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Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Rajendra Vivekananda Hosamath, Muralidhar Nagarkatte
All top ranking automobile companies in the world believe in single world “Quality” and maintaining quality standards is a philosophy, a belief in which we live, a task which cannot be put aside for another day .To achieve the world class quality standards Divgi-Warner meticulously follows a highly effective tool known as Quality System Basics (QSB) QSB helps Divgiwarner to preserve integrity of commitment to achieve manufacturing excellence. This case study covers the Quality System Basics implementation experience of DivgiWarner Pvt. Ltd. India, one of the BorgWarner's plant based in Pune and Sirsi, India. A quality System basic consists of following 10 Key elements to establish world class quality. 1. Fast Response  Lessons Learned  Practical Problem Solving  8-D 2. Control of Non-Conforming Product 3. Verification Station 4. Standardized Operations  Work Place Organization – The 7 Wastes  Standardized Work Instructions – SOS  Operator Instructions – JES 5. Standardized Operator Training 6.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Venkatesan C, Faustino V, Arun S, S Ravi Shankar
The automotive industry needs for sustainable seating products which offer good climate performance and superior seating comfort. The safety requirement is always a concern for current seating systems. The life of the present seating system is low and absorbs moisture over a period of time which affects seat performance (cushioning effect). Recycling is one of the major concern as per as polyurethane (PU) is concern. This paper presents the development of an alternative material which is eco-friendly and light in weight. Thermoplastic materials were tried in place PU for many good reasons. The newly developed material is closed cell foam which has better tear and abrasion resistance. It doesn’t absorb water and has excellent weathering resistance. Also it has got better cushioning effect and available in various colours. Because of superior tear resistance, we can eliminate upholstery and reduce system level cost. The development involves testing and characterization of the materials, making of prototypes and validations.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Armin Förg, Moritz Wolter, Matthias Kreimeyer, Markus Lienkamp
Introduction & problem description Profoundly new commercial vehicle concepts for improved transport efficiency, better TCO and decreasing environmental impact are a key issue in current research. Although being showcased more and more as first concept studies and prototypes by OEMs these new concepts do hardly find their way into public traffic. Beside their non-conformance to today's legislation another reason is manufacturers being cautious and reserved when it comes to new concepts that require far-reaching changes in engineering and methods of production. In the context of sensitive markets manufactures can't afford low volume vehicle concepts that in addition include a lot of exclusive components and interfaces i.e. extra investments and engineering efforts. In order to pave the way for radical innovation in commercial vehicle concepts, manufacturers need to be able to analyze new concepts on their compatibility with the existing product portfolio and if necessary redesign their product architecture to avoid unmanageable overflow of variance.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Karl Strauss
“Today’s electronic components rely on principles of physics and science with no manufacturing precedence and little data on long term stability and reliability.” [1] Yet many are counting on their reliable performance years if not decades into the future, sometimes after being literally abandoned in barns or stored neatly in tightly sealed bags. What makes sense? To toss everything away, or use it as is and hope for the best? Surely there must be a middle ground! This paper discusses a three-phase initiative ultimately leading to the issuance of guidelines on the use of devices that have been subjected to long term storage, including recommended and required re-examinations based on Physics of Failure rather than fear and conjecture that is so prevalent today
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Joshua Norman, Cesar Moreno, Zhiyu Wang, James Mann, Christopher Saldana
Vibration/modulation-assisted machining processes offer potential for enabling more efficient processing of aerospace alloys. While benefits of these processes have been well documented, sources for the improvements are not well understood. This study explores the nature of energy dissipation during conventional and modulation-assisted machining by characterizing effects of controllable process parameters on chip formation in aerospace alloys. Simultaneous force and tool position measurements are used to show that the processing response in modulation-assisted machining can be described by empirically derived process models. These models accurately predict plastic dissipation over a range of modulation conditions and configurations, including in cases where energy expenditure decreases with the application of modulation. These observations suggest that the underlying plastic response in modulation-assisted machining at low frequency is analogous to that of conventional machining with a time-varying component.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Pietro Ladisa, Gabriele Santonico
