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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2190
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2075
Burton Bigoney, Nicholas Huddleston
Electroimpact and Lockheed Martin have developed an automated drilling and fastening system for C-130J aft fuselage panels. Numerous design and manufacturing challenges were addressed to incorporate the system into Lockheed Martin’s existing manufacturing paradigm and to adapt Electroimpact’s existing line of riveting machines for manufacture of these legacy aircraft parts. Challenges to automation included design of a very long yet sufficiently rigid and lightweight offset riveting anvil for fastening around deep circumferential frames, automated feeding of very short, “square” rivets in which the length is similar to the head diameter, creation of part programs and simulation models for legacy parts with no existing 3d manufacturing data, and crash protection for the aircraft part from machine collisions, given the uncertainties inherent in the model and the unique geometry of the aircraft parts.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2074
Thorsten Dillhoefer
Paper Title: CPAC Bulkhead Riveting System Author: Thorsten Dillhoefer, Broetje-Automation GmbH Mailing Address: Broetje-Automation GmbH Am Autobahnkreuz 14 26180 Rastede Germany Phone: +49 (0) 4402 966-300 Fax: +49 (0) 4402 966-289 E-Mail: Thorsten.dillhoefer@broetje-automation.de Paper Content: New customer requirements for a CPAC machine to not only perform fuselage panel fastening but also include additional capability for automated bulkhead positioning, drilling and riveting inspired the design of a new CPAC System configuration incorporating a separate drilling unit and a bulkhead rotating subsystem into a “universal” machine. This new design provides additional capability and flexibility for existing production and also reduces the investment for multi-product automation applications.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2073
Rick Calawa
The decision to completely replace a successful automated production system at the heart of a high volume aircraft factory does not come easily. A point is reached when upgrades and retrofits are insufficient to meet increasing capacity demands and additional floor space is simply unavailable. The goals of this project were to greatly increase production volume, reduce floor space, improve the build process, and smooth factory flow without disrupting today’s manufacturing. Two decades of lessons learned were leveraged along with advancements in the aircraft assembly industry, modern machine control technologies, and maturing safety standards to justify the risk and expense of a ground-up redesign. This paper will describe how an automated wing spar fastening system that has performed well for 20 years is analyzed and ultimately replaced without disturbing the high manufacturing rate of a single aisle commercial aircraft program.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2080
James Merluzzi
Manually changing stringer-side tooling on an automatic fastening machine is time consuming and can be susceptible to human error. Stringer-side tools can also be physically difficult to manage because of their weight, negatively impacting the experience and safety of the machine operator. A solution to these problems has recently been developed by Electroimpact for use with its new Fuselage Skin Splice Fastening Machine. The Automatic Tool Changer makes use of a mechanically passive gripper system capable of securely holding and maneuvering twelve tools weighing 40 pounds each inside of a space-saving enclosure. The Automatic Tool Changer is mounted directly to the stringer side fastening head, meaning the machine is capable of changing tools relatively quickly while maintaining its position on the aircraft panel with no machine operator involvement.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2079
Ronald J. Mack
Mechatronic advanced manufacturing systems blur the line between an automated fastening system and an assembly tool. Multi-purpose end effectors sit directly on the assembly jig or holding fixture to access the part and augment the work of skilled operators. This paper and presentation will explore existing installations and their various geometries, designed to provide the most efficient and cost-effective access to the aerostructure. A C-frame runs the length of the jig for lateral panel fuselage fastening of large commercial transports. Square frames run the length of wing assembly jigs. The ARC frame was developed for structures that require circumferential drilling and fastening, such as spars, but has literally expanded to take on fastening of medium-sized fuselages. In some cases, one multi-purpose end effector can be moved from tool to tool, creating the equivalent of several advanced manufacturing systems from one drill spindle.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2133
Donald Jasurda
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how advanced QMS systems, once the purview of large aerospace OEM’s, are now accessible to the small and medium supplier market through the Cloud. This is important, as these systems have proven track records of improving visibility in manufacturing and decreasing non-conformance errors that cause expensive defects. This, in turn, creates cost reductions that can be passed up the supply chain. Utilizing effective quality systems to manage manufacturing processes is a large feat. It often includes expensive IT costs for setting up servers, configuring systems, creating internal processes and then managing the enormous amounts of data that are fed into it. Historically, these systems are cost prohibitive for aerospace suppliers and small to medium sized businesses. Now, with the rise of Cloud-Based Software, QMS systems are available at a fraction of the cost.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2148
Ho-Sung Lee
