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Viewing 1 to 30 of 19881
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0701
Anupam Vivek, Bert Liu, Daniel Sakkinen, Mark Harris, Glenn Daehn
Vaporizing Foil Actuators (VFA) are based on the phenomenon of rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils and wires caused by passage of a capacitor bank-driven current, on the order of 100 kAmps. The burst of the conductor is accompanied with a high-pressure pulse which, as in the case of VFA, can be used for working metal at high strain rates. VFA have been applied toward a variety of impulse-based metal working operations such as collision welding, embossing, shearing, dynamic powder consolidation, shape calibration, and closed-die forming. While other applications are discussed briefly, this paper focuses on the use of VFA for collision welding of dissimilar metals, in particular, aluminum and steel. Aluminum alloy 6061 sheets of 1mm thickness were launched to velocities in excess of 800 m/s with input electrical energy of 8 kJ into 0.0762mm thick, dog-bone shaped aluminum foil actuators.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1299
Rod Emery
There is increasing pressure for manufacturers to go “green.” Automotive OEMs are improving their own sustainability practices and demanding environmental accountability from their vendors. Sustainable manufacturing is defined by the U.S. Department of Commerce as the creation of manufactured products using processes that: 1. Minimize negative environmental impacts 2. Conserve energy and natural resources 3. Are safe for employees, communities and consumers 4. Are economically sound Installing low-energy lighting and adding recycling bins have had a positive effect, but manufacturers must take a comprehensive view of sustainability to have a continuing impact. This white paper will address some “out of the box” methods to improve sustainability of automotive assembly. Case study data will be included with examples of applications in each area. 1. Minimize Negative Environmental Impacts 1.1.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0238
Nick Smith
The concept of digital continuity continues into the Automotive wire harness manufacturing environment. The validation of manufacturing options and comparison of costs ensures smart business decisions and avoids manufacturing capacity challenges. Leading Automotive OEMs and Tier 1s have realized this and leverage connections to and from business systems to deploy valid manufacturing processes.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0505
Miguel Angel Reyes Belmonte, Colin D. Copeland, Drummond Hislop, George Hopkins, Adrian Schmieder, Scott Bredda, Sam Akehurst
Pressure and temperature levels within a modern internal combustion engine cylinder have been pushing at the limits of traditional materials and design. These operative conditions are due to the stringent emission and fuel economy standards that are forcing automotive engineers to develop engines with much higher power density ratios. In this scenario, downsized, turbocharged engines are an important technology to meet the future demands on transport efficiency. It is well known that within downsized turbocharged gasoline engines, thermal management becomes a vital issue for durability and combustion stability. In order to contribute to the understanding of engine thermal management, a conjugate heat transfer analysis of a downsized gasoline piston engine has been performed. The intent was to study the design possibilities afforded by the use of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0459
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Hesham Ezzat, Anil Sachdev, James Quinn, Ronald Krupitzer, Xin Sun
This paper presents an overview of a four-year project on integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS) development. Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific focus of the individual tasks is on multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is illustrated using a 980 grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel with a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment as an example.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0507
Taro Nakamura
The plans for the new lines at a power-train Plant, which were designed as a benchmark for manufacturing lines in developed countries, included a requirement for a large reduction in initial investment. To improve the competitiveness of module machines, its main machining equipment, We aimed to reduce the number of machining units through such steps as concurrent machining of multiple work pieces and minimization of transfer time. This project made the intended reductions, which were facilitated by development of exclusive jigs for cylinder heads and blocks. It also shortened loading and unloading times significantly through the development of an exclusive transfer machine for multiple spindle machining equipment made specifically for cylinder heads.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0705
Koichi Taniguchi, Hiroshi Matsuda, Rinsei Ikeda, Kenji Oi
