Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 20089
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2860
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to power train calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive effect. The disruptive impact can be realized when AI application finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users. For example, automation of vehicle or machine operation can dramatically improve the efficiency. However, there is still a gap between the current technologies and the one that can fully enable the vehicle or machine intelligence including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Cost-reduction and cost competitiveness have emerged as major strategic tools to an enterprise and are being used all over the world to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value-creation by enriching the planet, people and the economy should be the key drivers leading to cost-reduction strategies in any business. The main objectives of this paper are to explain the Processes and Principles of Cost-reduction in technology-transfer to low-cost emerging economies to achieve sustainable cost-reduction and create a culture of cost-consciousness throughout an organization. DivgiWarner has not only designed and developed but has also been practicing unique processes of cost-reduction utilizing various tools as, 1. Value Analysis and Value Engineering 2. Cost-reduction through productivity improvement 3. Supply Chain Management ( SCM) 4. Lean Manufacturing 5. Total Quality Management (TQM) 6. Control over fixed Costs 7.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2861
Burcu Guleryuz, Martin Raper, Cagkan Kocabas
Dimensional Variation Analysis (DVA) is a decision-making methodology for tolerance analysis, and is employed to evaluate assembly variations and identify problems in manufacturing assembly processes at early stages of design. In this study, the impact of component tolerances on manufacturing and assembly process variations is presented on a case study. The case study includes the alignment analysis between crankshaft and input shaft for clutch systems. The impact of component tolerances on axial alignment measurements in regard to these applications is discussed. The study shows that when combined with effective tolerance combinations, Variation Simulation Analysis (VSA) facilitate operational visibility; thus improve quality, reduce manufacturing cost, and enable reduction of production release time. The case study presents the impact of component tolerances at two levels: 1. Pre-Design, 2. Optimized Design
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2830
Shashank Agarwal, Michael Olson, Tim Meehan, Nachiket Wadwankar
Abstract Fuel economy is one of the major challenges for both on and off-road vehicles. Inefficient engine operation and loss of kinetic energy in the form of heat during braking are two of the major sources of wasted fuel energy. Rising energy costs, stringent emission norms and increased environmental awareness demand efficient drivetrain designs for the next generation of vehicles. This paper analyzes three different types of powertrain concepts for efficient operation of a forklift truck. Starting from a conventional torque convertor transmission, hydrostatic transmission and a hydraulic hybrid transmission (Eaton architecture) are compared for their fuel economy performance. Eaton hydraulic hybrid system is seen to perform much better compared to other two architectures. Improved fuel economy is attributed to efficient engine operation and regeneration of vehicle kinetic energy during braking.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2794
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
Abstract Diesel exhaust after treatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector is crucial for successfully utilizing this type of technology, and a simulation tool plays an important role in the virtual design, that the performance of the injector is evaluated to reach the optimized design. The virtual test methodology using CFD to capture the fluid dynamics of the injector internal flow has been previously developed and validated for quantifying the dosing rate of the test injector. In this study, the capability of the virtual test methodology was extended to determine the spray angle of the test injector, and the effect of the manufacturing process on the injector internal nozzle flow characteristics was investigated using the enhanced virtual test methodology.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2607
Matthias Meyer
STAXX Compact 1700 is a new machining centre, designed for the production of carbon fibre parts, using the fibre placement process. It produces prepreg carbon fibre stacks near to net shape which need to be moulded. As today’s high volume production lacks a reliable production system that can handle carbon fibre with high efficiency and minimal material scrap, fibre placement is the only technology that reduces material scrap during the production process significantly, especially for shell shaped parts. Most of the technical applications for lightweight construction, such as in the automotive and aerospace industries are ‘shell’ type shaped parts. While textile production methods like in resin transfer moulding may cause a scrap rate of more than 50%, fibre placement would offer a total scrap rate of below 5%. Accordingly, fibre placement offers the design option to produce parts of variable wall thickness and local reinforcement.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2504