This study presents some of current works in manufacturing launcher structural components with solid state welding and superplastic forming technology. The adoption of superplastic characteristics into manufacturing process makes many of aerospace components lighter and stiffer, since aerospace vehicle requires lightweight structures to obtain weight saving for increasing payloads and fuel efficiency. Some of titanium alloys, aluminum alloys and super alloys are typical examples of superplastic materials that have been used to produce complex shapes of aerospace components. The optimum strain rate sensitivity and strain rate range were obtained from biaxial bulging test and this parameters were used to manufacture the components with superplastic blow forming using hydrostatic gas pressure difference.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2151
Hong huang, Qingyun Zhao, Fenglei Liu, Huadong Liu
Abstract:Split-sleeve cold expansion processing was employed on the 2024-T3 aluminum alloy plate. Fatigue lives were compared according different expansion, then the relationship of fatigue life and expansion was analyzed. Residual stresses were measured with different expension,and the fatigue fractograph was analyzed by SEM. The results show that the split-sleeve cold expansion can obtain longer life compared with the non strengthened hole. The maximum fatigue life increased to 12 times with 6% expansion. When over 6% expansion, fatigue life began to decrease. The split-sleeve cold expansion can form beneficial rasidual compressive stress,and deferred the fatigue crack initiation. The fatigue fractograph shows mixed transgranular fracture.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2072
Yilian Zhang, Long Yu, Qingzhen Bi, Nuodi Huang, Yuhan Wang
Interference-fit riveting is a critical fastening technique in the field of aerospace assembly. Besides the basic connection performance as conventional riveting, interference-fit riveting also improves both the fatigue performance of rivet hole and the sealing performance of rivet joint. Both of the fatigue and sealing performance are determined by the interference-fit level of the rivet joint. The lower level of interference-fit causes the leakage way existing in the rivet joint, while the excessive level of interference-fit results in stress concentration around the rivet joint at where the initial cracks appearing. However, the conventional interference-fit level measurement methods are based on direct measurement by destructive test on test-piece, or indirect measurement by off-line dimensional measurement of upset rivet head. Each of the measurement methods goes against automatic riveting.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2076
Dave Cobcroft
Paper Title: IPAC 180 Author: Thorsten Dillhoefer, Broetje-Automation GmbH Mailing Address: Broetje-Automation GmbH Am Autobahnkreuz 14 26180 Rastede Germany Phone: +49 (0) 4402 966-300 Fax: +49 (0) 4402 966-289 E-Mail: Thorsten.dillhoefer@broetje-automation.de Paper Content: To increase the accessibility and maintainability of our well known IPAC automation concept, we have designed a new version of this time proven system for 180 degree super panel assemblies. This new design includes also an innovative “T” lower ram configuration, high speed positioning, innovative operator interfaces, as well as an optimized platform concept to reduce the maintenance and set up of the machine thereby increasing overall throughput.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2078
Eric Barton, Jaysa Stuhlsatz
The following technical paper details a unique automatic fastening application utilizing a high accuracy off-the-shelf Fanuc robot to position aircraft door assemblies within a static C-Frame Drivmatic automatic fastening machine. Demand for higher installed fastener quality, repeatability, accuracy, eliminating re-work and faster throughput paved the way to a new approach for automatically fastening some of the most challenging and labor intensive aero structure assemblies.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2099
Peter B. Zieve, Troy Gray, Christopher Wright
Electroimpact has retrofit two E4100 riveting gantry machines and two more are in process. These machines use the EMR riveting process for the installation of slug rivets. We have improved the skin side EMR to provide fast and reliable results. In paper 2015-01-2515 we showed the slug rivet injector using a Synchronized Parallel Gripper that provides good results over multiple rivet diameters. This injector is mounted to the skin side EMR so that the rivet injection can be done at any position of the shuttle table. The EMR is a challenging application for the fingers due to shock and vibration. In previous designs fingers would occasionally be thrown out of the slots. To provide reliable results we redesigned the fingers retainer to capture the finger in a slotted plastic block which slides along the outside diameter of the driver bearing. The various size fingers are pinned to the block in such a fashion as to allow rotation and clamping on the rivet.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2153
Patrick Land, Petros Stavroulakis, Richard Crossley, Patrick Bointon, Harvey Brookes, Jon Wright, Svetan Ratchev, David Branson
Inspection of Composite panels is vital to the assessment of their ability to be fit for purpose. Conventional methods such as X-ray CT and Ultrasonic scanning can be used, however, these are often expensive and time consuming processes. In this paper we investigate the use of off the shelf NDT equipment utilizing Fringe projection and open source software to rapidly evaluate a series of composite panels. These results are then verified using destructive analysis of the panels to prove the reliability of the rapid NDT methods for use with evaluating carbon composite panels. This process allows us to rapidly identify regions of geometric intolerance or formed defects without the use of expensive sub-surface scanning systems, enabling a fast and cost effective initial part evaluation system. The focus of this testing series is on 6mm thick pre-preg carbon-epoxy composite laminates that have been laid up using (AFP) and formed using Thermal Roll Forming (TRF).
