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2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1931
Shaul Hameed Syed, K Rameshkumar
Abstract In this work an attempt is made to design and fabricate a low cost dynamometer for measuring cutting forces in three directions in a CNC vertical milling machine. The dynamometer is designed and fabricated to withstand load up to 5000 N along ‘X’, ‘Y’ and ‘Z’ axis. Milling dynamometer developed in this work, consists of four octagonal rings as an elastic member on which strain gauges are mounted for measuring the cutting forces. Suitable materials for the fixture and for the octagonal rings are chosen for constructing the dynamometer. Structural analysis has been carried out to check the safe design of the dynamometer assembly consisting of fixture and the octagonal rings for the maximum loading conditions. Static calibration of the dynamometer is carried out using slotted weight method by simulating the actual conditions. Calibration chart was prepared for three directions by relating load and corresponding strain.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1985
Hemasunder Banka, Radhika Muluka, Vikram Reddy
Abstract Conventional materials like steel, brass, aluminum etc will fail without any indication, cracks initiation, propagation, will takes place with a short span. Now-a-days to overcome these problem, conventional materials are replaced by hybrid composite material. Not only have this conventional material failed to meet the requirement of high technology applications, like space applications and marine applications and structural applications in order to meet the above requirements new materials are being searched. Hybrid composites materials found to the best alternative with its unique capacity of designing the materials to give required properties and light weight. This paper aims to preparing hybrid composite using artificial fibers. Epoxy as resin and glass fiber as fiber for artificial hybrid composite to make a laminate for preparing leaf spring.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1932
Thomas Herlitzius
The digital transformation offers Europe tremendous opportunities of more efficient production using Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), which will enable new concepts for future farming systems. The very fast development of information and communication technologies is driving the evolution of mobile machines into cyber-physical systems with virtually no limitations for communication. Automation is the most important trend in the development of agricultural mobile machines due to the open potential of efficiency increases at all levels (machine, process and farm operation). CPS technologies are going to deliver solutions at the system and enterprise level by supporting real time and strategic decisions while enabling much higher system transparency and controllability within the sustainability tri-angle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0479
Soichi Hareyama, Ken-ichi Manabe, Makoto Nakashima, Takayuki Shimodaira, Akio Hoshi
Abstract This investigation describes a method for estimating the absolute lock effect in bolted joint. Observation results of loosening phenomenon in industrial vehicle are analyzed for the linear relation by the proposed regression formula. Based on the relation, in early stages of the development test, the rate of clamping force decrease can be estimated accurately after prolonged operation by measuring the clamping force behavior. The tendency to decrease is observed about the depression type and working load type loosening. For evaluation design bases, the residual clamping force estimation chart is established. The L-N (Loosening Lifetime - Number of Cycles to Loosening N) diagram is proposed for the loosening lifetime prediction for working load type loosening also. Using the loosening damage (cumulative decrease of clamping force) and L-N diagram, the lifetime to loosening failure can be predicted accurately for the locking device and method as an absolute evaluation.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0342
Benjamin Möller, Alessio Tomasella, Rainer Wagener, Tobias Melz
Abstract The cyclic material behavior is investigated, by strain-controlled testing, of 8 mm thick sheet metal specimens and butt joints, manufactured by manual gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The materials used in this investigation are the high-strength structural steels S960QL, S960M and S1100QL. Trilinear strain-life curves and cyclic stress-strain curves have been derived for the base material and the as-welded state of each steel grade. Due to the cyclic softening in combination with a high load level at the initial load cycle, the cyclic stress-strain curve cannot be applied directly for a fatigue assessment of welded structures. Therefore, the transient effects have been analyzed in order to describe the time-variant material behavior in a more detailed manner. This should be the basis for the enhancement of the fatigue life estimation.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0370
André Baroni Selim, Bruno Aquino de Lyra