Christian Meiners, Weidong Zhu, Yinglin Ke
The joining and assembly of barrel sections of large aircraft is always cumbersome. Any means to ease this task are welcome. In recent years The Boeing Co. has invented and licensed their “Flex-Track” system. But however flexible this approach may be, double curved surfaces, large variations of cross-section radius and issues with vacuum cup fixture are problems to be dealt with. Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, China has developed a new, innovative circumferential splicing system in cooperation with Broetje-Automation, Germany. This paper will describe design and features. There is a unique, time-saving setup technology and self-stepping actuation for a one up 360° splicing operation. The process endeffector is based on standard, state of the art components in use for large fastening systems.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2488
Derek L. Mickelson
Abstract In the aircraft design process there are the occasional bolted joints with opposing surfaces that are not parallel to each other. This can necessitate manufacturing to machine a spot face into the structural surfaces for the bolt head and nut to seat on. Typically this process is done manually by two workers with all process verification being done visually. Additionally, the nature of airplane structure often requires one worker to be inside a confined space to monitor the process. With this in mind, a tool was requested to reduce the number of workers required, remove workers from confined spaces and ensure a robust method for process validation. The critical technology that would have to be developed was a device that could fix itself into an existing hole, measure the surface of which the hole exited and then machine a spot face into that surface to a specific calculated depth.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2490
Sylvain Guerin, Sylvain da Costa
The quality requirement for drilling operation in aerospace industry associated to the different material layers of the recent aircraft design is one of the most challenging issues for manufacturing engineers who want to design system for one-shot drilling operation. We have developed and validated in production a handheld electrical tool which is able to accurately monitor the drilling parameter and to adjust the drilling conditions to specific material in the stack-up. This “Smart Driller” achieves quality and performances equivalent to those obtained by the most advanced heavy automated drilling systems at a small portion of weight and cost.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2493
Dan Vaughan, David Branson, Otto Jan Bakker, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract The aim of this work was to develop a new assembly process in conjunction with an adaptive fixturing system to improve the assembly process capability of specific aircraft wing assembly processes. The inherently complex aerospace industry requires a step change in its capability to achieve the production ramp up required to meet the global demand. This paper evaluates the capability of adaptive fixtures to identify their suitability for implementation into aircraft wing manufacturing and assembly. To understand the potential benefits of these fixtures, an examination of the current academic practices and an evaluation of the existing industrial solutions is highlighted. The proposed adaptive assembly process was developed to account for the manufacturing induced dimensional variation that causes significant issues in aircraft wing assembly.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2495
N.D. Jayaweera, L.U. Subasinghe, H.G.A.R. Gajanayaka
Abstract Modern aerospace industry is continuously seeking new technologies due to potential increase in demand for new aircrafts which are to be produced on a single production line while reducing model changeover time and improving quality of the assembly process. In mass volume production, this can be achieved by fixing a large number of similar components using special-purpose jigs and fixtures. This type of jigs and fixtures can be largely found in Aerospace industry. In low volume production, improvement of re-configurable fixturing systems becomes a favourable way to reduce the cost of production per unit. A re-configurable fixturing system consists of standard components that can be used to satisfy different fixturing requirements. These fixtures are reusable and this enhances their flexibility and reduces the time and cost of development. It also offers the benefit of eliminating the need for dedicated tooling, dedicated fixturing, associated storage and floor space.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2497
George Nicholas Bullen
Abstract The introduction of composite materials onto air vehicles has complicated the traditional hole/countersink assessment criteria due its finished-part thickness variability; softer and dissimilar properties than the metallic substructure where it is mounted and attached; and the increased attention to other acceptance criteria such as fiber tear, fiber pull, and moisture propagation in the hole that degrades fastener capability. The addition of composite materials further complicates the assembly process by adding a boundary layer of liquid shim or sealant between the composite piece (usually a skin) and the substructure. Current hole inspection systems are absent the ability to assess the interior condition of the composite hole such as fiber tear, damage to the liquid shim, and debris or burrs between the multiple stacks of dissimilar material.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2496
