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2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0347
Alev Osma
Conventional indices and formulas require normal distributions for process capability analysis. These conventional approaches can result in erroneous interpretations for non-normal distributed data sets. One of the solutions is to transform a non-normal into a normal distribution by applying an appropriate data transformation formula and the other solution is to identify the best distribution for a non-normal data. This study presents an approach to demonstrating individual distribution analysis of process capability on a real automotive component with non-normal data. Also, an over-riding theme of this study is to employ process capability indices to understand the effectiveness tool renewing/refurbishing. Achieved results provide a new roadmap for process capability analysis with non-normal data, and outline a validity of a process capability application on a specific area, renewing / refurbishing of a tool in manufacturing environment.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0502
Yuyang Song, Umesh Gandhi
Fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites have great potential as the substitute materials for metals in the automotive industry as for structural applications due to its lightweight. One bottle neck to preventing adoption of advanced lightweight composite materials is the joining of the dissimilar materials. The application of adhesively bonded joints has increased significantly in order to improve the integrity of structural components in vehicle design. In this paper, finite element analysis is used to model the adhesive behavior of the adhesive joining between steel to composite, and composite to composite. The standard lap shear and peeling test are firstly conducted to estimate the adhesive properties using reverse engineering. Next, these adhesive properties are applied and validated on the FE model of a 3D part for complex loading condition.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0329
Piyush Bubna, Michael P. Humbert, Marc Wiseman, Enrico Manes
Conventional car manufacturing is extremely capital and energy-intensive. Due to these limitations, major auto manufacturers produce very similar, if not virtually identical, vehicles at very large volumes. This limits potential customization for different users and acts as a barrier to entry for new companies or production techniques. Better understanding of the barriers for low volume production and possible solutions with innovative production techniques is crucial for making low volume vehicles viable and accelerating the adoption of new production techniques and lightweight materials into the competitive marketplace. Additive manufacturing brings benefits of innovative design with minimal capital investment in tooling and hence should be ideal for low and perhaps high volume parts. However the technique is currently process intensive, uses relatively expensive raw materials and has to prove the capability to produce parts of acceptable quality.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0333
Pavel Lykov PhD, Rustam Baytimerov, Sergey Vaulin, Evgeny Safonov, Dmitry Zherebtsov
Due to its unique physical properties (high thermal and electric conductivity) copper is one of the most interesting materials in point of view of additive manufacturing in particular of Selective Laser Melting (SLM). But because of the low laser radiation absorption, low melting point and high thermal conductivity it is difficult to fabricate of copper components without pores. Results of many research have been shown that for successful Selective Laser Melting of copper powder is needed high laser power (more than 300 W) and high laser scanning speed (more than 600 mm/s). However now most SLM machines are equipped with laser plants with output power up to 200 W. In this research, SLM machine with 200 W maximum power CO2 laser has been used. For determination of the influence of SLM process parameters on quality of copper parts rectangle specimens have been fabricated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1383
James Jan, Eben Prabhu, Xingfu Chen, Ulrich Weiss
Air quenching is a common manufacturing process in automotive industry to produce high strength metal component by cooling heated parts rapidly in a short period of time. With the advancement of finite element analysis (FEA) methods, it has been possible to predict thermal residual stress by computer simulation. In Part I of the research, it was shown that heat transfer coefficient (HTC) for steady air quenching process is time and temperature independent but strongly flow and geometry dependent. These findings lead to the development of enhanced HTC method by performing CFD simulation and extracting HTC information from flow field. The HTC obtained in this fashion is a continuous function over the entire surface. In this part of research, two patching algorithms are developed to divide entire surface into patches by HTC profile and each patch is assigned a discrete HTC value. Performance comparison of patching algorithms is also studied.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1260
Shubhangi S. Nigade
The fossil fuels are depleting rapidly and the prices are going up day by day. The vegetable oils converted into biodiesel have the potential of alternative fuels. There are several types of vegetable oils, edible & non-edible, which can be used for biodiesel production. Very little published work has been found on utilization of Madhuca Indica oil for biodiesel production including optimization of transesterification process. Very little research has been done on utilization of oil in general and optimization of transesterification process for biodiesel production using acid, base and heterogeneous (micro & nano) catalyst. In the present study, transesterification process with use of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst has been optimized.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1347
S. Khodaygan
