design process. Traditionally, the electrical content, harness partitioning, and packaging locations are designed by the vehicle OEM with limited advanced input from the EDS supplier.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0499
Nagarjun Jawahar, Sangamitra Manoharan, Harish Chandran
Abstract Material energy and cost minimization has been the need of the hour off late. The work aims at designing a micro gripping device which has suitable application in bio medical industry; specifically surgical operation of comminuted fracture using CAE software. Being a combination of an inverter and a clip, the ability of the compliant mechanism to be used as a gripper as well as positioner constitutes its rare versatility. The compliant mechanisms are single-piece structures, having no backlash as in case of rigid-body, jointed mechanisms and comparatively cheaper to manufacture. Designed in MATLAB R2008a using the concept of topological optimization, modeled in AutoCAD Mechanical 2011 and analyzed in ANSYS Workbench 13.0; the mechanism is initially designed with a geometrical advantage of 2. The MATLAB code which is an improvement of the 99 line code written by O.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0497
Monika Filiposka, Ana M. Djuric, Waguih ElMaraghy
Abstract Gantry robots are mainly employed for applications requiring large workspace, with limited higher manipulability in one direction than the others. The Gantries offer very good mechanical stiffness and constant positioning accuracy, but low dexterity. Common gantries are CNC machines with three translational joints XYZ (3DOF) and usually with an attached wrist (+3DOF). The translational joints are used to move the tool in any position in the 3D workspace. The wrist is used to orient the tool by rotation about X, Y and Z axis. This standard kinematic structure (3T3R) produces a rectangular workspace. In this paper a full kinematic model for a 6DOF general CNC (gantry) machine is presented, along with the Jacobian matrix and singularity analysis. Using Denavit-Hartenberg convention, firstly, the general kinematic structure is presented, in order to assign frames at each link. The forward kinematic problem is solved using Maple 17 software.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0510
Joy Hines Forsmark, Zachary Dowling, Kelsey Gibson, Caroline Mueller, Larry Godlewski, Jacob Zindel, James Boileau
Abstract Magnesium die-cast alloys are known to have a layered microstructure composed of: (1) An outer skin layer characterized by a refined microstructure that is relatively defect-free; and (2) A “core” (interior) layer with a coarser microstructure having a higher concentration of features such as porosity and externally solidified grains (ESGs). Because of the difference in microstructural features, it has been long suggested that removal of the surface layer by machining could result in reduced mechanical properties in tested tensile samples. To examine the influence of the skin layer on the mechanical properties, a series of round tensile bars of varying diameters were die-cast in a specially-designed mold using the AM60 Mg alloy. A select number of the samples were machined to different final diameters. Subsequently, all of the samples (as-cast as well as machined) were tested in tension.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0507
Taro Nakamura
Abstract During the planning of Honda's new plant in Ogawa Japan, which is the new benchmark for developed countries power train plants, there was a project requirement established for a significant reduction in initial investment. In order to improve the competitive edge of module machines, which is the foundation of Honda's existing powertrain machining lines, Honda targeted a reduction in the number of module machines through concurrent machining of multiple workpieces, and minimization of transfer time. By developing exclusive jigs for cylinder heads and blocks, this project was able to meet the original project reduction requirements. In addition, Honda was able to shorten the loading and unloading times of a module machine by developing an exclusive transfer machine specifically for cylinder heads.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0512
Anthony D. Prescenzi
Abstract Ablation casting is an emerging technology which combines traditional sand molding techniques with rapid cooling due to the use of a water soluble binder. High cooling rates and control of solidification direction allows for exceptional mechanical properties and complex shapes. Through the use of ablation, six different body node castings have been manufactured for the 2016 NSX aluminum space frame. The high mechanical properties allowed these castings to be integrated into the crash structure for energy absorption. Using the traditional casting alloy A356, target mechanical properties were 190 Mpa Yield Strength, 280 Mpa Tensile Strength and 12% min elongation. The high elongation was achieved due to the refined eutectic microstructure produced by high cooling rates. The eutectic microstructure produced by ablation was found to be Level 5 or 6 on the AFS scale. Light weighting could also be achieved when compared to traditional GDC castings.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0505
Miguel Angel Reyes Belmonte, Colin D. Copeland, Drummond Hislop, George Hopkins, Adrian Schmieder, Scott Bredda, Sam Akehurst