Lucy Agyepong, Marcus Rafla, David Tomlinson, Karl-Otto Strömberg, Alan Howarth
Abstract There is the need to strive towards more advanced aircraft with the use of materials such as composites, and a desire to improve efficiency by achieving and maintaining laminar flow over a large proportion of the aircraft wing. Due to the high tolerances required to achieve laminar flow, the manufacturing processes and tooling will have to be revaluated to enable successful manufacture in a production environment. A major influence in achieving the key characteristics and tolerances is the assembly fixture. This paper details the design and manufacture of a carbon fibre based assembly fixture, required for a one-off build of an innovative leading edge wing concept. The fixture has been designed and optimised in order to make it adaptable, reconfigurable, and suitable for lifting as well as being thermally stable whilst maintaining laminar flow tolerances.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2509
Eric Reid
Abstract The Boeing Company has developed a mobile robotic drilling and fastening system for use in assembly processes on the lower panel of a horizontally fixtured wing. The robotic system, referred to as Lower-panel Drilling and Fastening System (LPDFS), was initially developed as part of an initiative to minimize facilities costs by not requiring costly foundation work. It is designed to operate with a high level of autonomy, minimizing operator intervention, including that required for machine setup and tool changes. System design enables positioning the work piece at a lower ergonomic height for concurrent manual processes. In all aspects of design, the system will maintain maximum flexibility for accommodating future manufacturing changes and increases in production rate, while meeting the strict accuracy requirements characteristic of aircraft manufacturing.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2510
Ryan Haldimann
Abstract Accurate measurement of countersinks in curved parts has always been a challenge. The countersink reference is defined relative to the panel surface which includes some degree of curvature. This curvature thus makes accurate measurements very difficult using both contact and 2D non-contact measurements. By utilizing structured light 3D vision technologies, the ability to very accurately measure a countersink to small tolerances can be achieved. By knowing the pose of the camera and projector, triangulation can be used to calculate the distance to thousands of points on the panel and countersink surface. The plane of the panel is then calculated using Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) method from the dataset of points which can be adjusted to account for panel curvatures. The countersink is then found using a similar RANSAC method.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2508
Jason Rediger, Kyle Fitzpatrick, Rob McDonald, Daniel Uebele
Abstract An improved aircraft assembly line incorporates fully automated robotic tool change. Ten machine tools, each with two onboard 6-axis robots, drill and fasten airplane structural components. The robots change 100% of the process tooling (drill bits, bolt anvils, hole probes, and nosepieces) to allow seamless transition across the entire range of hole and fastener sizes (3/16″-7/16″). To support required rate, total tool change time (including automatic calibration) is less than 80 seconds. This paper describes the robots and their end effector hardware, reliability testing, and simulations for both mechanical clearance and cycle time estimation.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2507
Rainer Mueller, Aaron Geenen, Matthias Vette
Abstract The automation of assembly processes in aircraft production is, due to technological and organizational boundary conditions, very difficult and is subject to technological challenges and economical risks. The technological challenges are especially the large product dimensions as well as the high amount of variants. At the same time, aircrafts are produced in low quantities with inflexible and expensive fixtures. As part of the research projects TRSE (semi-automated robot welding for single item production) and 4by3 (Modularity, Safety, Usability, Efficiency by Human-Robot-Collaboration) at ZeMA, the goal is to develop new process technologies, planning tools and adequate equipment in order to enable efficient and customized automation for various production processes. The human-robot-cooperation is an approach to a required, adjusted and flexible automation. Worker and robot work together without a separating protection device in an overlapping workspace.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2500
Brigitte Vasques
The drilling of multi layers composite stacks remains a common process in aerospace industry. Research of productive solutions such as one shot and dry drilling operations to avoid reaming and lubrication are contemplated by aerospace customers on titanium multi layers composite applications. Those solutions permit to reduce the number of finishing operation and drilling time. Special ADEs (Advanced Drilling Equipment) machines are used to drill aircraft components in limited access areas. Parameters such as cutters, ADE machines type, rigidity clamping, cutting conditions, speed, feed, chip fragmentation and extraction are related and influence the holes quality. Titanium (TA6V) thickness and cutting configuration influence the cutter wear development. In this work, ADE and specific cutter geometries developed by Apex are used for the one shot dry drilling of titanium. Carbide cutters have been chosen for their resistance to the heat developed by titanium drill.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2503