High joint strength of resistance spot welds is necessary for high rigidity and reliability of car body using ultra high strength steel (UHSS) sheets with tensile strength over 980MPa. We developed “pulsed current pattern” consisting the combination of short cool time and short-time high-current post-heating. This new process can achieve high cross tension strength (CTS) with sufficient tensile shear strength (TSS) in shorter welding time than conventional temper pattern. This paper presents the heating pattern and the effect on the joint strength by pulsed current pattern. Finite element analysis (FEA) for post-heating patterns was conducted using SORPAS. Temperature dependent material properties of 1180MPa grade steel were taken into account. FEA shows that the short-time high-current post-heating leads to rapid heating in nugget and heat affected zone (HAZ) compared to conventional temper pattern consisting long-time low-current post-heating.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1736
Justin Cartwright, Ahmet Selamet, Robert Wade, Keith Miazgowicz, Clayton Sloss
The heat rejection rates and skin temperatures of a liquid cooled exhaust manifold on a Ford 2011 3.5L TiGTDI engine are determined experimentally using an external cooling circuit, which is capable of controlling the manifold coolant inlet temperature, outlet pressure, and flow rate. The manifold is equipped with a jacket that surrounds the collector region and is cooled with an aqueous solution of ethylene glycol-based antifreeze to reduce skin temperatures. Results were obtained by sweeping the manifold coolant flow rate from 2.0 to 0.2 gpm for a total of 12 engine operating points of increasing brake power up to 220 hp. The nominal inlet temperature and outlet pressure were 85 degC and 13 psig, respectively. Data were collected under steady conditions and time averaged. For the majority of operating conditions, the manifold heat rejection rate is shown to be relatively insensitive to changes in manifold coolant flow rate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0524
Maniraj Perumal, Baskar Anthonysamy, Ashokkumar Sundaramoorthy
This method and its special process are particularly suited for the production of Porous free combustion chamber proto type aluminium cylinder head casting. Current methods for producing porus free combustion chamber are graphite coating and CI/Cu metal chill which are moderately effective in achieving porus free combustion chamber. However, these current methods have serious drawbacks like high rejections due to blow holes/gas porosity generated from graphite coating and fine porosity due to prolonged cooling because of slow rate of cooling while peak temperature of metal chills. Using a typical aluminum alloy such as A356 or EN AC-AlSi7mg for prototype casting in regular sand casting practice, large SDAS (> 50 Чm) and medium amount of hydrogen content are possible in a prototype head.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0598
Xiaona Li, Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou, Xin Xie, Xu Chen, Yaqian Zheng, Thomas Ankofski, Rodrigue Narainen, Cedric Xia, Thomas Stoughton, Lianxiang Yang
Accurate forming limit strain determination of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by the industry. Also, if the draw bead effects (enhanced forming limit behaviors) reported on steel sheet metals also happens on aluminum sheets metals is not fully understand. This paper introduce an experimental study on draw bead effect of aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0)of the sheet metal. Two kind of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material situations are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests are proceeded to create plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used to record and measures the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1297
Harveer Singh Pali, Naveen Kumar, Yahaya Alhassan, Amar Deep
ABSTRACT: Biodiesel production has been getting global awareness since Petroleum prices are escalating continuously. As biodiesel is gaining considerable demand, standards are vital for its commercialization and market introduction. Feedstocks availability has posed serious challenges, thus need for non-edible and unexplored feedstocks is required. In Indian context, Biodiesel is produced using sal seed oil which is potentially available in Indian forest as a non-edible feedstock. The present paper deals with production optimization using design of experiments and fuel property characterization of Sal biodiesel (sal methyl esters). Transesterification process parameters like catalyst concentration (% w/w), Oil to Methanol molar ratio, reaction time (min) and reaction temperature (oC) were considered as the factors and the response was taken as the Yield (% w/w). Experiment matrix with several combinations of factors was generated. The results of the experimental matrix were analyzed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1723
Dieter Gabriel, Thomas Hettich
Fuel economy legislation is requiring further improvements to piston friction reduction as well as additional gains in thermal efficiency. A piston material change from aluminum to steel is enabling advancements in both demands. Furthermore, steel material properties lead to increased piston strength, robustness and durability. All this can be achieved at a lower compression height compared to an aluminum reference piston. Therefore, piston mass can be reduced despite the increase in material density. Since steel pistons require cooling of the combustion bowl region and the ring belt just like the aluminum counterpart, MAHLE implemented a new innovative metal joining technology by using laser welding to generate a cooling gallery. The TopWeld concept offers design flexibility which cannot be matched by any other welding process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0733
Nichole Verwys, Jesse Fritcher, Thomas DeMass