Abstract This work aims to demonstrate a cooling package selection for an agricultural machine equipped with Diesel engine considering different radiators area / material and fan blade angles, pursuing the best match of performance, cost and weight. It was investigated two types of radiators made from copper-brass and aluminum, two types of charge air cooler varying the dimensions and four types of fans varying the blade angle. The selection method chosen was the experimental testing. The tests were performed according to the standard SAE and internal procedures at MWM Motores Diesel laboratories located at São Paulo / Brazil. When compared with cooper-brass, the aluminum radiator presents worse heat exchange performance what makes its size increase in order to compensate the gap. Even with bigger size, the aluminum radiator keeps lighter and cheaper.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0230
Guilherme Canuto da Silva, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract Automotive industries are undergoing a transformation of their manufacturing systems. Called by the German government as Industrie 4.0, this transformation is based on the evolution of traditional Embedded Systems-ES to Cyber-Physical Systems-CPS. In the next years such evolution will have to reach transitory stages, where ES and CPS should coexist for a determined period of time (ES-CPS). Based on this projection, this work compares ES with CPS, identifies the main differences between these systems and thus forms a transitory stage of automotive manufacturing for the next years. The work is structured as follows: Introduction section places the reader on the treated subject and presents the methodology of the work. Later, Industrie 4.0, Embedded Systems (ES) and Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) are defined. Once this is done, the analysis of ES-CPS transition is finished. Analysis results are presented and a representation of ES-CPS transition is proposed.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0159
Mauro Iurk Rocha, Ivna Oliveira da Cruz, Maria Clara Kremer Faller, Antônio Carlos Scardini Villela, Sergio Roberto Amaral, Frederico Braz Silva, Sillas Oliva Filho
Abstract Vehicles manufacturers, in search of cost reduction, fill the tanks of recently manufactured vehicles with the least volume of fuel necessary for future commercialization. The adoption of such practice, depending on the diesel fuel storage conditions, may lead to oxidation products formation in the fuel system and to problems during the first start of these vehicles. Some vehicles manufacturers, trying to minimize the occurrence of these problems, replace the diesel fuel in the vehicle tank with new fuel when vehicle storage time reaches 90 days. As a result of such occurrences, the opportunity for a first fill diesel fuel development, that presented better oxidation stability during storage, was identified.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0149
Edinilson Alves Costa
Abstract Mainly in the last 30 years so much research has been done on Fe-based calculation of seam welded thin-sheet structures fatigue life. However, available prediction methods have been developed for a limited range of geometries under ideal load conditions. Extrapolating to complex real world geometries and load conditions such those resultant from, for example, ground vehicles dislocation over rough surfaces, are least documented. One example of the application of seam welded thin-sheet structures in the ground vehicle industry is the powertrain installation bracketry. Such brackets are subject to variable amplitude loading sourced from powertrain and road surface irregularities and their fatigue strength is tightly dependent on the strength of their joints. In this paper, a FE-based force/moment method has been used for numerically predicting fatigue life of powertrain installation bracketry of a commercial truck submitted to variable amplitude loading.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0171
Leandro Brasil Araujo, Juliano Tessaro, Renan Sardim
Abstract Due to financial global crisis started in 2008 and intensified in the past years in Brazil, the maintenance of a good company’s financial situation is a big challenge and it is more relevant in actual moment. Because of expected turbulent scenario for the next years, it is necessary to adopt strategies to mitigate risks that involve Supply Chain impacting industrial production. In this way, it is crucial adopt strategies and actions that assist to evaluate the performance of suppliers and its associate potential financial risk, what can be considered a companies’ success differential factor during crisis period as well. In this scenario, MWM Motores Diesel adopts an internal process of monitoring the risk of suppliers based on internally developed tools and others available at market.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8116
Mrudula Uday Orpe, Monika Ivantysynova
Abstract Mobile Earth Moving Machinery like Skid-steer loaders have tight turning radius in limited spaces due to a short wheelbase which prevents the use of suspensions in these vehicles. The absence of a suspension system exposes the vehicle to ground vibrations of high magnitude and low frequency. Vibrations reduce operator comfort, productivity and life of components. Along with vibrations, the machine productivity is also hampered by material spillage which is caused by the tilting of the bucket due to the extension of the boom. The first part of the paper focuses on vibration damping. The chassis’ vibrations are reduced by the use of an active suspension element which is the hydraulic boom cylinder which is equivalent to a spring-damper. With this objective, a linear model for the skid steer loader is developed and a state feedback control law is implemented.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8137