Abstract Pressure and temperature levels within a modern internal combustion engine cylinder have been pushing to the limits of traditional materials and design. These operative conditions are due to the stringent emission and fuel economy standards that are forcing automotive engineers to develop engines with much higher power densities. Thus, downsized, turbocharged engines are an important technology to meet the future demands on transport efficiency. It is well known that within downsized turbocharged gasoline engines, thermal management becomes a vital issue for durability and combustion stability. In order to contribute to the understanding of engine thermal management, a conjugate heat transfer analysis of a downsized gasoline piston engine has been performed. The intent was to study the design possibilities afforded by the use of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0506
Toshiyuki Kondo, Shinichiro Watanabe, Nobuhiro Nanba
Abstract Today, conventional requests for automation and modern requests for flexibility in handling product diversity and changes in production volume regarding assembly operation are increasing. In order to satisfy those, the “Innovative Automation Cell” (Refer to Figure 1) has been proposed as an innovative assembly production system in lieu of an assembly line operation, which has been continuing with the use of automatic conveyance. Furthermore, technical developments were implemented, such as “Real-time Position Attitude Correction Technology” and “High-speed Emergency Recovery System”, as well as “Assembly Operation Support System”, to make an easy system for an operator, so as to minimize reduction of run rate in mass production practices. This article addresses the concept of the “Innovative Automation Cell”, the details of the developed technology, the effects of introduction to mass production, and future issues.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0525
Constantin Chiriac, Ming F. Shi
Abstract Automotive structural parts made out of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) are often produced in a multistage forming process using progressive dies or transfer dies. During each forming stage the steel is subjected to work hardening, which affects the formability of the steel in the subsequent forming operation. Edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching operations are forming modes that are typically employed in the last stage of the multistage forming processes. In this study, the multistage forming process was simulated by pre-straining a DP980 steel in a biaxial strain path with various strain levels followed by edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching. The biaxial prestrains were obtained using the Marciniak stretch test and edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching were accomplished by the hole expansion test using a flat punch and a conical punch, respectively.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0530
Mikko Joonas Kähkönen, Emmanuel De Moor, John Speer, Grant Thomas
Abstract Quenching and partitioning (Q&P) is a novel heat treatment to produce third generation advanced high-strength steels (AHSS). The influence of carbon on mechanical properties of Q&P treated CMnSi-steels was studied using 0.3C-1.5Mn-1.5Si and 0.4C-1.5Mn-1.5Si alloys. Full austenitization followed by two-step Q&P treatments were conducted using varying partitioning times and a fixed partitioning temperature of 400 °C. The results were compared to literature data for 0.2C-1.6Mn-1.6Si, 0.2-3Mn-1.6Si and 0.3-3Mn-1.6Si Q&P treated steels. The comparison showed that increasing the carbon content from 0.2 to 0.4 wt pct increased the ultimate tensile strength by 140 MPa per 0.1 wt pct C up to 1611 MPa without significantly decreasing ductility for the partitioning conditions used. Increased alloy carbon content did not substantially increase the retained austenite fractions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0524
Maniraj Perumal, Baskar Anthonysamy, Ashokkumar Sundaramoorthy
This method and its special process are particularly suited for the production of Porous free combustion chamber prototype aluminium cylinder head casting. Current methods for producing porous free combustion chamber are graphite coating and CI/Cu metal chill which are moderately effective in achieving porous free combustion chamber. However, these current methods have serious drawbacks like high rejections due to blow holes/gas porosity generated from graphite coating and fine porosity due to prolonged cooling because of slow rate of cooling while peak temperature of metal chills. The present work shows how this goal can be achieved in cylinder head casting of single cylinder high speed engine. Fundamental micro structural investigations are shown as well as the results of tensile tests, high temperature strength, corrosion behavior and static and dynamic component testing.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0522
Robert Cryderman, Danielle Rickert, Kelly Puzak, John Speer, David Matlock, Michael Burnett