The marman interface is widely used in space applications to fit the spacecrafts to the launch vehicle, and it is the same interface that allows the assembly, integration, test and transport of the satellites (AIT). The satellites marman interfaces are usually designed for launch loads with related flight design safety factors and margins, but this is not always compatible with the handling and transport needings and environment. In particular some criticalities are evidenced during the transport of satellites, where they are mounted in the container in horizontal position therefore subjected to bending loads due to gravity and transport dynamic environment. The study deals with a finite element analysis approach in the calculation and verification of marman clamp bands used for spacecraft AIT operations, where in some chases the loads can be higher or more critical than during launch phases. The paper describes the details of modelling of the clamp band parts, the involved spacecraft launch vehicle interface ring and the MGSE interface.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Rostislav Sirotkin, Galina Susova, Gennadii Shcherbakov
Sirotkin R. Susova G. NIAT, Scherbakov G. AR IAC Abstract The problem of ensuring aviation safety was and remains actual. To realize requirements to the safety, established by standards of the international level, for example, AS9100C, AS9017 and MSG-3, is (expediently rational) to make use of national experience of the solution of this problem. Ensuring non-failure operation of parts of a design and systems of the planes / helicopters influencing safety of flights, in the Russian aviation industry is traditionally regulated by requirements of the national aviation standards establishing an order, the contents and methods of performance of the corresponding works at all stages of life cycle of a product Purpose of work (Objectives) To guarantee a normalized risk level of possible violation of safety of flights of the plane because of refusals by a way (on a basis) purposeful impact on critical parameters of critical elements (parts) of a design of a glider and the equipment during all life cycle (design, production, maintenance at operation).
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Yvan Blanchard
Today, the design of complex composites structures is managed by taking into account both engineering and basic manufacturing constraints, as ply shape and continuity. But in order to optimize the laminate, it is strongly advised to also take into account material and process constraints, as the machine limitations in the case of automated manufacturing use. A new innovative software technology has been developed to include engineering, material and process specifications, to help designers and NC programmers to optimize the final layup program in terms of structural properties and productivity. A typical aerospace case studies will be presented to highlights these software capabilities.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Lucas Irving, Svetan Ratchev, Atanas Popov, Marcus Rafla
The replacement for the current single-aisle aircraft will need to be manufactured at a rate more than double that of current production. Production rate can be increased by reducing the processing time for assembly operations. This paper presents research that was applied to the build philosophy of the leading edge of a laminar flow European wing demonstrator. The aim was to implement determinate assembly for the rib to bracket assembly interface. By optimising the diametric and the positional tolerances of the holes on the two bracket types, and ribs, determinate assembly was successfully implemented. The bracket to rib interface is now secured with no tooling or post processes other than inserting and tightening the fastener. This will reduce the tooling costs and eliminates the need for the local drilling, de-burring and re-assembly of the bracket to rib interface, reducing the cycle time of the operation. The self-indexing components mean that the there is more flexibility as to what point in production the bracket can be attached to the rib.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Greg Adams
Electroimpact has developed a second generation of mobile robots with several improvements over the first generation. The frame has been revised to a welded plate structure, making the dynamic response of the structure stiffer and reducing load deflections while maintaining the same weight. The deflections of the frame have been optimized to simplify position compensation. The caster mechanism is very compact, offers greater mounting flexibility, and improved maneuverability. The mechanism uses a pneumatic airbag for both lifting and suspension. The robot sled has been improved to offer greater rigidity for the same weight, and dual secondary feedback scales on the vertical axis further improve the rigidity of the overall system. Maintenance access has been improved by rerouting the cable and hose trays, and lowering the electrical cabinet. The mobile robot is sized so it can shipped complete on a lowboy trailer for deliveries that can be completed by truck. It can also be broken down for container shipping, and reassembly at the customers’ site is a straightforward process.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Ralf Schomaker, Richard Pedwell, Björn Knickrehm
As a result of the increasing use of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) components, exceeding more than 50% of the overall structural weight of a modern commercial aircraft, manufacturers are facing new challenges – especially with regards to the achievement of significant build rates. One challenge is the larger variation of the thickness of FRP components compared with metal parts that can normally be manufactured within a very narrow thickness tolerance bandwidth. The larger thickness variation of composite structures has an impact on the shape of the component and especially on the surfaces intended to be joined together with other components. As a result, significant gaps between the components to be assembled could be encountered. However, from a structure mechanical point of view, gaps can only be accepted to a certain extent in order to maintain the integrity of the joint. Any exceeding of the permissible gap height requires corrective measures, therefore. Today’s state of the art technologies to close gaps between FRP structures comprise shimming methods using liquid, solid or peelable shims.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Jason Rediger, Joseph Malcomb, Craig Sylvester