Fixtures play a key role in locating workpieces to manufacture high quality products within many processes of the product lifecycle. Inaccuracies in workpiece location lead to errors in position and orientation of machined features on the workpiece, and strongly affect the assemblability and the final quality of the product. The accurate positioning of workpiece on a fixture is influenced by rigid body displacements and rotations of the workpiece. In this paper, a systematic approach is introduced to investigate the located workpiece position errors. A new mathematical formulation of fixture locators modeling is proposed to establish the relationship between the workpiece position error and its sources. Based on the proposed method, the final locating errors of the workpiece can be accurately estimated by relating them to the specific dimensional and geometric errors or tolerances of the workpiece and the related locators.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1380
S. Khodaygan, Amir Ghasemali, Hamed Afrasiab
One of the most important characteristics of industrial products, especially mechanical set-ups, is considering the tolerances of production and assembly of these set-ups, which it directly influences the products’ operations. In sheet metal structures, due to the high flexibility of the sheets, the errors appeared while assembly will be as highly influential as the errors due to the production tolerance of the sheets. As a result, having a comprehensive model which could analyze the assembly process of these structures and also clarifies the relation between the tolerance of the parts and the ultimate changes of the set-up will be of considerable importance. During the assembly process, the contact effect between the components is inevitable. If such effect is not considered, the contact surfaces will permeate. The purpose of this paper is to present a method to analyze the tolerance of flexible sheet structures, considering the contact effect between surfaces.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0355
Takashi Iwama
Dent resistance and surface distortion were deteriorated by reduction of outer panel thickness. While aluminum or resin use for outer panel are increasing, it is not spread in the car of cost low price, steel is used. However, even in vehicles of lower price it has been required weight reduction of body, weight reduction has become necessary with steel using. Therefore, it becomes difficult to reduce automotive body weight. To investigate the weight reduction potential with steel using, effective factors on surface distortion and dent resistance properties were evaluated quantitatively with the aim of securing these properties. Materials used for experiment were tensile strength(TS) 340 MPa grade bake hardenable (BH) steel sheet, which is often used in the door outer and TS 440 MPa grade BH steel sheet for outer panel which developed by JFE Steel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0291
Chad W. Chichester, Aleksandra Nevskaya
When designing and employing lubricants, film thickness modeling techniques must be used as part of an overall design approach to insure mating components, in relative motion have proper lubricating films to separate surface asperities. Improper asperity separation will lead to increased friction and wear, and overall reduce system reliability, serviceability, and efficiency. Many of the tools to model tribofilms used today are rooted in empirical studies completed with hydrocarbon based fluids as the lubricating medium. Generally, these modeling techniques have also been applied to non-hydrocarbon based lubricants, and this may not be an accurate method to model such fluids. As demands for improved lubricant performance continue to rise, so too does the need for improved tribofilms modeling techniques. This paper will discuss a modeling techniques developed, in which, silicone based polymer molecular structures are designed with tribological film performance in mind.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1359
R. Pradeepak, Shyamsundar Kumbhar, Nainishkumar Barhate
At present, vehicle testing in laboratory is one of the important phase to quicken the product validation process. In the early phase of laboratory testing it is required to evaluate the strength of the vehicle structure through physical rig setup which represents the consumer’s usage. Two and multiple poster input excitation are among the laboratory rig testing to represent the actual road are used to predict the durability of vehicle components. The road inputs through the poster are known as drive files, a feedback controlled system which reproduces the track or real road recorded specimen’s accelerations, displacements and strains in lab. Derivation of drive files in poster testing requires iteration of physical specimen to exactly replicate the actual road. This paper discusses about generation of drive files as inputs for poster actuation with virtual model(as a substitute for actual model)which is applicable in areas of vehicle durability and ride comfort studies.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1358
Jerry Lai, Youssef Ziada, Juhchin Yang
During the planetary gear assembly, staking is a widely-used method for affixing pinion shafts into the position. A reliable staking process not only prevents the movement of the shaft during transmission operation, but also minimizes the distortion of the assembly due to the staking process. The quality of staking operations is determined by the component designs, the process parameters, and the staking tool geometry. It would be extremely time-consuming and tedious to evaluate these factors empirically; not to mention the requirement of prototypes in the early stage of a new program. A Non-linear Finite Element methodology has been developed to simulate the complete staking process including shaft press in, staking, and after staking tool release. The critical process parameters, such as staking force, staking length, shaft and holes interference amount, etc., are then evaluated systematically.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0271
David A. Warren