Thomas Dr. Schneider
Abstract This paper presents an innovative approach for modular and flexible positioning systems for large aircraft assembly, for instance the manufacturing of the fuselage sections from shell panels and floor grids, the alignment of the sections to build the fuselage, and the joining of wings and tail units to the fuselage. The positioning system features a modular, reconfigurable, and versatile solution for various aircraft dimensions and different applications. This includes the positioning units, the controls, the measurement interface and the product supports. It provides the customer with a holistic solution that considers the specific positioning task taking into account high absolute positioning accuracy, repeatability and synchronization of the motion for all manipulators that constitute the positioning system. Various tools and method which were used during the development process are introduced and the developed standardized Positioning Technology is briefly explained.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2499
Perla Maiolino, Richard A. J. Woolley, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract The assembly and manufacture of aerospace structures, in particular legacy products, relies in many cases on the skill, or rather the craftsmanship, of a human operator. Compounded by low volume rates, the implementation of a fully automated production facility may not be cost effective. A more efficient solution may be a mixture of both manual and automated operations but herein lies an issue of human error when stepping through the build from a manual operation to an automated one. Hence the requirement for an advanced automated assembly system to contain functionality for inline structural quality checking. Machine vision, used most extensively in manufacturing, is an obvious choice, but existing solutions tend to be application specific with a closed software development architecture.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2617
Raimund Loser, Michael Kleinkes
Abstract Industrial robots are well introduced into automated production processes. Their mechanical design is dominated by some major key factors like required flexibility, different payload demands, working range, working speed, combination with different working tools and robot costs. The final achieved position accuracy of the robot tool centre point (TCP) is based on the combination of these key factors. In general, the smallest movement steps and the repeatability of robots are much lower than the absolute achievable accuracy. The positioning results and especially the programmed paths of the TCP show relatively large differences between the programmed nominal paths related to the final achieved movements in reality. These differences can be detected using the Absolute Tracker with its very high dynamic performance, especially if the 6DoF capability is included.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2513
Hans-Juergen Borchers, Kadir Akkuş
New Aircraft drilling installations show a tendency to use Robotic concepts for the positioning of the end effector. At the same time demands of fulfilling the continually increasing customer requirements forces suppliers to improve their system solutions to match the specifications. This paper will discuss the process of drilling large diameter holes within high quality requirements using a Robot positioning concept with a High speed spindle End effector. This Robot End effector system provides flexibility to handle different aircraft sections due to its Robot arm design. The material configuration that will discussed in this paper is a mixed material stack of CFRP and Aluminum. The diameter range is from 7.9 mm to 15.9 mm. This paper will focus on the large diameter holes. What are the process forces that have to be handled and what are the solutions.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2498
AbdulRahman El-Nounu, Svetan Ratchev, Richard Crossley, Kevin Forster
Abstract Design for Assembly is the concept of carrying out critical thought early in the design stage to create assembly easement at the production stage. In the aerospace industry products have very long lives, frequently being optimised rather than introducing new products. This has meant that older products that are stable cash cows have not benefited from new Design for Assembly Methods and manufacturing equipment and tooling suffer from obsolescence. It has been established that approximately 80% of overall product cost is determined at the design stage and thus existing products suffer from preloaded costs. This paper takes existing Design for Assembly methodologies and analyses them with respect to the unique challenges involved in legacy product redesign. A tool is developed to identify potential Design for Assembly projects. The tool is then demonstrated using a butterfly bracket assembly.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2512
Mark W. Sydenham, Tim Brown
