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2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2860
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to power train calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive effect. The disruptive impact can be realized when AI application finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users. For example, automation of vehicle or machine operation can dramatically improve the efficiency. However, there is still a gap between the current technologies and the one that can fully enable the vehicle or machine intelligence including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2861
Burcu Guleryuz, Martin Raper, Cagkan Kocabas
Dimensional Variation Analysis (DVA) is a decision-making methodology for tolerance analysis, and is employed to evaluate assembly variations and identify problems in manufacturing assembly processes at early stages of design. In this study, the impact of component tolerances on manufacturing and assembly process variations is presented on a case study. The case study includes the alignment analysis between crankshaft and input shaft for clutch systems. The impact of component tolerances on axial alignment measurements in regard to these applications is discussed. The study shows that when combined with effective tolerance combinations, Variation Simulation Analysis (VSA) facilitate operational visibility; thus improve quality, reduce manufacturing cost, and enable reduction of production release time. The case study presents the impact of component tolerances at two levels: 1. Pre-Design, 2. Optimized Design
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Cost reduction and cost competitiveness has been emerged as a major strategic tool to an enterprise used to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value creation through simultaneously enriching the Planet, People and the Economy should be the key drivers for cost reduction strategy in the business. The main objective of this paper is to explain the Process & Principles of Cost Reduction in technology transfer to Low Cost emerging economies to achieve Sustainable cost reduction and creating a culture of cost consciousness throughout the organization. DivgiWarner has designed, developed and been practices the unique process of cost reduction through various tools as, 1. Value Analysis and Value Engineering 2. Cost reduction through productivity improvement 3. Supply Chain Management ( SCM) 4. Lean Manufacturing 5. Total Quality Management (TQM) 6. Control over fixed cost 7. Working capital and funds flow management 8. Inventory management 9.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2517
Sean Holt, Rider Clauss
Electroimpact has developed a novel method for accurately drilling and countersinking holes on highly convex parts using a 6-axis robotic drilling system. Highly curved parts, such as the leading edge of an aircraft wing, present numerous challenges when attempting to drill normal to the part surface and produce tight tolerance countersinks. Electroipmact's Accurate Robot technology allows extremely accurate positioning of the tool point and the spindle vector orientation. However, due to the high local curvature of the part, even a small positional deviation of the tool point can result in a significantly different normal vector than expected from an NC program. An off-normal hole will result in an out of tolerance countersink and a non-flush fastener.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2608
Joshua Cemenska, Todd Rudberg, Michael Henscheid
In many existing AFP cells manual inspection of composite plies accounts for a large percentage of production time. Next generation AFP cells can require an even greater inspection burden. The industry is rapidly developing technologies to reduce inspection time and to replace manual inspection with automated solutions. Electroimpact is delivering a solution that integrates multiple technologies to combat inspection challenges. The approach integrates laser projectors, cameras, and laser profilometers in a comprehensive user interface that greatly reduces the burden on inspectors and decreases overall run time. This paper discusses the implementation of each technology and the user interface that ties the data together and presents it to the inspector.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2463
Giacomo Frulla, Enrico Cestino, Piero Gili, Michele Visone, Domenico Scozzola
The problem of wing shape modification under loads in order to enhance the aircraft performance and control is continuously improving by researchers. This requirement is in contrast to the airworthiness regulations that constraint stiffness and stress of the structure in order to maintain structural integrity under operative flight conditions. The lifting surface modification is more stringent in those cases , such as UAV configurations, where the installed power is limited but the variety of operative scenario is wider than in conventional aircraft. A possible solution for adaptive wing configuration can be found in the VENTURAS Project idea. The VENTURAS Project is a funded project with the aim of improve the wind turbine efficiency by means of introducing a twisting capability for the blade sections according to the best situation in any wind condition. The blade structure is assumed divided in two parts: 1) internal supporting element, 2) external deformable envelope.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2614
Hideki Okada, Kenichi Kamimuki, Syuhei Yoshikawa, Shintaro Fukada