The objective of the paper is to outline the steps taken to change the reliability and maintenance environment of a plant from completely reactive to proactive. The main systems addressed are maintenance function fulfillment with existing staffing; work order management, planning, and scheduling; preventive maintenance (PM) definition and frequency establishment; predictive maintenance (PdM) scheduling and method definition; and shutdown planning and execution. The work order management methods were evaluated and modified to provide planning and scheduling of work orders on a weekly basis. The computerized maintenance and management system (CMMS) was updated to automatically insert work orders into the backlog of work for completion. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was performed and the results of the FMEA led to implementation of the following PM and PdM activities: vibration analysis, thermal imaging, and temperature monitoring.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0500
Akira Kato, Masayuki Takano, Kohei Hase, Satoko inuzuka, Toshiyuki dobashi, Tsuyoshi Sugimoto, Nobuaki Takazawa
HV power semiconductor modules convert direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) via power semiconductor chip switching. Since the power semiconductor chip generates heat by energization, heat dissipation is required in the power semiconductor module. There are several types of power semiconductor structures. The power card structure is selected because of its effective heat radiation performance. The power card consists of molding resin and devices soldered to a lead frame. The molding resin provides a barrier against contamination and prevents thermal strain in the solder. Good adhesion between the molding resin and the lead frame is therefore very important. Primer is used between the molding resin and the lead frame to ensure optimum adhesion. As power cards become increasingly compact, devices are operated at higher temperatures and there is a greater need to provide improved adhesion strength between the interfaces at high temperatures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1352
Venkata Suresh Yaparala, BS GURU PRASAD, Harsha Mottedoddi Puttaswamy
Residual stresses and thermal distortion are a common phenomenon observed in any welding method. This is a result of non-uniform stresses generated due to highly localized heating at the joint edges, which fuses the base material and leads to considerable amount of changes in mechanical properties. Thus, it is very important to evaluate these effects in any welded structural members before designing for actual loading condition. Therefore, accurate prediction of these stresses and distortion is of critical importance to ensure the in-service structural integrity of welded structures. The recent advancement in Computational simulation and numerical Techniques helps in evaluating the weld distortion and residual stresses. The moving heat flux approach and Element birth/death method makes it easier to analyze the weld distortion. This is done with the use of ANSYS Commercial FE software.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0370
Zhigang Wei, Yunfei Qu, Dongying Jiang, Limin Luo, Jason Hamilton, Kay Ellinghaus, Markus pieszkalla
Fatigue life assessment is an integral part of the durability and reliability evaluation process of vehicle components and systems. Welded joints are usually the weakest locations in welded components and systems, and significant efforts have been made to accurately and quickly predict the durability and reliability performance of welded structures. Recently, structural stress and associated master S-N curve methods are becoming widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. Two of the most popular methods are the Volvo method and the Verity method and both methods are available in commercial software. The material database associated with the two methods show remarkable variations in fatigue life at a given stress level, and the variations can be appropriately described using probabilistic approaches. However, the probabilistic life assessment has not been fully implemented, which limits the wide application of the two methods.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1560
Bo Lin, Chinedum E. Okwudire
Ball nut assemblies (BNAs) are used in a variety of applications, e.g., automotive, aerospace and manufacturing, for converting rotary motion to linear motion (or vice versa). In these application areas, accurate characterization of the dynamics of BNAs using low-order models is very useful for performance simulation and analyses. Existing low-order contact load models of BNAs are inadequate, partly because they only consider the axial deformations of the screw and nut. This paper presents a low-order load distribution model for BNAs which considers the axial, torsional and lateral deformations of the screw and nut. The screw and nut are modeled as finite element beams, while Hertzian Contact Theory is used to model the contact condition between the balls and raceways of the screw and nut. The interactions between the forces and displacements of the screw and nut and those at the ball-raceway contact points are established using transformation matrices.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0106
Michael Stamper
It is critical to ensure that wiring in automobiles cannot create a catastrophic event should a short circuit occur. Designers incorporate appropriate fusing to prevent such occurrences. This process typically involves calculating the maximum load on each wire manually and then comparing the result to a spreadsheet that may have been created many years ago. Automation allows testing to be performed as the design progresses, producing a correct-by-design solution. The result is a less costly harness that is designed in less time. This paper will address how automation allows testing to be performed as the design progresses, producing a correct-by-design solution. The result is a less costly harness that is designed in less time.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1344