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2142
Brandon Mahoney, Jamie Marshall, Thomas Black, Dennis Moxley
It is well recognized that weight savings within an airframe can result in significant lifetime cost savings and increased flight range. The transition of aluminum alloys to lighter, composite materials is an increasingly prevalent strategy to reduce weight on aircraft. This paper describes the application of a lightweight carbon fiber composite technology to aviation, engine start lithium batteries. The transition of lithium battery chassis technology from metal to composite introduces technical challenges not found with traditional battery chassis. Modern lithium batteries contain more than energy cells; common internal components include switch mode battery chargers, health and safety monitoring electronics, and even environmental control circuitry such as heaters. Consequently, electromagnetic interference disruption potential created by the electronics must be addressed.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2017
Catherine Ninah, Brian Strevens, Cole Barcia, Isabelle Labbe, Michael Frenna, Austin Faulconer, Keon Habbaba, Katherine Loundy, Louis Schaefer, Alexa Frost, Andrew Foran, Robert Brown, Luis Rabelo
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing for a manned mission to Mars to test the sustainability of civilization on the planet Mars. Our research explores the requirements and feasibility of autonomously producing fuel on Mars for a return trip back to Earth. As a part of NASA’s initiative for a manned trip to Mars, our team’s work creates and analyzes the allocation of resources necessary in deploying a fuel station on this foreign soil. Previous research has addressed concerns with a number individual components of this mission such as power required for fuel station and tools; however, the interactions between these components and the effects they would have on the overall requirements for the fuel station are still a mystery to NASA. By creating a baseline discrete-event simulation model in a simulation software called Simio, the research team has been able to replicate the fuel production process on Mars.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2100
Carter L. Boad
A fully automated off-line cartridge filling station has been commissioned to support the new Boeing SAL production cell. The filing station uses automated fastener feed technology that is typically found on the machines themselves. Incorporating this technology off-line in place of the traditional manual handling processes extends the benefits of automation beyond the main manufacturing cell. A single operator is able to keep up with the demand of eight production fastening machines while maintaining the highest levels of accuracy and quality. Additional benefits to this application of automation include reduction of the operators exposure to risks associated with manual handling and repetitive tasks.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2022
Katherine Loundy, Louis Schaefer, Andrew Foran, Catherine Ninah, Khristopher Bandong, Robert Brown, Hunter Heston, John-Paul Steed, William Young, Mark Heinrich, Luis Rabelo
The future of human exploration in the solar system is contingent on the ability to exploit resources in-situ to produce mission consumables. Specifically, it has become clear that the success of a manned mission to Mars will likely depend on fuel components created on the Martian surface. While several architectures for an un-manned fuel production surface facility on Mars exist in theory, a simulation of the performance and operation of these architectures has not been created. In this paper, the framework describing a simulation of one such architecture is defined. Within this architecture, each component of the base is implemented as a state machine, with the ability to communicate with other base elements as well as a supervisor. An environment supervisor is also created which governs low level aspects of the simulation such as movement and resource distribution, in addition to higher-level aspects such as location selection with respect to operations specific behavior.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2165
Christian Moeller, Hans Christian Schmidt, Philip Koch, Christian Boehlmann, Simon Kothe, Jörg Wollnack, Wolfgang Hintze
The high demand of efficient large scale machining operations by concurrently decreasing operating time and costs has led to an increasing usage of industrial robots in contrast to large scaled machining centers. The main disadvantage of industrial robots used for machining processes is their poor absolute accuracy, caused by the serial construction, resilience of gearings and sensitivity for temperature changes. Additionally high process forces that occur during machining of CFRP structures in aerospace industry lead to significant path errors due to low structural stiffness of the robot kinematic. These errors cannot be detected by means of motor encoders. That is why calibration processes and internal control laws have no effect on errors caused by elastic deformation. In this research paper an approach for increasing the absolute accuracy of an industrial milling robot with help of a laser tracker system during machining tasks will be presented.