In the recent aircraft manufacturing, the cost reduction, the manufacturing time redaction and the weight saving of aircraft are strongly demanded. Refill Friction Spot Joining (FSJ, other word FSSW, Friction Stir Spot Welding) , which is one of innovative joining process based on friction stir welding, is a promising technology as the replacement for rivet and fastener, and this technology is expected to realize cost reduction and weight saving. Because Refill FSSW uses no additional materials such as Rivet, which contributes to reduce the weight. Also it needs no drilling and deburring process. It means easy to realize a high rate manufacturing, easy to use automation. Additionally, it helps to flexible designing of structures since it allows the closer joint pitch/edge distance than Rivet. In a previous report, the higher shear strength in comparison with Resistance spot welding was shown as well as it was comparable to Rivet.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2514
Scott Tomchick, Joshua Elrod, Dave Eckstein, James Sample, Dan Sherick
A new, automated production method of installing Lightweight Groove Proportioned (LGP) and Hi-Lok bolts in wing panels has been implemented by Electroimpact, Inc. The system inserts LGP and Hi-Lok bolts into interference holes using a ball screw mechanical squeeze process supported by a back side rod-locked pneumatic clamp cylinder. Collars are fed and loaded onto a swage die retaining pin and swaging is performed through ball screw mechanical squeeze. Offset and straight collar locations are accommodated for 99.99% coverage of fastener diameters of 3/16", 1/4" and 5/16". Collar stripping forces are resolved using a dynamic ram inertial technique that reduces the pull on the work piece. Titanium TN nuts are fed and loaded into a socket with a retaining spring and installed on Hi-Loks with a Bosch right angle nut runner. Bolt installation and collar swage loads, as well as nut torque values are captured and logged for future reference.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2607
Matthias Meyer
STAXX Compact 1700 is a new machining centre, designed for the production of carbon fibre parts, using the fibre placement process. It produces prepreg carbon fibre stacks near to net shape which need to be moulded. As today’s high volume production lacks a reliable production system that can handle carbon fibre with high efficiency and minimal material scrap, fibre placement is the only technology that reduces material scrap during the production process significantly, especially for shell shaped parts. Most of the technical applications for lightweight construction, such as in the automotive and aerospace industries are ‘shell’ type shaped parts. While textile production methods like in resin transfer moulding may cause a scrap rate of more than 50%, fibre placement would offer a total scrap rate of below 5%. Accordingly, fibre placement offers the design option to produce parts of variable wall thickness and local reinforcement.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2610
Patrick Land, Richard Crossley, David Branson, Svetan Ratchev
There is a growing demand for composites to be utilized in the production of large-scale components within the aerospace industry where the size and rate of production rules out traditional manual methods. Therefore, a high speed automated solution is required to produce these parts. Unfortunately, there are a limited number of effective options to achieve this; the complex geometries of structural components often cannot be achieved at the lay-up stage with existing automated equipment; and currently secondary forming processes are required to complete parts. This paper will review automated forming processes, their limitations and variables which affect performance to achieve production of large scale components. In particular the paper will focus on the application of force and heat within secondary forming processes. It will then review the effects of these variables against the structure of the required composite component and identify viability of the technology.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2606
Andreas Bjornsson, Jan-Erik Lindback, Daniel Eklund, Marie Jonsson
For low and medium production volumes within the aerospace industry manual manufacturing operations are common. For products that are manufactured using vacuum forming, hot drape forming or manual incremental forming, several activities in preparation for the forming are done manually. These generally include picking plies from a cutter table and stacking plies in the form of a plane laminate in preparation for the subsequent forming operation. In this paper two different systems for automated picking of prepreg plies and stacking of plane laminates are presented. One system is utilizing a standard industrial robot and an advanced gripping tool to handle the geometrical variations between the plies. The other system is using a dual arm robot which allow for simpler gripping tool designs. Both systems are developed for low and medium production volumes and are using a high degree of off-the-shelf components to result in low-cost automation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2497
George Nicholas Bullen
The introduction of composite materials onto air vehicles has complicated the traditional hole/countersink assessment criteria due its finished-part thickness variability; softer and dissimilar properties than the metallic substructure where it is mounted and attached; and the increased attention to other acceptance criteria such as fiber tear, fiber pull, and moisture propagation in the hole that degrades fastener capability. The addition of composite materials further complicates the assembly process by adding a boundary layer of liquid shim or sealant between the composite piece (usually a skin) and the substructure. Current hole inspection systems are absent the ability to assess the interior condition of the composite hole such as fiber tear, damage to the liquid shim, and debris or burrs between the multiple stacks of dissimilar material.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2499