Koushi Kumagai, Masaaki Kuwahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Norimasa Koreishi
This paper describes development of FE model for Laser Screw Welding (LSW) fracture and validation of the model with test results. LSW was developed and introduced to vehicles on market by Toyota Motor Corporation in 2013, and this technology is propagating to production vehicles globally. LSW has advanced features such as productivity and large gap allowance. Although the authors had developed the fracture FE model for resistance spot weld, fracture model for the LSW has not been developed. Many comprehensive tests were conducted to develop the fracture model. The results showed that the LSW have two times more variation in fracture mode, compare to traditional resistance spot welding. And the bifurcation fracture mode, which due to clearance between welded plates, was also observed. In order to analyze the fracture phenomenon of the LSW in crash analysis, detailed model using fine solid elements was developed. The model can materialize both case of minimum and maximum clearance.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0394
Minghuang Cheng, Norihiko Sawa
This paper describes the development of a fatigue life prediction method for Laser Screw Welding (LSW), which is used to assess the durability of automotive structures in the early design stages to shorten the vehicle development time. The LSW technology is a spot-type joining method such as resistance spot welding (RSW), and has been developed and applied to body-in-white structures in recent years. LSW can join metal panels even when a clearance exists between the panels. However, as a result of this favorable clearance-allowance feature of LSW, a concave shape may occur at the nugget part of the joint. These LSW geometric features, the concavity of nuggets and the clearance between panels, are thought to affect the local stiffness behavior of the joint. Therefore, while assessing the fatigue life of LSW, it is essential to estimate the influence adequately for the representation of the local stiffness behavior of the joint.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0346
Patrick Garcia, Jiri Radous, Artur Krol, Jacek Bosek, Caroline Baeten
Lean Product Development. How to create flow? Reflection after a 4 years Implementation in one Business Unit of Tenneco. Author P. Garcia. Tenneco Artur Krol, Jacek Bosek, Jiri Radous Technical Session; Integrated Design and Manufacturing / Lean Manufacturing. Status 31 August 2015. ABSTRACT. During the 4 last years, Lean has been successfully implemented in one of the Tenneco Business Unit, Ride Performance. This paper reflects on the results and more specifically on the third principle of Lean [Womack] “how to make flow” and on the fifth one “to strive for perfection” obtained in the fields of “Product Development” related to Processes, Tools and People. Processes and hard Tools. How to improve the flow in the engineering processes?
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0384
Andrew Cox, Jeong Hong
Lightweight, optimized vehicle designs are paramount in helping the automotive industry meet reduced emissions standards. Self-piercing rivets are a promising new technology that may play a role in optimizing vehicle designs, due to their superior fatigue resistance compared with spot welds and ability to join dissimilar materials. This paper presents a procedure for applying the mesh-insensitive Battelle Structural Stress method to self-piercing riveted joints for fatigue life prediction. Additionally this paper also examines the development a design Master S-N curve for self-piercing rivets. The design Master S-N curve accounts for factors such as various combinations of similar and dissimilar metal sheets, various sheet thicknesses, stacking sequence, and load ratios. A large amount of published data was collapsed into a single Master S-N curve with reasonable data scattering.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0499
Xu Zhang, Jennifer Johrendt
Successful manufacture of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) by Long-Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic (LFT) processes requires knowledge of the effect of numerous processing parameters such as temperature set-points, rotational machinery speeds, and matrix melt flow rates on the resulting material properties after the final compression moulding of the charge is complete. The degree to which the mechanical properties of the resulting material depend on these processing parameters is integral to the design of materials by any process, but the case study presented here highlights the manufacture of CFRP by LFT as a specific example. The material processing trials are part of the research performed by the International Composites Research Centre (ICRC) at the Fraunhofer Project Centre (FPC) located at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, Canada.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0358
Saeid Nasheralahkami, Sergey Golovashchenko, Kaicen Pan, Lindsay Brown, Bindiya Gugnani
In recent years, implementation of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual phase steels (DP) are increasing in automotive components due to their superior structural performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. However, these materials are often sensitive to trimmed edge cracking if stretching along sheared edge occurs in such processes as stretch flanging. Tool wear is another major issue in the trimming of AHSS because of higher contact pressures at the interface between the cutting edges of the trimming die and sheet metal blank defined by AHSS higher flow stresses. Another reason for tool wear is presence of martensitic particles on the surface of the blank. The objective of the present paper is to study the influence of trimming conditions and tool wear on quality and stretchability of trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheet.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0274
Sharon L. Honecker, David J. Groebel, Adamantios Mettas