Dark, high gloss decorative finishes (i.e. piano black) are gaining increased applications and demands in vehicle interiors; due to interior stylists desire for this look . One significant concern with this trend is that scratches and other appearance-related defects such as orange peel (waviness) are more apparent to the customer. To address this issue, a highly scratch-resistant 2K clearcoat formulation was developed to minimize visible surface scratches, while also yielding minimal orange peel and exceptional DOI (distinctness of image); all while being applied using typical application techniques in the part finishing market. This output was accomplished by first bench-marking the consumer electronics market for appearance and scratch resistance, and then setting targets through that research.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0506
Toshiyuki Kondo, Shinichiro Watanabe, Nobuhiro Nanba
To satisfy the demand for assembly automation, flexible response to diversification of models and production volume changes, the concept of an “Innovative Automation Cell” was thought up as an innovative assembly production system, which can be used in place of conventional conveyor lines—a mode of production in use since the Industrial Revolution. This report describes the “Innovative Automation Cell” concept that can realize more than double production efficiency compared with manual assembly, and outlines of the core technologies. Development results and future issues are also discussed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0531
Hiroyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Ueno, Hiroyuki Nakai, Takahiro Higaki
Stress relaxation, where stress decreases over time occurs when straining is temporarily stopped during a metal tension test. This is elastic strain becoming plastic strain. We proposed applying stress relaxation to press forming with the aim of strain dispersion. A step motion temporarily stopped the die during forming, and successfully increased the deep draw forming limit. We verified this step motion by a tension test in addition to an actual press-forming test. We concluded that the mechanism increasing the deep draw forming limit is attributed to the dispersion of stress by the step motion, and the effects depended on the stop time and the temperature.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0604
Jibrin Sule, Supriyo Ganguly
In a multi-pass weld, the development of residual stress to a large extent depends on the response of the weld metal, heat affected zone and parent material to complex thermo-mechanical cycles during welding. Most researches used either mechanical tensioning or heat treatment to modified residual stresses in the weld. In this research, creation of a refined and recrystallized microstructure with modified residual stress state was attempted by applying post weld rolling followed by laser processing. The hardening of the weld metal due to multiple pass and subsequently rolling followed by laser processing was evaluated. The residual stress has been investigated non-destructively by using neutron diffraction. Hardness results show evidence of plastic deformation up to 4 mm below the weld surface.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0602
Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Mohammed Yusuf Ali, Jagadish Sorab, Cagri Sever
In this paper, the evolution equation for the active yield surface during the unloading/reloading process based on the pressure-sensitive Drucker–Prager yield function and a recently developed anisotropic hardening rule with a non-associated flow rule is first presented. A user material subroutine based on the anisotropic hardening rule and the constitutive relation was written and implemented into the commercial finite element program ABAQUS. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis of a crankshaft section under fillet rolling was conducted. After the release of the roller, the magnitude of the compressive residual hoop stress for the material with consideration of pressure sensitivity typically for cast irons is smaller than that without consideration of pressure sensitivity. In addition, the magnitude of the compressive residual hoop stress for the pressure-sensitive material with the non-associated flow rule is smaller than that with the associated flow rule.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0318
Sonu Thomas, Krishnan Kutty, Vinuchackravarthy Senthamilarasu
Dense depth estimation is a critical application in the field of robotics and machine vision where the depth perception is essential. Unlike traditional approaches which use expensive sensors such as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) devices or stereo camera setup, the proposed approach for depth estimation uses a single camera mounted on a rotating platform. This proposed setup is an effective replacement to usage of multiple cameras, which provide around view information required for some operations in the domain of autonomous vehicles and robots. Dense depth estimation of local scene is performed using the proposed setup. This is a novel, however challenging task because baseline distance between camera positions inversely affect common regions between images. The proposed work involves dense two view reconstruction and depth map merging to obtain a reliable large dense depth map.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0551
Qiuren Chen, Haiding Guo, John V. Lasecki, John Hill, Xuming Su, John J. Bonnen