A new portable floor drilling machine, the 767AFDE, has been designed with a focus on increased reach and speed, ease-of-use, and minimal weight. A 13-foot wide drilling span allows consolidation of 767 section 45 floor drilling into a single swath. A custom CNC interface simplifies machine operations and troubleshooting. Four servo-driven, air-cooled spindles allow high rate drilling through titanium and aluminum. An aluminum space frame optimized for high stiffness/weight ratio allows high speed operation while minimizing aircraft floor deflection. A vacuum system, offline calibration plate, and transportation dolly complete the cell.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Helen Lockett, Sarah Fletcher, Nicolas Luquet
The installation of essential systems into aircraft wings involves numerous labour-intensive processes. Many human operators are required to perform complex manual tasks over long periods of time in very challenging physical positions due to the limited access and confined space. This level of human activity in poor ergonomic conditions directly impacts on speed and quality of production but also, in the longer term, can cause costly human resource problems from operators’ cumulative development of musculoskeletal injuries. These problems are exacerbated in areas of the wing which house multiple systems components because the volume of manual work and number of operators is higher but the available space is reduced. To improve the efficiency of manual work processes which cannot yet be automated we therefore need to consider how we might redesign systems installations in these congested areas to better enable operator access and reduce production time. This paper describes a recent study that applied design for assembly and maintainability principles and CATIA v5 computer aided design software to identify small design changes in a congested wing area.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Todd Rudberg, Justin Nielson, Mike Henscheid, Joshua Cemenska
In an effort to improve the floor-to-floor manufacturing rate of our Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) manufacturing cells, we analyzed data taken in an actual high production facility and categorized time consumed. Actual part program execution time is approximately 25-30% of total time for this cell. We found that huge improvements could be made by improving only a few basic items. This paper will describe the data taken and our recommendations for improving the throughput of AFP cells.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Ryan Haldimann, Daniel Orf
Description: Utilization of a vision system to automate mobile assembly machines facilitating movement, placement and accuracy. Problem: To create a flat floor factory where machine tools used for assembly automation need to position rapidly and accurately while moving to multiple positions on the factory floor. Solution: The solution falls to two distinct modes, movement and placement, both of which use the same two-camera vision system. To automate movement, the vision system and a PLC are used to guide the mobile platform to each location with barcodes and optical guidelines placed on the factory floor. Accurate placement is accomplished using a floor resynchronization methodology which utilizes the vision system and miniature embedded targets to rapidly determine position. The combination allows for an early reconfigurable accurate system for a Lean manufacturing environment.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Riley HansonSmith, Alan Merkley
The Boeing Company is striving to improve quality and reduce defects and injuries through the implementation of lightweight “Right Sized” automated drilling and fastening equipment. This has lead to the factory adopting Boeing developed and supplier built flex track drill and countersink machines for drilling fuselage circumferential joins, wing panel to spar and wing splice stringers. The next step in this equipment is to use it for drilling and installing fasteners for One Up assembly. The critical component of One Up assembly is keeping the joint squeezed tightly together to prevent burrs and debris at the interface. Traditionally this is done by two-side machines providing concentric clamp up around the hole while it is being drilled. It was proposed that for stiff structure the joint could be held together by beginning adjacent to a tack fastener, and assemble sequentially using the adjacent hole clamp up from the previous hole to keep the joint clamped up. This process would significantly decrease the costs and complexity that is usually associated with two sided equipment involved in One Up drilling and fastening.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
James Cunov, Charles J. Habermann
The ever increasing use of composites for aircraft components presents opportunities for new ways to process these parts. There are myriad benefits for use of composites in achieving aircraft performance goals. However, composites come with unique challenges as well. Some of these challenges impact the ability to produce accurate parts. Traditionally, such parts have been trimmed only while clamped in dedicated rigid tools that secure the part in the nominal shape. This results in significant investment in tooling design, production, maintenance, storage, handling, etc. As an alternative, PaR has developed its Adaptive Manufacturing System that incorporates a Robotic Fixture and Precision Motion Machine with Integrated Process Head. The Robotic fixture allows the entire family of parts to be managed with one fixture that remains within the machine footprint. The fixture is programmed to command the 38 individual robots to assume appropriate poses and end effector configuration to accommodate each of the over 400 parts in the family that range in length from 0.5 to 20 meters.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Karl-Erik Neumann, Robert Reno