In order to accurately predict product reliability, it is best to design a test in which many specimens are tested for a long duration. However, this scenario is not often practical due to economic and time constraints. This paper describes a reliability test in which a limited number of specimens are tested with little time remaining before the scheduled start of production. During the test, an unexpected failure mode that can be mitigated through a product redesign occurs. Because the scheduled start of production is near, there is not time to perform a test with redesigned specimens, so the current test proceeds as planned. We discuss several methods and the associated assumptions that must be made to account for the presence of the unexpected failure mode in the test data in order to make predictions of reliability of the redesigned product.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1130
Mike Johns, Heinz Kamping, Kristian Krueger, James Mynderse, Chris Riedel
Tapered roller bearings used to support pinion and differential gears in automotive drive axles perform best, with accurate assembled preload. If the preload is too high, durability goes down and drag losses go up. If the preload is too low, the result can be poor roller load distribution and edge loading inside the bearing also resulting is lower life. Low preload also results in low system stiffness and noise and vibration issues. The most common assembly methods rely on bearing friction or dimensional measurements to adjust preload. These methods are difficult to automate or result in a wide preload range. Tapered roller bearings require the rotation as the preload is applied, to seat the rollers and avoid uneven load distribution and localized brinelling. To apply preload and measure torque at the same time, requires a specialized machine. In addition friction torque is sensitive to lubricant and rust preventative properties.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0503
Evandro Giuseppe BETINI, Francisco Carlos Cione, Cristiano Stefano Mucsi, Marco Antonio Colosio, Jesualdo Luiz Rossi, Marcos Tadeu D'Azeredo Orlando
This paper reports the experimental efforts in recording the 2-dimensional temperature distribution on autogenous thin plates of UNS S32304 steel during welding. The butt-welded autogenous joints were experimentally performed by the GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) process with either argon or argon-2%nitrogen atmospheres. The temperatures cycles were recorded by means of thermocouples embedded by spot welding on the plate's surfaces and connected to a multi-channel data acquisition system. The laser flash method (LFM) was also used for the determination thermal diffusivity of the material in the thickness direction. The temperature curves suggest a relationship between the microstructures in the solidified and the heat affected zone with the diffusivity variation. This is a region where there had been a major incidence of heat. The obtained results validate the reliability of the experimental used apparatus.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0328
Scott Curran, Paul Chambon, Randall Lind, Lonnie Love, Robert Wagner, Steven Whitted, David Smith, Brian Post, Ronald Graves, Craig Blue, Johney Green, Martin Keller
Rapid vehicle powertrain development has become a technological breakthrough for the design and implementation of vehicles that meet and exceed the fuel efficiency, cost, and performance targets expected by today’s consumer. Recently, advances in large scale additive manufacturing have provided the means to bridge hardware-in-the-loop with preproduction mule chassis testing. This paper details a case study from Oak Ridge National Laboratory bridging the powertrain-in-the-loop development process with vehicle systems implementation using big area additive manufacturing (BAAM). For this case study, the use of a component-in-the-loop laboratory with math-based models is detailed for the design of a battery electric powertrain to be implemented in a printed prototype mule. The ability for BAAM to accelerate the mule development process via the concept of computer-aided design to part is explored.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0357
Daniel J. Branagan, Andrew E. Frerichs, Brian E. Meacham, Sheng Cheng, Alla V. Sergueeva
The historical development of autobody steels has demonstrated a paradoxical relationship between strength and ductility, with increasing strength necessary for lightweighting commensurate with reductions in ductility necessary for cold formability. This in turn creates geometric constraints in part design and manufacturing, ultimately limiting usage of these higher strength steel grades in automobiles. Attempts to overcome this paradox have focused on quench and tempering including variants such as quench, partitioning, and tempering to increase strength and three distinct deformation mechanisms including; 1) shear band induced plasticity (SIP), 2) transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), and 3) twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) to increase ductility.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0392
HongTae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Mingchao Guo, Yung-Li Lee, Sai Boorgu, Chonghua Jiang
Joining technology is a key factor to utilize dissimilar materials in vehicle structures. Adaptable insert weld (AIW) technology is developed to join sheet steel (HSLA350) to cast magnesium alloy (AM60). The joint is constructed by combining riveting technology and electrical resistance spot welding technology. This joint technology is applied to construct front shock tower structures composed with HSLA350, AM60, and Al6082. This paper is to develop fatigue life prediction methods for AIW using finite element (FE) techniques. First lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were constructed to characterize the fatigue properties of AIW joint. In FE models of the specimen geometry, the AIW joint was represented with two different methods as area contact method (ACM) and with TIE contact method.
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