Amrut A. Patki
Abstract The overall cost of ownership of a product is dependent on the life of the product and the cost. To keep the cost of ownership down, it is important to understand how the life of the product can be increased while lowering the cost at the same time. We are also challenged to reduce the carbon footprint and improve energy requirements to become more sustainable and green. How can both of these necessities be achieved? “Remanufacturing” is a simple answer to this complex question. Remanufacturing can improve the useable life of a part or product by multiple times. It is cost effective compared to new part production and is reasonably inexpensive to end customer. The energy required for remanufacturing is less compared to its original manufacturing. Remanufacturing reuses/salvages most of the original content. Design for Remanufacturing is a fundamental change in design engineering process to meet remanufacturing requirements.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8138
Pranav Shinde, K Ravi, Nandhini Nehru, Sushant Pawar, Balaji Balakrishnan, Vinit Nair
Abstract Body in white (BIW) forms a major structure in any automobile. It is responsible for safety and structural rigidity of the vehicle. Also, this frame supports the power plant, auxiliary equipments and all body parts of the vehicle. When it comes to judging the performance of the vehicle, BIW is analyzed not only for its strength and shape but also the weight. Light weight BIW structures have grown rapidly in order to fulfill the requirements of the best vehicle performance in dynamic conditions. Since then lot of efforts have been put into computer-aided engineering (CAE), materials research, advanced manufacturing processes and joining methods. Each of them play a critical role in BIW functionality. Constructional designing, development of light materials with improved strength and special manufacturing practices for BIW are few research areas with scope of improvement. This paper attempts to review various factors studied for BIW weight reduction.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8128
Vladimir G. Shevtsov, Alexandr Lavrov, Zahid A. Godzhaev, Valentin M. Kryazhkov, Gennagy S. Gurulev
Abstract The objective of this study is to identify the most popular agricultural tractor models in Russia by their engine ratings and countries of origin. This review presents an analysis of changes in the composition of engine-ratings and sales volume of agricultural tractors in the Russian market between 2008 and 2014. Including knock-down kits, the countries of origin are Russia, the CIS-countries and non-CIS Countries. The variety of manufacturers, highlight the leading international companies which have supplied up to 200 units is discussed. The papers shows that CIS-manufactured tractors represent the greatest number in the market - up to 57 per cent, tractors from non-CIS countries occupy up to 12 per cent of the market, and the number of Russian models is quite limited - 3.0 per cent in 2012 and 3.4 per cent in 2014.
2016-05-11
Technical Paper
2016-36-0064
V. R. M. Gonçalves, L. C. F. Canale, V. Leskovšek, B. Podgornik
Abstract Spring steels are the materials most commonly used in suspensions of vehicles and are subject to heavy efforts in terms of load, impact and also under intense fatigue solicitation. Required mechanical performance depends mainly on the chemical composition and heat treatments. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to compare SAE 5160 steel with one Super Clean steel developed in Slovenia. Searches improving mechanical properties of these steels are constantly present in the automotive industry, reducing vehicle weight and maintaining safety. In this scenario, cryogenic treatment in combination with quenching and tempering has shown interesting results in the scientific literature for tool steels and the best results for cryogenics are achieved when the treatment occurs for long duration as 24 hours.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0317
Yuanzhan Wang, Jason B. Siegel, Anna G. Stefanopoulou
Abstract This paper addresses scheduling of quantized power levels (including part load operation and startup/shutdown periods) for a propane powered solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybridized with a lithium-ion battery for a tracked mobile robot. The military requires silent operation and long duration missions, which cannot be met by batteries alone due to low energy density or with combustion engines due to noise. To meet this need we consider an SOFC operated at a few discrete power levels where maximum system efficiency can be achieved. The fuel efficiency decreases during transients and resulting thermal gradients lead to stress and degradation of the stack; therefore switching power levels should be minimized. Excess generated energy is used to charge the battery, but when it’s fully charged the SOFC should be turned off to conserve fuel.