Perla Maiolino, Richard A. J. Woolley, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev
Assembly and manufacture of aerospace structures, in particularly legacy products, relies heavily on the skill or rather craftsmanship of the human operator. Compounded by low volume rates the implementation of a fully automated production facility may not be cost effective. A more efficient solution is a mixture of both manual and automated operations but herein lays an issue of human error when stepping through the build from manual operation to an automated one. Some inline quality checking must take place, machine vision is an obvious choice yet it can be plagued with problems in shop floor environments. Here we demonstrate a robust solution using a low cost 3D scanner comprising of IR enabled adaptive depth detection. The system checks the quality of manually assembled sub components before automated robot controlled operations are undertaken.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2510
Ryan Haldimann
Measurement of Countersinks to high degree of accuracy has always been a challenge. The Countersink is defined relative to the panel surface which includes some degree of curvature. This curvature thus makes accurate measurements very difficult using both contact and 2D non-contact measurements. By utilizing structured light 3D Vision technologies, the ability to very accurately measure a countersink to small tolerances can be achieved. By knowing the pose of the camera and projector, triangulation can be used to calculate the distance to thousands of points on the panel and countersink surface. The plane of the panel is then calculated using Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) method from the dataset of points which can be adjusted to account for panel curvatures. The countersink is then found using a similar RANSAC method.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2461
Enrico Troiani, Maria Pia Falaschetti, Sara Taddia, Alessandro Ceruti
The high number of hull losses is a main concern in UAV field, mostly due to the high costs of equipment on board. In order to control the extent and position of crash impact damage for minimizing material losses, a crashworthiness design can be helpful. On the other hand, the wide use of composite materials has recently put the accent on the lack of data about the behavior of these structures under operative loads, such as the crash conditions. An important and interesting aspect for crashworthiness is the progressive damage of the material that leads to energy absorption. Test are needed to identify the best solution in order to achieve a controlled crush of the structure, to maximize the specific energy absorption (SEA).
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2594
Thomas G. Jefferson, Panorios Benardos, Svetan Ratchev
Current assembly systems that deal with large, complex structures present a number of challenges with regard to improving operational performance. Specifically, aerospace assembly systems comprise a vast array of interrelated elements interacting in a myriad of ways, resulting in a deeply complex process that requires a multi-disciplined team of engineers. The current approach to ramp-up production rate involves building additional main assembly fixtures which require large investment and lead times up to 24 months. Within Airbus Operations Ltd there is a requirement to improve the capacity and flexibility of assembly systems, thereby reducing non-recurring costs and time-to-market. Recent trends to improve manufacturing agility advocate Reconfigurable Assembly Systems (RAS) as a viable solution. Yet, adding reconfigurability to assembly systems further increases both the operational and design complexity.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2600
Gustavo Franco Barbosa, Elton Candia Cordeiro, Fábio Rodrigues Costa
This paper presents a full automated solution that uses robots for manufacturing business jets primary parts. The purpose of this technological innovation is to increase productivity, improve the quality of final product, reduction of costs with maintenance and consumable materials, in addition to meet the requirements of ergonomics, occupational health and safety. So, it has been sought better results in terms of process efficiency and technological innovation faced to competitive market requirements related to industrial automation. The aim is to improve the manufacturing processes of the furniture parts, striving for excellence in every step by further adding value and reducing wastes in order to reduce manufacturing costs and enable greater customer satisfaction.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2615
Donald Jasurda
The aerospace industry is continually becoming more competitive. With an aircraft’s large number of components, and the large supplier base used to fabricate these components, it can be a daunting task to manage the quality status of all these parts in an accurate, timely and actionable manner. This paper focuses on an aircraft door assembly case study monitoring the process capability of machined parts at an aircraft OEM and their supply chain. Through the use of standardized measurement plans and statistical analysis of the measured output, the paper will illustrate how stakeholders can understand the process performance details at a workcell level, as well as overall line or plant performance in real time, in addition to automating standardized reporting. This ideal process begins in the product engineering phase using simulation to analyze the tolerance specifications and assembly process strategy, with one of the outputs being a production measurement plan.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2493