Practical and Portable Automated Machining The utilization of new materials and tightening of desired tolerances has driven the advancement of Practical and Portable Automated Machining. Increased demand in volume within the aerospace industry not only requires minimizing the amount of manual operations, but also applying automation inside existing manual fixtures. In the past, manual labor, with drastic limitations on achievable accuracies, has been utilized in areas that machine tools cannot either access or the limited amount of work does not justify the expense of additional machines. Assemblies requiring critical hole alignment or drilling through stack materials often are difficult to achieve using manual operations. The solution is a practical and very portable machining unit that is small enough to fit into otherwise difficult areas and is lightweight enough to be either moved into position by small machines or quickly disassembled/assembled with each subassembly capable of being positioned manually.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Janice Meraglia, Mitchell Miller
As part of a comprehensive counterfeit mitigation effort, the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has created a program of four initiatives including the requirement of SigNature DNA marking on microcircuits. The Agency’s efforts began prior to the National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2012, Section 818. Also, in the April 26, 2013 memo from Under Secretary Frank Kendall, the Office of Secretary of Defense is clearly focused on “prevention and early warning,” as the “primary” defense against counterfeits. SigNature DNA marking is within the spirit and guidance set forth by both DLA and OSD. Section 818 compels government action and creates real liability for contractors. Among other provisions, Section 818 requires the government and contractors to establish “…policies and procedures to eliminate counterfeit electronic parts from the defense supply chain” and “…mechanisms to enable traceability of parts.” SigNature® DNA provides per part forensic traceability and can be implemented as part of a comprehensive inventory management system.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Richard Kingston
Abstract Industrial robots are extremely good at repetitive tasks. They exhibit excellent repeatability, making them ideal candidates for many tasks. However, increasing use of CAD based offline programming highlights the fact that industrial robots are generally not accurate devices. Several approaches have been used to compensate for this deficiency. Robot calibration is well established and factory calibrated robots are available from most industrial robot manufacturers. This can improve the spatial accuracy of robots to figures better than 1mm which is adequate for most robot processes in use today. Improvements in accuracy beyond this point can be achieved if the working range of the robot is constrained in some way. For example, limiting a robot to working in a single plane or restricting the robot to a reduced work volume can contribute to significant improvements in accuracy. However, for applications requiring high accuracy without these constraints some additional control is needed.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Julian Lonfier, Côme De Castelbajac
Abstract As aircraft programs currently ramp up, productivity of assembly processes needs to be improved while keeping quality, reliability and manufacturing cost requirements. Efficiency of the drilling process still remains an issue particularly in the case of CFRP/metal stacks: hot and long metallic chips are difficult to remove and often damage the surface of CFRP holes. Low frequency axial vibration drilling has been proposed to solve this issue. This innovative drilling process allows breaking up the metallic chips in such a way that jamming is avoided. This paper presents a case of CFRP/Ti6Al4V drilling on a CNC machine where productivity must be increased. A comparison is made between the current regular process and the MITIS drilling process. First the analysis and comparison method is presented. The current process is analyzed and its limits are highlighted. Then the vibration process is implemented and its performances are studied. Both processes are compared according to the following criteria: chip morphology, thrust force, power consumption, tool life, cycle time, holes quality and manufacturing costs.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Jamie Skovron, Laine Mears, Durul Ulutan, Duane Detwiler, Daniel Paolini, Boris Baeumler, Laurence Claus
Abstract A state of the art proprietary method for aluminum-to-aluminum joining in the automotive industry is Resistance Spot Welding. However, with spot welding (1) structural performance of the joint may be degraded through heat-affected zones created by the high temperature thermal joining process, (2) achieving the double-sided access necessary for the spot welding electrodes may limit design flexibility, and (3) variability with welds leads to production inconsistencies. Self-piercing rivets have been used before; however they require different rivet/die combinations depending on the material being joined, which adds to process complexity. In recent years the introductions of screw products that combine the technologies of friction drilling and thread forming have entered the market. These types of screw products do not have these access limitations as through-part connections are formed by one-sided access using a thermo-mechanical flow screwdriving process with minimal heat. The friction drilling, thread forming process, hereto referred to as “FDS” is an automated continuous process that allows multi-material joining by utilizing a screw as both the tool and the fastener.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Samuel Baha II