Abstract Electroimpact has developed an automated solution for installing OSI-Bolts on the HStab for Boeing's 787-9 aircraft. This solution utilizes Electroimpact's existing accurate robotic system together with new hardware designed specifically for OSI-Bolts. In addition to automated drilling and fastener installation, this system performs numerous quality checks to insure the installed fastener meets engineering requirements. Before installing the fastener, the system measures actual stack thickness and the length of the fastener to ensure that the proper grip is installed. Torque and angle feedback are recorded during installation which can be used determine if the fastener was installed correctly. The system will also automatically shave the small protuberance on the fastener head left by the broken off fastener stem, which is inherent to the OSI-Bolt. Figure 1 Cell Overview
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2514
Scott Tomchick, Joshua Elrod, Dave Eckstein, James Sample, Dan Sherick
Abstract A new automated production system for installation of Lightweight Groove Proportioned (LGP) and Hi-Lock bolts in wing panels has been implemented in the Boeing 737 wing manufacturing facility in Renton, Washington. The system inserts LGP and Hi-Lok bolts into interference holes using a ball screw mechanical squeeze process supported by a back side rod-locked pneumatic clamp cylinder. Collars are fed and loaded onto a swage die retaining pin, and swaging is performed through ball screw mechanical squeeze. Offset and straight collar tools allow the machine to access 99.9% of fasteners in 3/16″, ¼″ and 5/16″ diameters. Collar stripping forces are resolved using a dynamic ram inertial technique that reduces the pull on the work piece. Titanium TN nuts are fed and loaded into a socket with a retaining spring, and installed on Hi-Loks Hi-Lok with a Bosch right angle nut runner.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2501
Cosme de Castelbajac, Sylvain Laporte, Julian Lonfier, Emmanuel Puviland
Abstract Over the last few years, many aircraft production lines have seen their production rate increase. In some cases, to avoid bottlenecks in the assembly lines, the productivity of processes needs to be improved while keeping existing machine-tools. In this context, the case of drilling machine-tools tends to require particular attention, especially when multi-material parts are drilled. In such instances, the Vibration Assisted Drilling (VAD) process can be a way to improve productivity and reliability while keeping quality standards. This article presents a case of a drilling/countersinking process for stainless steel and titanium stack parts. Firstly, the article assesses the feasibility and benefits of using Vibration Assisted Drilling and Countersinking with the current cutting-tools.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2502
Jeremy Jallageas, Matthieu Ayfre, Mehdi Cherif, Jean-Yves K'nevez, Olivier Cahuc
Abstract This study investigates the self-adjusted cutting parameter technique to improve the drilling of multi-stacked material. The technique consists in changing the cutting strategy automatically, according to the material being machined. The success of this technique relies on an accurate signal analysis, whatever the process setting. Motor current or thrust force are mostly used as incoming signals. Today, analyses are based on the thresholding method. This consists in assigning lower and upper limits for each type of material. The material is then identified when the signal level is stabilized in between one of the thresholds. Good results are observed as long as signal steps are significantly distinct. This is the case when drilling TA6V-CFRP stacks. However, thrust force level remains roughly unchanged for AA7175-CFRP stacks, leading to overlapping thresholds. These boundary limits may also change with tool geometry, wear condition, cutting parameters, etc.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2515
Adlai Felser, Peter B. Zieve, Bryan Ernsdorff
Abstract A new style of rivet injector is in production use on a variety of fastening machines used by major aircraft manufacturers. In this injector the opposing sides of the rivet guide blocks are attached to the arms of a parallel gripper. We have implemented the parallel gripper in both vertical axis and horizontal axis riveting applications. It is equally effective in both orientations. We have implemented the parallel gripper rivet injector on headed rivets, threaded bolts, ribbed swage bolts and unheaded (slug) rivets.
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2494
Benjamen D. Hempstead, Scott Smith
Aircraft assembly systems which require tooling or machinery to pulse or move between multiple positions within a factory can be positioned with high repeatability without high performance foundations or sweeping out large areas of floorspace. An example shows a system of large left and right-hand frames which are positioned at 3 sequential manufacturing steps and then recirculated to the start of production via a central return aisle. The frames are 41 ton actual weight and are 72’ long, similar to a rail car. The system achieves rectangular motion for the recirculation path. The supporting and moving system incorporates low-cost rail in a floor with minimal preparation and simple to use controls. The system is also easily reconfigured if the manufacturing system needs to be altered to meet rate or flow requirements.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 20089

Filter