Dan Vaughan, David Branson, Otto Jan Bakker, Svetan Ratchev
This paper evaluates the capability of adaptive fixtures to identify their suitability for implementation into aircraft wing manufacturing and assembly. The inherently complex aerospace industry requires a step change in its capability to achieve the production ramp up required to meet the global demand. To react to the inevitable differences between the measured dimension and the design definition, adaptive fixtures are utilised to improve process capability and therefore reduce non-conformance. However, the current utilisation of adaptive fixturing in the aerospace industry is low. To understand the potential benefits of these fixtures, an examination of the current academic practices and an evaluation of the existing industrial solutions is presented. The key enabling technologies are identified, their current technology readiness is evaluated and a technology road map for effective industrial implementation is discussed.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2598
Gustavo Lasierra Ferrer
Composites are becoming a common material for aero structures, and that means new manufacturing processes with new problems and new challenges that have to be solved. Our engineering Team has recently developed and patented a new end effector for Robots that is able track any kind surface ( even if the surface is moving, swinging, bending....which usually happens when working with big composite parts.) and carry out a task. This new feature has enabled robots to automate manual tasks that hadn´t been automated jet like sanding, cleaning, polishing, applying solvents, applying release and cleaning agents……not only on aerostructures but also on its molds. The solution is based on a set of sensors, a postprocessor which runs a software, and a mechanical compensation gadget. As a result, we can keep all the parameters of a certain process fully under control even if the part we are working on is not stable and it moves swings and bends.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2488
Derek L. Mickelson
In the aircraft design process there are the occasional bolted joints with opposing surfaces that are not parallel to each other. This can necessitate manufacturing to machine a spot face into the structural surfaces for the bolt head and nut to seat on. Typically this process is done manually by two workers with all process verification being done visually. Additionally, the nature of airplane structure often requires one worker to be inside a confined space to monitor the process. With this in mind, a tool was requested to reduce the number of workers required, remove workers from confined spaces and ensure a robust method for process validation. The critical technology that would have to be developed was a device that could fix itself into an existing hole, measure the surface of which the hole exited and then machine a spot face into that surface to a specific calculated depth. The device would only require a single operator to install and start the machine in a given hole.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2508
Jason Rediger, Kyle Fitzpatrick, Rob McDonald, Daniel Uebele
An improved aircraft assembly line incorporates fully automated robotic tool change. Ten machine tools, each with two onboard 6-axis robots, drill and fasten airplane structural components. The robots change 100% of the process tooling (drill bits, bolt anvils, hole probes, and nosepieces) to allow seamless transition across the entire range of hole and fastener sizes (3/16”-7/16”). To support required rate, total tool change time (including automatic calibration) is less than 80 seconds. This paper describes the robots and their end effector hardware, reliability testing, and simulations for both mechanical clearance and cycle time estimation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2512
Mark W. Sydenham, Tim Brown
In numerous applications where access to the backside of the work piece is restricted, aircraft manufactures opt to install blind fasteners like the OSI-Bolt. However, one issue with using blind fasteners is that they can require visual inspection to verify proper installation. Electroimpact has developed an automated solution for installing OSI-Bolts which increases process reliability and decreases cost by eliminating the need for visual inspection. This solution utilizes Electroimpact’s existing accurate robotic system together with new hardware designed specifically for OSI-Bolts. In addition to automated drilling and fastener installation, this system performs numerous quality checks to insure the installed fastener meets engineering requirements. Before installing the fastener, the system measures actual stack thickness and the length of the fastener to ensure that the proper grip is installed.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2611
Samuel Baha II
The use of composite materials in aircraft manufactures increases more and more with the need of light weight and efficient airplanes. Combining composite materials with an appropriate joining method is one of the primordial ways of exploiting its light weight potential. Since the widely-established mechanical fastening, which originally, was developed for metallic materials, is not a suitable joining method for composite materials because of its low bearing strength, the adhesively bonding technology might be an appropriate alternative. However, adhesively bonding in the aircraft manufacturing, especially for joining of primary structures is liable to certification requirements, such as testing of every bond up to limit load before the operation begins or non-destructive testing of every bond before the operation begins as proof of the joint characteristics, which cannot be fulfilled with the current state of the art.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2490