2016-02-01
Technical Paper
2016-28-0176
Rajesh Siva, C. Janarthanan, P. Muthuvel, Gopkumar Kuttikrishnan, Gidugu Ramadass, Malayath Atmanand
Abstract The hybrid robot, will be a battery operated four wheel drive vehicle with a rigid chassis for all terrain operation. The vehicle will be suited for various payloads based on applications with geological, atmospheric sensors such as oxygen measurement, glacier thickness measurement, CO2 measurement, thermal properties measurement, salinity, buried object identification at a depth of 8 to 100 m., etc . The vehicle will be remotely controlled through a RF signal which allows it to maneuver up to 5 km. The novelty of the design, is its capability for all terrain and ease of trafficability based on skid steering, self alignment of sensors and vehicle traction in spite of possible inverted conditions and the vehicle can travel from land, snow, water and vice versa. The vehicle can be used in survey at coastline of water bodies, borderlines and can also be extensively used in polar region for studying glacier aging and as advance vehicle for the convoys and polar mapping.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2794
Meng-Huang Lu, Figen Lacin, Daniel McAninch, Frank Yang
Abstract Diesel exhaust after treatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector is crucial for successfully utilizing this type of technology, and a simulation tool plays an important role in the virtual design, that the performance of the injector is evaluated to reach the optimized design. The virtual test methodology using CFD to capture the fluid dynamics of the injector internal flow has been previously developed and validated for quantifying the dosing rate of the test injector. In this study, the capability of the virtual test methodology was extended to determine the spray angle of the test injector, and the effect of the manufacturing process on the injector internal nozzle flow characteristics was investigated using the enhanced virtual test methodology.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2830
Shashank Agarwal, Michael Olson, Tim Meehan, Nachiket Wadwankar
Abstract Fuel economy is one of the major challenges for both on and off-road vehicles. Inefficient engine operation and loss of kinetic energy in the form of heat during braking are two of the major sources of wasted fuel energy. Rising energy costs, stringent emission norms and increased environmental awareness demand efficient drivetrain designs for the next generation of vehicles. This paper analyzes three different types of powertrain concepts for efficient operation of a forklift truck. Starting from a conventional torque convertor transmission, hydrostatic transmission and a hydraulic hybrid transmission (Eaton architecture) are compared for their fuel economy performance. Eaton hydraulic hybrid system is seen to perform much better compared to other two architectures. Improved fuel economy is attributed to efficient engine operation and regeneration of vehicle kinetic energy during braking.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2861
Burcu Guleryuz, Martin Raper, Cagkan Kocabas
Abstract Dimensional Variation Analysis (DVA) is a decision-making methodology for tolerance analysis, and is employed to evaluate assembly variations and identify problems in manufacturing assembly processes at early stages of design. In this study, the impact of component tolerances on manufacturing and assembly process variations is presented on a case study. The case study includes the alignment analysis between crankshaft and input shaft for clutch systems. The impact of component tolerances on axial alignment measurements in regard to these applications is discussed. The study shows that when combined with effective tolerance combinations, Variation Simulation Analysis (VSA) facilitates operational visibility; thus improve quality, reduce manufacturing cost, and enable reduction of production release time. The case study presents the impact of component tolerances at two levels: 1. Pre-Design, 2. Optimized Design.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2860
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to powertrain calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive. A disruptive impact can be realized when AI applications finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users (e.g., automation of a vehicle or machine operation could dramatically improve the efficiency). However, there is still a gap between current technologies and those that can fully give a vehicle or machine intelligence, including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Abstract Cost-reduction and cost competitiveness have emerged as major strategic tools to an enterprise and are being used all over the world to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value-creation by enriching the planet, people and the economy should be the key drivers leading to cost-reduction strategies in any business. The main objectives of this paper are to explain the Processes and Principles of Cost-reduction in technology-transfer to low-cost emerging economies to achieve sustainable cost-reduction and create a culture of cost-consciousness throughout an organization.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1611
Wei Liu, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Jiafan Li, Yuanqi Gao, Wei Li
Abstract The hydraulic retarder is the most stabilized auxiliary braking system [1-2] of heavy-duty vehicles. When the hydraulic retarder is working during auxiliary braking, all of the braking energy is transferred into the thermal energy of the transmission medium of the working wheel. Theoretically, the residual heat-sinking capability of the engine could be used to cool down the transmission medium of the hydraulic retarder, in order to ensure the proper functioning of the hydraulic retarder. Never the less, the hydraulic retarder is always placed at the tailing head of the gearbox, far from the engine, long cooling circuits, which increases the risky leakage risk of the transmission medium. What's more, the development trend of heavy load and high speed vehicle directs the significant increase in the thermal load of the hydraulic retarder, which even higher than the engine power.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0239
Azeez Ahmed, Gopalakrishna Deshpande, Varghese Manu Varghese, Ramakrishnan Rangaswamy, Prakash Prashanth Ravi
Abstract The engine research and development has a significant contribution to meet the stringent emission norms and the changing global market demands. Leveraging the available virtual engineering methods to improve performance, velocity, quality and diminish the lead time is the key for any global brand to stay in the competition. It is the key element to reduce the research and development costs substantially by virtually developing the idea as it is conceived. Engine development test cells consist of expensive test and measurement systems which demand skilled labor and advanced equipment. Effective utilization of the test cells is essential to meet the scheduled project deadlines and cost targets. Engine Design process and tools when used effectively can increase the efficiency and lower the test cell operation costs substantially. This paper discusses the examples for this application in the area of engine installation, sensitive instrumentation/assembly.