Hybrid (bolted/bonded) joining is becoming one of the innovative joining processes for light weight structures in the transport industry, especially in the aerospace industry where weight reduction and high joining requirements are permanent challenges. Combining the adhesive bonding with the mechanical joining -riveting for instance- can lead to an enhancement of the properties of the joint compared to the wide established riveting, as a result of a synergistic load bearing interaction between the fastener and the adhesive bondline. The influence of the rivet installation process on a hybrid joint regarding the joint stress state, the change of the bondline thickness as well as its effects on the joint performance and load transfer are some of the factors that drive the users to a better understanding of the hybrid joining process. This paper deals therefore on one hand with the numerical simulation of the rivet installation process in an adhesively bonded joint to understand the phenomena occurring during the installation process and on the other hand with the investigation of the load transfer depending on the joint parameters.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Roger Holden, Paul Lightowler, Simon Andreou
Abstract The 30 month COMET project aims to overcome the challenges facing European manufacturing industries by developing innovative machining systems that are flexible, reliable and predictable with an average of 30% cost efficiency savings in comparison to machine tools. From a conceptual point of view, industrial robot technology could provide an excellent base for machining being both flexible and cost efficient. However, industrial robots lack absolute positioning accuracy, are unable to reject disturbances in terms of process forces and lack reliable programming and simulation tools to ensure right first time machining, once production commences. These three critical limitations currently prevent the use of robots in typical machining applications. The COMET project is co-funded by the European Commission as part of the European Economic Recovery Plan (EERP) adopted in 2008. The EERP proposes the launch of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in three sectors, one of them being Factories of the Future (FoF).
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Peter B. Zieve, Osman Emre Celek, John Fenty
Abstract The E7000 riveting machine installs NAS1097KE5-5.5 rivets into A320 Section 18 fuselage side panels. For the thinnest stacks where the panel skin is under 2mm (2024) and the stringer is under 2mm (7075), the normal process of riveting will cause deformation of the panel or dimpling. The authors found a solution to this problem by forming the rivet with the upper pressure foot extended, and it has been tested and approved for production.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Roger Holden, Paul Lightowler, Simon Andreou
Abstract The 30 month COMET project aims to overcome the challenges facing European manufacturing industries by developing innovative machining systems that are flexible, reliable and predictable with an average of 30% cost efficiency savings in comparison to machine tools. From a conceptual point of view, industrial robot technology could provide an excellent base for machining being both flexible and cost efficient. However, industrial robots lack absolute positioning accuracy, are unable to reject disturbances in terms of process forces and lack reliable programming and simulation tools to ensure right first time machining, once production commences. These three critical limitations currently prevent the use of robots in typical machining applications. The COMET project is co-funded by the European Commission as part of the European Economic Recovery Plan (EERP) adopted in 2008. The EERP proposes the launch of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in three sectors, one of them being Factories of the Future (FoF).
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
Sylvain Laporte, Etienne Gueydon, Alain Auffret, Cosme De Castelbajac
Abstract In today's aircraft assembly process several new features make drilling operations very challenging according to production requirements. Parts are made of thin or thick multi-material stacks with a large scope to cover and complex assembly sequences. In addition, the current ramp-up in aircraft programs involves to improve productivity while keeping process quality and reliability. In this context robotic solution meets perfectly all these requirements as it is flexible, reconfigurable, fast and agile. Among the possible end-effectors, the Barrel Multi-Function End Effector (BMFEE) appears to be the most flexible solution to allow many different process configurations. The latest developments have been focused on the drilling equipment of this BMFEE. In fact the drilling process efficiency can be constantly improved especially in terms of reliability, quality and productivity. Therefore vibration-assisted drilling system has been integrated into the BMFEE drilling module. This innovative drilling process allows breaking up the metallic chips in such a way that jamming is avoided.
Technical Paper
2014-09-16
George Nicholas Bullen
Abstract Rapid advances in cloud-based computing, robotics and smart sensors, multi-modal modeling and simulation, and advanced production are transforming modern manufacturing. The shift toward smaller runs on custom-designed products favors agile and adaptable workplaces that can compete in the global economy. This paper and presentation will describe the advances in Digital Manufacturing that provides the backbone to tighten integration and interoperability of design methods interlinked with advanced manufacturing technologies and agile business practices. The digital tapestry that seamlessly connects computer design tools, modeling and simulation, intelligent machines and sensors, additive manufacturing, manufacturing methods, and post-delivery services to shorten the time and cost between idea generation and first successful product-in-hand will be illustrated.
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