Sylvain Guerin, Sylvain da Costa
The quality requirement for drilling operation in aerospace industry associated to the different material layers of the recent aircraft design is one of the most challenging issues for manufacturing engineers who want to design system for one-shot drilling operation. We have developed and validated in production a handheld electrical tool which is able to accurately monitor the drilling parameter and to adjust the drilling conditions to specific material in the stack-up. This “Smart Driller” achieves quality and performances equivalent to those obtained by the most advanced heavy automated drilling systems at a small portion of weight and cost.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2500
Brigitte Vasques
Authors: Brigitte Vasques (a), A. Mendes (a) a) ApexToolGroup S.N.C. 25, avenue Maurice Chevalier-Z. I. 77330 Ozoir-la-Ferrière (France) brigitte.vasques@apextoolgroup.com Abstract: The drilling of multilayers composite stacks remains a common process in aerospace industry. Research of productive solutions such as one shot and dry drilling operations to avoid reaming and lubrication are contemplated by aerospace customers on titanium multilayers composite applications. Those solutions permit to reduce the number of finishing operation and drilling time. Special ADEs (advanced drilling equipment’s) machines are used to drill aircraft components in limited access areas. Parameters such as cutters, ADE machines, rigidity fixation, drill cutting conditions, chip fragmentation and extraction are related and influence the hole quality. Titanium (TA6V) thickness and cutting configuration influence the cutter wear development.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2396
Sergey Lupuleac, Margarita Petukhova, Mariia Stefanova, Yulia Shinder, Evgeniy Victorov, Alexander Smirnov, Elodie Bonhomme
The paper is devoted to further extension and development of numerical approach aimed at simulation of riveting process during aircraft assembly (see [1-3]). Previous research has shown that developed methodology provides reliable results if the rigid motion of bodies being assembled is forbidden. However, if we consider wing-to-fuselage junction it includes special straps that are not constrained in space and can freely move as a rigid body. This fact introduces additional difficulties when solving corresponding contact problem. Thus current approach is not applicable and should be modified in order to handle this type of junction as well. Several techniques are considered in this paper. Free body can be constrained by insertion of artificial constraint mechanisms into the model but then impact from these elements should be compensated.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2609
Pinar Acar, Avinkrishnan A. Vijayachandran, Veera Sundararaghavan, Anthony Waas, Mostafa Rassaian
With the development of automated manufacturing processes for orthotropic laminates, it has become much easier to tailor the properties of laminates as per design considerations. Minimizing the stress concentrations around cutouts in a plate is often a design problem, especially in the Aerospace industry, one quick example being cutouts in a fuselage. A problem of optimizing spatially varying fiber paths in a symmetric, linear orthotropic composite laminate with a cutout, so as to achieve minimum stress concentration under remote unidirectional tensile loading is of interest in this study. A finite element model is developed to this extent, which constraints the fiber angles while optimizing the fiber paths, proving essential in manufacturing processes.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2509
Eric Reid
The Boeing Company has recently developed a mobile robotic drilling and fastening system, in support of its commitment to lean manufacturing techniques. The robotic system, referred to as Lower Panel Drilling and Fastening System (LPDFS), was initially developed as a way to minimize facilities costs by not requiring costly foundation work. It is designed to operate with a high level of autonomy, minimizing operator intervention, including that required for machine setup and tool changes. System design enables positioning the work piece at a lower ergonomic height for concurrent manual processes. In all aspects of design, the system will maintain maximum flexibility for accommodating future manufacturing changes and increases in production rate, while meeting the strict accuracy requirements characteristic of aircraft manufacturing.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2489
Philippe Le Vacon, Fabien Albert, Thomas Buisson
The NC template developed by AIRBUS GROUP Innovations, is a light and low cost five axis drilling machine, dedicated to the assembly of hybrid (CFRP/Al/Ti) aircraft structure. This solution aims to replace the current process where operators move the drilling units from one hole to another. It’s providing a high level of flexibility compared to drilling templates with a special interest during the ramp up phase of new A/C program, because it has just to be reprogrammed if fasteners positions change. The NRC can also be reduced due to limitation of operators, because one operator can manage several grids. The architecture of the machine is made up of a Cartesian table having a tool holder carriage on which is fixed a normality module with a standard ADU (Advanced Drilling Unit). The normality module has 3 axes (Z and two rotations) which give the capability to operate on double convex curvatures, flat up to 1500 mm radius.
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