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Viewing 151 to 180 of 8952
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2093
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Ortwin Mailahn
Abstract Many assembly processes, particularly in the manufacture of aircraft components, are still carried out by humans manually. In addition to rationalization aspects, high quality requirements, non-ergonomic activities, the lack of well-qualified workers etc. may require the use of automation technology. Through novel possibilities of human-robot-cooperation these challenges can be met through a skills-based division of labor. Tasks are assigned to humans and robots in a way that the respective strengths can be used most efficiently. This article presents, how assembly processes can get empowered for human-robot-cooperation, using a specific work description for humans and robots, an assembly priority chart and suitable robot programs, to prepare for a skills-based task assignment. In the area of formerly exclusively manual assembly, the operations for the assembly of the product must first be described in detail.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2091
Raul Cano, Oscar Ibanez de Garayo, Miguel Angel Castillo, Ricardo Marin, Hector Ascorbe, Jose Ramon de los Santos
Abstract The aim of this paper is to present a robust and low-cost automatic system for drilling aluminum stacks, as well as an integral methodology for the design of tool trajectories and the control of the drilling process itself. The proposed system employs a high accuracy robotic arm, a commercial spindle head and a specially developed SCADA, which enables it to load tool trajectories designed by using any software application. Furthermore, this SCADA is useful to monitor the main parameters of the drilling process for anticipating problems related to the unexpected tool wear or for a quick response in case of tool collision. A special jig for positioning the stack to be drilled is designed to increase the robot accessibility. In this work, tests are performed for optimizing the cutting parameters of the robotic system in order to maximize the accuracy and the surface finishing of the holes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2084
Curtis Hayes
Abstract Successfully riveting aerospace fatigue-rated structure (for instance, wing panels) requires achieving rivet interference between a minimum and a maximum value in a number of locations along the shank of the rivet. In unbalanced structure, where the skin is much thicker than the stringer, this can be particularly challenging, as achieving minimum interference at the exit of the skin (D2) can often be a problem without exceeding the maximum interference at the exit of the stringer (D4). Softer base materials and harder, higher-strength rivets can compound the problem, while standard manufacturing variations in hardness of part and rivet materials can cause repeatability issues in the process. This paper presents a solution that has been successfully implemented on a production commercial aircraft.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2083
Steven P. Smith
Abstract This paper traces the development of a temporary blind fastener in the aircraft industry. These are used with automated drilling machines as part of an integrated assembly process where one-way assembly is inappropriate. Traditional blind temporary fasteners have a high protrusion (stand-off) on the side they are installed from, effectively preventing automated drilling. No suitable fastener was available on the market and existing suppliers were uninterested in development at the time. A set of requirements were created out of the need to improve efficiency of A380 wing assembly. However focus changed as the A350XWB programme demanded such a fastener. Testing, development and Stress approval are described leading to full deployment. Finally the paper looks at the additional factors which are required to successfully introduce a new standard of temporary fastening process.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2087
Hunter O'Folan, Peter B. Zieve
Abstract There is an ever-present risk for the lower ram on a riveting machine to suffer a damaging collision with aircraft parts during automated fastening processes. The risk intensifies when part frame geometry is complex and fastener locations are close to part features. The lower anvil must be led through an obstructive environment, and there is need for crash protection during side-to-side and lowering motion. An additional requirement is stripping bolt collars using the downward motion of the lower ram, which can require as much as 2500 pounds of pulling force. The retention force on the lower anvil would therefore need to be in excess of 2500 pounds. To accomplish this a CNC controlled electromagnetic interface was developed, capable of pulling with 0-3400 pounds. This electromagnetic safety base releases when impact occurs from the sides or during downward motion (5 sided crash protection), and it retains all riveting and bolting functionality.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2085
Kyle Pritz, Brent Etzel, Zheng Wei
The automation cycle time of wing assembly can be shortened by the automated installation of single-sided temporary fasteners to provide temporary part clamping and doweling during panel drilling. Feeding these fasteners poses problems due to their complexity in design and overall heavy weight. In the past, Electroimpact has remotely fed these fasteners by blowing them through pneumatic tubing. This technique has resulted in occasional damage to fasteners during delivery and a complex feed system that requires frequent maintenance. Due to these issues, Electroimpact has developed a new fully automated single-sided temporary fastening system for installation of the LISI Clampberry fasteners in wing panels for the C919 wing factory in Yanliang, China. The feed system stores fasteners in gravity-fed cartridges on the end effector near the point of installation.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2120