The fatigue strength and failure behavior of A5754-O adhesively bonded single lap joints by a hot-curing epoxy adhesive were investigated in this paper. The single lap joints tested include balanced substrate joints (meaning same thickness) and unbalanced substrate joints, involving combinations of different substrate thicknesses. Cyclic fatigue test results show that the fatigue strength of bonded joints increase with the increasing substrate thickness. SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray(EDX) were employed to investigate the failure mode of the joints. Two fatigue failure modes, substrate failure and failure within the adhesive were found in the testing. The failure mode of the joint changes from cohesive failure to substrate failure as the axial load is decreased, which reveals a fatigue resistance competition between the adhesive layer and the aluminum substrate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1313
Donald Jasurda
In the automotive world, thermal expansion and gravity on assembly processes in manufacturing often account for unexpected variation. Issues related to the effects of these forces can cause not just assembly issues, but can also be the cause of non-conformance and warranty problems later in the product life cycle. Using 3d CAD models, engineers can now take advantage of advances in simulation to predict the effect of both thermal forces and gravity on their assembly and processes before production. By designing out these influences through a combination of tooling, process and tolerance changes, manufacturers can reduce the costs stemming from these common issues. This whitepaper delves into the process of simulating the effect of both these forces on automotive structures using real life examples and models based on customer experiences.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1612
Wei Liu, Gangfeng Tan, Jiafan Li, Xin Li, Fuzhao Mou, Yongqiang Ge
The hydraulic retarder is a significant auxiliary braking device for the heavy duty vehicle. Traditionally, cooling circulation of the hydraulic retarder was coupled with the engine cooling system, and the thermal energy of the transmission oil would be cooled by the engine radiator ultimately. For this scheme, radiator’s spare heat removal capacity could be fully utilized whereas the cooling system is very complicated and is hard to maintain. Furthermore, the corresponding of thermal management system lags behind the power change of the retarder. In this research, integrated cooling evaporation system is developed for the hydraulic retarder, which makes the cooling water contact with the transmission oil through the wall of the fixed wheel so that it can rapidly response to the thermal variation of the retarder, keep the stability of the oil temperature and meanwhile reduce the risk of cooling medium leakage.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0708
Catherine M. Amodeo, Jwo Pan
In this paper, mode I and mode II stress intensity factor solutions for gas metal arc welds in single lap-shear specimens are investigated by the analytical stress intensity factor solutions and by finite element analyses. Finite element analyses were carried out in order to obtain the computational stress intensity factor solutions for both realistic and idealized weld geometries. The computational results indicate that the stress intensity factor solutions for the realistic welds are lower than the analytical solutions for the idealized weld geometry. The computational results can be used for the estimation of fatigue lives in a fatigue crack growth model under mixed mode loading conditions for gas metal arc welds.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0715
Terry Lynn Chapin, Van Thomas Walworth
Purpose Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold – even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence. Design/Methodology/Approach Specialized molds for rubber injection were designed and built with a series of hot runner layouts and specialized cavity shapes. Regressive short shot techniques were employed to establish how the runners filled and how the cavities filed. The injection series included matched pairs of identical molds with identical runner and cavity layouts.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0737
Sadegh Poozesh, Nelson Akafuah, Kozo Saito
Lack of a precise control over paint droplets released from current coating sprayers has motivated this study to an atomizer capable of generating a uniform flow of mono-dispersed droplets. In the current study a numerical investigation based on CFD incorporating volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model has been developed to capture interface between air and paint phases for a typical digital atomizer equipped with piezoelectric actuator. Effects of inlet flow rate and actuator frequency on ejected droplets characteristics, droplet diameter and their successive spacing, are studied in detail. It will be shown that for a determined flow rate of paint, there is an optimum actuator frequency in which droplet size is minimum. Finally, by looking at atomization mechanism, the most optimum flow rate with corresponding optimum frequency will be determined.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0744
Terrence Alger, Raphael Gukelberger, Jess Gingrich, Barrett Mangold