2017-06-26
Solution Notes
SN-0002
High-Speed Inspection: Maintain Cycle Time, Ensure Fastener Quality is a Solution Notes covering the possibility to inspect all fasteners without affecting installation times by applying a process to automatically measure fasteners while they move through a feed tube into the installation machine. Solution Notes are short, information pieces covering dynamic and emerging technologies within the aerospace and automotive industries to keep you up to date on how new, applied technologies are being used within the mobility space.
2017-06-26
Solution Notes
SN-0001
Automating a manufacturing process often comes with substantial investment or sustained operational costs of complex subsystems. But, by reducing complexity and using technologically mature components, it is possible to develop viable scaled and robust automated solutions. For the past several years, aerospace manufacturers have endeavored to automate manufacturing processes as much as possible for both production efficiencies and competitive advantage. Automating processes like drilling, fastening, sealing, painting, and composite material production have reaped a wide range of benefits; from improving quality and productivity to lowering worker ergonomic risks. The results have improved supply chains from small component manufacturers all the way up to airframe assemblers. That said, automation can be very expensive, and difficult to introduce when a product is anywhere beyond the beginning of its life cycle.
2017-06-26
White Paper
WP-0001
NASA has embarked on an ambitious program to integrate additive manufacturing techniques and to develop processes for the microgravity environment. The most recent example of this program is the successful launch and deployment of the first 3D printer on the International Space Station. In this one-year effort, students were required to meet a series of milestones to design, manufacture, and test their ideas in close cooperation with members of the NASA Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) concept team.The participants in this project were tasked with thinking of new solutions using AM that would simultaneously be recyclable with minimal loss in mechanical properties but also have the capacity for high mechanical properties. Working in interdisciplinary teams, the participant teams investigated the use of recycled materials, characterization, testing, modeling, and tool development.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2108
Marc Fette, Kim Schwake, Jens Wulfsberg, Frank Neuhaus, Manila Brandt
Abstract The rising demand for civil aircraft leads to the development of flexible and adaptive production systems in aviation industry. Due to economic efficiency, operational accuracy and high performance these manufacturing and assembly systems must be technologically robust and standardized. The current aircraft assembly and its jigs are characterized by a high complexity with poor changeability and low adaptability. In this context, the use of industrial robots and standardized jigs promise highly flexible and accurate complex assembly operations. This paper deals with the flexible and adaptable aircraft assembly based on industrial robots with special end-effectors for shaping operations. By the development and use of lightweight gripper system made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics the required scaling, robustness and stiffness of the whole assembly system can be realized.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2110
Ilker Erdem, Peter Helgosson, Ashwin Gomes, Magnus Engstrom
Abstract The ability to adapt to rapidly evolving market demands continues to be the one of the key challenges in the automation of assembly processes in the aerospace industry. To meet this challenge, industry and academia have made efforts to automate flexible fixturing. LOCOMACHS (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) - a European Union funded project with 31 partners - aims to address various aspects of aero-structure assembly with a special attention directed to the development of a new build philosophy along with relevant enabling technologies. This paper aims to present the results on the developed wing box build philosophy and the integration of automated flexible tooling solutions into the assembly process. The developed solution constitutes the use of synchronized hexapods for the assembly of front spar to upper cover whereas another hexapod was developed to install a rib by using of a force feedback sensor.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2107
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Matthias Scholer, Jan Ball
Abstract The global competition challenges aircraft manufactures in high wage countries. The assembly of large components is very difficult and distinguished by fixed position assembly. Many complex assembly processes such as aircraft assembly are manually done by highly skilled workers. The aircraft manufactures deal with a varying number of items, increasing number of product variants and strict product requirements. During the assembly process hundreds of clips, ties and stringers as well as thousands of rivets must be assembled. To remain competitive in global competition, companies in high wage countries like Germany must insure a continuously high productivity and quality level. To achieve a reduction of cycle times with a simultaneous increase in quality, supportive assistance systems for visual support, documentation and organization within the assembly are required. One example for visual assistance systems are laser projection systems.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2104
Robert Flynn, Kevin Payton-Stewart, Patrick Brewer, Ryan W. Davidge