Abstract Fracture split forged steel connecting rods are utilized in many new high performance automotive engines to increase durability. Higher strength levels are needed as the power density increases. Fracture splitting without plastic deformation is necessary for manufacturability. Metallurgical design is a key for achieving the required performance levels. Several medium carbon steels containing 0.07 wt pct P, 0.06 wt pct S and various amounts of Mn, Si, V, and N were produced by vacuum induction melting laboratory heats and hot working the cast ingots into plates. The plates were cooled at varying rates to simulate typical cooling methods after forging. Microstructures were generally ferrite and pearlite as evaluated by light optical and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were determined by standard tensile tests, high strain rate notched tensile tests, and Charpy V-notch impact tests to assess “splittability”.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0514
Sugrib K. Shaha, Frank Czerwinski, Wojciech Kasprzak, Jacob Friedman, Daolun Chen
Abstract The uniaxial compression test was used to assess the influence of strain amount on the behavior of precipitates and texture of the Al-7%Si-1%Cu-0.5%Mg alloy, modified with micro-additions of V, Zr and Ti. As revealed through metallographic examinations, fracturing and re-orientation of the second-phase particles increased with increasing compression strain. However, the intermetallic particles experienced substantially more frequent cracking than the eutectic silicon. The crystallographic texture was measured and correlated with deformation behavior of the alloy. The weak texture of 11<211> and 111<110> components, detected after casting transformed to a mixture of 1<110>, 112<110> and 111<110> components after room-temperature compression deformation. The intensity of the texture components depended on the strain amount. It is concluded that the texture formation in the studied alloy is controlled by the precipitates formed during solidification of the alloy.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0519
Susumu Maeda, Atsushi Kobayashi, Yuichiro Shimizu, Masao Kanayama, Masato Yuya, Hideki Imataka
Abstract A new nitriding technology and material technology have been developed to increase the strength of microalloyed gears. The developed nitriding technology makes it possible to freely select the phase composition of the nitride compound layer by controlling the treatment atmosphere. The treatment environment is controlled to exclude sources of supply of [C], and H2 is applied as the carrier gas. This has made it possible to control the forward reaction that decomposes NH3, helping to enable the stable precipitation of γ′-phase, which offers excellent peeling resistance. A material optimized for the new nitriding technology was also developed. The new material is a low-carbon alloy steel that makes it possible to minimize the difference in hardness between the compound layer and the substrate directly below it, and is resistant to decline in internal hardness due to aging precipitation in the temperature range used in the nitriding treatment.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0518
Hirokuni Fuchigami
Abstract In this research, a new wire material made using surface-reforming heat treatment was developed in order to enhance the corrosion fatigue resistance of suspension springs. The aim of surface reforming is to improve hydrogen embrittlement characteristics through grain refinement and to improve crack propagation resistance by partial softening of hardness. The grain refinement method used an α'→γ reversed transformation by rapid short-term heating in repeated induction heating and quenching (R-IHQ) to refine the crystal grain size of SAE 9254 steel spring wire to 4 μm or less. In order to simultaneously improve the fatigue crack propagation characteristics, the possibility of reducing the hardness immediately below the spring surface layer was also examined. By applying contour hardening in the second IHQ cycle, a heat affected zone (HAZ) is obtained immediately below the surface.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0318
Sonu Thomas, Krishnan Kutty, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu
Abstract Dense depth estimation is a critical application in the field of robotics and machine vision where the depth perception is essential. Unlike traditional approaches which use expensive sensors such as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) devices or stereo camera setup, the proposed approach for depth estimation uses a single camera mounted on a rotating platform. This proposed setup is an effective replacement to usage of multiple cameras, which provide around view information required for some operations in the domain of autonomous vehicles and robots. Dense depth estimation of local scene is performed using the proposed setup. This is a novel, however challenging task because baseline distance between camera positions inversely affect common regions between images. The proposed work involves dense two view reconstruction and depth map merging to obtain a reliable large dense depth map.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0715
Terry Lynn Chapin, Van Thomas Walworth
Abstract Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold - even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence. Comparative analysis of molded runner samples reveals a significant and positive improvement in runner and cavity fill balancing when the Vanturi Effect is integrated into the runner design.
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