David Judt, Kevin Forster, Helen Lockett, Craig Lawson, Philip Webb
Abstract In the civil aircraft industry there is a continuous drive to increase the aircraft production rate, particularly for single aisle aircraft where there is a large backlog of orders. One of the bottlenecks is the wing assembly process which is largely manual due to the complexity of the task and the limited accessibility. The presented work describes a general wing build approach for both structure and systems equipping operations. A modified build philosophy is then proposed, concerned with large component pre-equipping, such as skins, spars or ribs. The approach benefits from an offloading of the systems equipping phase and allowing for higher flexibility to organize the pre-equipping stations as separate entities from the overall production line. Its application is presented in the context of an industrial project focused on selecting feasible system candidates for a fixed wing design, based on assembly consideration risks for tooling, interference and access.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2121
Pavel Lykov, Rustam M. Baytimerov, Artem Leyvi, Dmitry Zherebtsov, Alexey Shultc
Abstract The copper-nickel alloys are widely used in various industries. The adding of nickel significantly enhances mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and thermoelectric properties of copper. The technology was proposed of production of copper-nickel composite micro-powders by the gaseous deposition of nickel on the surface of copper powder. The vaporization of nickel was implemented by using magnetron. The relationship between mode of processing and the ratio of phases in the powder was investigated. The proposed method allows to modify the powder surface without deformation of the particles. The possibility of using of obtained composite powder in selective laser melting (SLM) was evaluated. It is assumed that the structure of the obtained composite material (SLM) will have inclusions of nickel and continuous chain of copper. This structure will have high mechanical properties and high electrical conductivity.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2118
Patrick Land, Luis De Sousa, Svetan Ratchev, David Branson, Harvey Brookes, Jon Wright
Abstract With increased demand for composite materials in the aerospace sector there is a requirement for the development of manufacturing processes that enable larger and more complex geometries, whilst ensuring that the functionality and specific properties of the component are maintained. To achieve this, methods such as thermal roll forming are being considered. This method is relatively new to composite forming in the aerospace field, and as such there are currently issues with the formation of part defects during manufacture. Previous work has shown that precise control of the force applied to the composite surface during forming has the potential to prevent the formation of wrinkle defects. In this paper the development of various control strategies that can robustly adapt to different complex geometries are presented and compared within simulated and small scale experimental environments, on varying surface profiles.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2119
Gergis W. William, Samir N. Shoukry, Jacky C. Prucz, Mariana M. William
Abstract Air cargo containers are used to load freight on various types of aircrafts to expedite their handling. Fuel cost is the largest contributor to the total cost of ownership of an air cargo container. Therefore, a better fuel economy could be achieved by reducing the weight of such containers. This paper aims at developing innovative, lightweight design concepts for air cargo containers that would allow for weight reduction in the air cargo transportation industry. For this purpose, innovative design and assembly concepts of lightweight design configurations of air cargo containers have been developed through the applications of lightweight composites. A scaled model prototype of a typical air cargo container was built to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of creating such a container from fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials. The paper is the authoritative source for the abstract.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2116
Peter Mueller-Hummel
Abstract Drilling holes into metal with MQL (Minimal Quantity Lubrication) is a normal procedure, because the drill is designed for drilling metal and the malleable capability of the metal compensates for the insufficient cutting capability of a worn out drill. Drilling composite materials using the same drill (designed for drilling metal) is a different procedure, because composite fibers are not malleable like metal at all. Due to this fact the tools become very hot trying to forge composite fibers like metal. The elastic behavior of the composite and the delamination inside the hole makes the tool temporary smaller than the diameter of the drill. The hole in the metal part of the stack remains slightly larger due to the heat and the thermal expansion rate. This paper shows how to drill metal and composite with the same diameter, so that achieving H8 quality is no longer a dream.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2117
Rustam M. Baytimerov, Pavel Lykov, Sergei Sapozhnikov, Dmitry Zherebtsov, Konstantin Bromer