2014-10-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9028
Theodoros Kosmanis, Georgios Koretsis, Athanasios Manolas
Abstract The implementation of an electronic differential system in a delta-type, electrically assisted, three wheel Human Powered Vehicle is the subject of this paper. The electronic differential algorithm is based on the turning angle of the vehicle and its geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis is applied in a realistic human powered tricycle constructed in the premises of the Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki. The system's efficiency is validated through test measurements performed on the rear wheels during vehicle's operation in appropriately selected routes. The measurements are performed for both typical cornering and oversteering.
2014-10-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9027
Berna Balta, Onur Erk, H. Ali Solak, Numan Durakbasa
Rear underrun protection device is crucial for rear impact and rear under-running of the passenger vehicles to the heavy duty trucks. Rear underrun protection device design should obey the safety regulative rules and successfully pass several test conditions. The objective and scope of this paper is the constrained optimization of the design of a rear underrun protection device (RUPD) beam of heavy duty trucks for impact loading using correlated CAE and test methodologies. In order to minimize the design iteration phase of the heavy duty truck RUPD, an effective, real-life testing correlated, finite element model have been constructed via RADIOSS software. Later on, Pareto Optimization has been applied to the finite element model, by constructing designed experiments. The best solution has been selected in terms of cost, manufacturing and performance. Finally, real-life verification testing has been applied for the correlation of the optimum solution.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2433
Abhishake Goyal, Nadeem Yamin, Naveen Kumar
Abstract Fuel cells are a promising energy source on account of their high efficiency and low emissions. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are clean and environmental-friendly power sources, which can become future energy solutions especially for transport vehicles. They exhibit good energy efficiency and high power density per volume. Working at low temperatures (<90°C), hydrogen fuelled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are identified as promising alternatives for powering autos, houses and electronics. At the middle of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of a proton exchange membrane, catalyst layers, and gas diffusion layers (GDL). However, most of the researchers have already mentioned that PEMFC are not competitive enough to rechargeable lithium ion battery with respect to price because of the rare metal used such as platinum in it.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2428
Burcu Guleryuz, Cagkan Kocabas, Erkan Ozturk
Abstract Remanufacturing is a process in which used products are disassembled, and their components are repaired and used in the production of new products. This study investigates the impact of various remanufacturing decisions on Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) profitability and market cannibalization in an infinite-horizon production scenario for heavy duty vehicle (HDV) clutches. A discrete event simulation model is developed for benchmarking of different scenarios using various factors and their levels. There are two consumer segments as primary customer and grey customer in the market. Three different end of life (EOL) clutch quality conditions are defined, and three different percentages of clutch collect strategies are defined for all EOL products in the market.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2430
Rajendra Vivekananda Hosamath, Muralidhar Nagarkatte
Abstract All top ranking automobile companies in the world believe in single word “Quality” and maintaining quality standards is a philosophy, a belief in which we live, a task which cannot be put aside for another day. To achieve the world class quality standards Divgi-Warner meticulously follows a highly effective tool known as Quality System Basics (QSB).QSB helps Divgi-Warner to preserve integrity of commitment to achieve manufacturing excellence. This case study covers the Quality System Basics implementation experience of Divgi-Warner Pvt. Ltd. (DWPL) India, a BorgWarner's plants located at Pune and Sirsi in India.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2409
C Venkatesan, R DeepaLakshmi
Abstract The automotive industry is constantly looking for new alternate material and cost is one of the major driving factors for selecting the right material. ABT is a safety critical part and care has to be taken while selecting the appropriate material. Polyamide (PA12) [1] is the commonly available material which is currently used for ABT applications. Availability and material cost is always a major concern for commercial vehicle industries. This paper presents the development of ABT with an alternative material which has superior heat resistance. Thermoplastic Elastomer Ether Ester Block Copolymer (TEEE) [3] materials were tried in place Polyamide 12 for many good reasons. The newly employed material has better elastic memory and improved resistance to battery acid, paints and solvents. It doesn't require plasticizer for extrusion process because of which it has got excellent long term flexibility and superior kink resistance over a period of time.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 758