Abstract Figure 1 Global 7000 Business Jet. Photo credit: Robert Backus. The customer’s assembly philosophy demanded a fully integrated flexible pulse line for their Final Assembly Line (FAL) to assemble their new business jets. Major challenges included devising a new material handling system, developing capable positioners and achieving accurate joins while accommodating two different aircraft variants (requiring a “flexible” system). An additional requirement was that the system be easily relocated to allow for future growth and reorganization. Crane based material handling presents certain collision and handover risks, and also present a logistics challenge as cranes can become overworked. Automated guided vehicles can be used to move large parts such as wings, but the resulting sweep path becomes a major operational limitation. The customer did not like the trade-offs for either of these approaches.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2109
Michael Morgan, Caroline McClory, Colm Higgins, Yan Jin, Adrian Murphy
Aerospace structures are typically joined to form larger assemblies using screw lock or swage lock fasteners or rivets. Countersunk fasteners are used widely in the aerospace industry on flying surfaces to reduce excrescence drag and increase aircraft performance. These fasteners are typically installed to a nominal countersink value which leaves them flush to the surface before being locked into position. The Northern Ireland Technology Centre (NITC) at Queen’s University Belfast has developed and demonstrated two processes which enable high tolerance flush fastening of countersunk fasteners: The ‘Flush Install’ process produces countersunk holes based on the specific geometry of each individual fastener; The ‘Fettle Flush’ process accurately machines fasteners to match the surrounding surface. Flushness values well within the allowable tolerances have been demonstrated for both Flush Install and Fettle Flush processes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2103
Eric Barton
This technical paper details an optimized Drivmatic machine design delivered to a Tier 1 aero structure supplier to automate drilling and installation of rivets, hi-loks, lockbolts & swage collars for individual fuselage panel assemblies with high throughput & strict quality requirements. While certain robot solutions continue to be explored for specific applications at many Tier 1 aero structure suppliers, robot payload capacity has limitations beyond certain criteria, which often times point towards an alternative machine design as in this case study. A typical approach for adding more automation is to allocate shop floor space based on the solution’s foot print, however contrary to most approaches this solution had to be designed to fit within a pre-determined factory footprint over a geographic location with a high water table that would not permit a foundation.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2106
Dan R.W. Vaughan, Otto J. Bakker, David Branson, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract Aircraft manufacturers desire to increase production to keep up with anticipated demand. To achieve this, the aerospace industry requires a significant increase in the manufacturing and assembly performance to reach required output levels. This work therefore introduces the Variation Aware Assembly (VAA) concept and identifies its suitability for implementation into aircraft wing assembly processes. The VAA system concept focuses on achieving assemblies towards the nominal dimensions, as opposed to traditional tooling methods that aim to achieve assemblies anywhere within the tolerance band. It enables control of the variation found in Key Characteristics (KC) that will allow for an increase in the assembly quality and product performance. The concept consists of utilizing metrology data from sources both before and during the assembly process, to precisely position parts using motion controllers.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2105
Thomas G. Jefferson, Richard Crossley, Anthony Smith, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract This paper presents novel development of a reconfigurable assembly cell which assembles multiple aerostructure products. Most aerostructure assembly systems are designed to produce one variant only. For multiple variants, each assembly typically has a dedicated assembly cell, despite most assemblies requiring a process of drilling and fastening to similar tolerances. Assembly systems that produce more than one variant do exist but have long changeover or involve extensive retrofitting. Quick assembly of multiple products using one assembly system offers significant cost savings from reductions in capital expenditure and lead time. Recent trends advocate Reconfigurable Assembly Systems (RAS) as a solution; designed to have exactly the functionality necessary to produce a group of similar components. A state-of-the-art review finds significant benefits in deploying RAS for a group of aerostructures variants.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2098
Christophe Vandaele, Didier Friot, Simon Marry, Etienne Gueydon
Abstract With more than 10 000 aircrafts in their order backlog Aircraft manufacturers focus on automated assembly is of critical importance for the future of efficient production assembly. Moreover to obtain maximum benefit from automation, it is necessary to achieve not only an automated assembly cell, but also a real breakthrough in fastener technology. The optimum solution, known as “One Side Assembly”, performs the whole assembly sequence from one side of the structure using an accurate robot arm equipped with a multifunction end effector and high performance fasteners. This configuration provides an efficient and flexible automated installation process, superior to current solutions which are typically, large scale, capital intensive systems, which still require operators to complete or control the fastener installation. The search for a technological breakthrough in this domain has been targeted for more than 15 years by many aircraft manufacturers.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 2190