The use of cooled EGR as a knock suppression tool is gaining more acceptance worldwide. As cooled EGR become more prevelant, some challenges are presented for engine designers. In this study, the impact of cooled EGR on peak cylinder pressure was evaluated. A 1.6 L, 4-cylinder engine was operated with and without cooled EGR at several operating conditions. The impact of adding cooled EGR to the engine on peak cylinder pressure was then evaluated with an attempt to separate the effect due to advanced combustion phasing from the effect of increased manifold pressure. The results show that cooled EGR's impact on peak cylinder pressure is solely due to the knock suppression effect, with the result that an EGR rate of 25% leads to an almost 50% increase in peak cylinder pressure at a mid-load condition. When combustion phasing was held constant, increasing the EGR rate had no effect on PCP.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0537
Hong Tae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Yung-Li Lee, Mingchao Guo, Chonghua Jiang, Zhen Li
Magnesium alloys have low weldability, thus self-piercing rivet (SPR) joint is one of options for joining them. This research investigates the fatigue performance of SPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31, AM30, and AM60. Lap-shear and coach peel specimens for these alloys are fabricated and tested for understanding fatigue performance of the joint. Structural stress – life (S-N) curves are developed with the test results. This approach is validated with simple structural specimens that include three or two joints in each specimen. It is also intensively studied to identify the proper representation of the joint in finite element models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0582
Deepak Ranjan Bhuyan, Sreekanth Netapalli, Sathya Dev, Soundarya Srinivasan
Springback prediction is challenging for Automotive Industry due to use of High Strength Steel (HSS). Automotive OEMs are working to reduce the springback effect of sheet metal stampings caused due to elastic behavior of materials with the help of changes to manufacturing process and part geometry. Use of HSS has grown due to improved passive safety (higher strength) and reduced vehicle weight. This on the other hand tends to intensify the springback effect, as the HSS materials have a higher elastic limit. Recent development in FEA studies made it possible for the industry to rely on stamping simulation. There is always a gap between the springback predicted from stamping simulation and the actual stamped part. Currently FEA technique is not able to accurately predict this gap. The objective of this study is to minimize this gap using DFSS method for predicting the springback and optimizing the simulation parameters with the help of LS-Dyna FEM tool.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1611
Wei Liu, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Jiafan Li, Yuanqi Gao, Wei Li
When the hydraulic retarder is working in the heavy-duty vehicle, almost all the braking power is transformed into the thermal energy of the transmission oil. The spare heat removal capacity of engine’s cooling system could be taken full advantage for cooling the retarder. However, the relative long distance of the engine and the retarder increases the risky leakage of the cooling circuit. Furthermore, the development trend of heavy load and high speed vehicle directs the significant increase in the thermal load of the hydraulic retarder, which even higher than the engine power. Conventional engine cooling system could not meet the demand of the hydraulic retarder heat rejection within the same installation space. In this research, independent two-phase evaporator was adopted to strengthen the coolant heat absorption capacity from the transmission fluid at the oil outlet of the retarder by means of the vacuum flow boiling heat transfer.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0435
S. Khodaygan, M. Hafezipour
Kinematic accuracy of robots end-effector is decreased by many uncertainties. In order to design and manufacture robots with high accuracy, it is essential to know the effects of these uncertainties on the motion of robots. Uncertainty analysis is a useful method which can estimate deviations from desired path in robots caused by uncertainties. This paper presents an applied formulation based on Direct Linearization Method (DLM), for 3D statistical uncertainty analysis of open¬¬-loop mechanisms and robots. The maximum normal and parallel components of the position error on the end-effector path are introduced. In this paper, uncertainty effects of both linear and angular variations in performance of spatial open-loop mechanisms and robots are considered.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0514
Sugrib K. Shaha, Frank Czerwinski, Wojciech Kasprzak, Jacob Friedman, Daolun Chen
Abstract The uniaxial compression test was used to assess the influence of strain amount on the behavior of precipitates and texture of the Al-7%Si-1%Cu-0.5%Mg alloy, modified with micro-additions of V, Zr and Ti. As revealed through metallographic examinations, fracturing and re-orientation of the second-phase particles increased with increasing compression strain. However, the intermetallic particles experienced substantially more frequent cracking than the eutectic silicon. The crystallographic texture was measured and correlated with deformation behavior of the alloy. The weak texture of 11<211> and 111<110> components, detected after casting transformed to a mixture of 1<110>, 112<110> and 111<110> components after room-temperature compression deformation. The intensity of the texture components depended on the strain amount. It is concluded that the texture formation in the studied alloy is controlled by the precipitates formed during solidification of the alloy.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 19881

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