Abstract The development of Additive Technologies (SLS/SLM, EBM, DMD) suggests the increase of range expansion of materials used. One of the most promising directions is products manufacturing from composite materials. The technology of composite micro-powders production on the basis of heat-resistant nickel alloy EP648 and Al2O3 is proposed. The aim of this research is to develop a method of producing composite micropowders for additive technology application. This method is based on modification of the metal micropowders surface by the second phase in a planetary mixer (mechanochemical synthesis).The obtained composite micropowders are compared with powders which are recommended for selective laser melting usage (produced by MTT Technology). The equipment used in the research: planetary mixer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical granulomorphometer Occio 500nano.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2113
Raphael Reinhold
Abstract Resin transfer molding (RTM) is gaining importance as a particularly economical manufacturing method for composites needed in the automotive and aerospace industries. With this method, the component is first shaped with dry fiber reinforcements in a so-called “preforming process” before the mold is placed in a RTM tool, injected with resin and cured. In recent years, Broetje-Automation has been developing innovative product solutions that are specially designed for these preforming processes and suitable for industrial use. For the first time ever, Broetje’s Composite Preforming Cell (CPC) makes large-quantity serial production of complex and near-net-shape preforms for composite components using this RTM process possible. With the additional integration of the patented 3D Composite Handling System Broetje impressively demonstrates its service and product portfolio in the area of innovative composite manufacturing technology and its know-how as a complete system integrator.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2114
Matthias Meyer
Carbon composites have been on an odyssey within the past 15 years. Starting on the highest expectations regarding the performance, reality was hitting a lot of programs hard. Carbon composites were introduced on a very high technical level and industry has shown of being capable to handle those processes in general. In particular, production never sleeps and processes undergo a continuous change. Within these changes costs remain the most critical driver. As products are improving during their lifetime, they usually increase the degree of complexity, too. According to the normal cost improvement, this has drastic consequences for production. When setting up the first generation of composite production, the part being produced has been in the centre of attention.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2111
Juan Carlos Antolin-Urbaneja, Juan Livinalli, Mildred Puerto, Mikel Liceaga, Antonio Rubio, Angel San-Roman, Igor Goenaga
Abstract Gaps in composite structures are a risky factor in aeronautical assemblies. For mechanically joined composite components, the geometrical conformance of the part can be problematic due to undesired or unknown re-distribution of loads within a composite component, with these unknowns being potentially destructive. To prevent unnecessary preloading of a metallic structure, and the possibility of cracking and delamination in a composite structure, it is important to measure all gaps and then shim any gaps greater than 127 microns. A strategy to overcome the high relative tolerances for assemblies lies in the automated manufacturing of shims for the gaps previously predicted through the evaluation of their volumes via a simulation tool. This paper deals with the development of a special end-effector prototype to enable the shimming of gaps in composites structures using a pre-processed geometry.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2112
Hilmar Apmann
Abstract As a new material FML, made by aluminum foils and Glasfiber-Prepreg, is a real alternative to common materials for fuselages of aircrafts like monolithic aluminum or CFRP. Since experiences within A380 this material has some really good advantages and develops to the status as alternative to aluminum and composite structures. To become FML as a real alternative to aluminum and carbon structures there are many things to improve: design, material, costs and process chain. So following one of the main goals for an industrial application for high production rates of aircrafts is the automation of production processes inside the process chain for FML-parts like skins and panels for fuselages. To reach this goal for high production rates first steps of automation inside this new process chain have been developed in the last two years. Main steps is the automated lay-up of metallic foils and Glasfiber-Prepreg.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2109
Michael Morgan, Caroline McClory, Colm Higgins, Yan Jin, Adrian Murphy
Aerospace structures are typically joined to form larger assemblies using screw lock or swage lock fasteners or rivets. Countersunk fasteners are used widely in the aerospace industry on flying surfaces to reduce excrescence drag and increase aircraft performance. These fasteners are typically installed to a nominal countersink value which leaves them flush to the surface before being locked into position. The Northern Ireland Technology Centre (NITC) at Queen’s University Belfast has developed and demonstrated two processes which enable high tolerance flush fastening of countersunk fasteners: The ‘Flush Install’ process produces countersunk holes based on the specific geometry of each individual fastener; The ‘Fettle Flush’ process accurately machines fasteners to match the surrounding surface. Flushness values well within the allowable tolerances have been demonstrated for both Flush Install and Fettle Flush processes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2110
Ilker Erdem, Peter Helgosson, Ashwin Gomes, Magnus Engstrom
Abstract The ability to adapt to rapidly evolving market demands continues to be the one of the key challenges in the automation of assembly processes in the aerospace industry. To meet this challenge, industry and academia have made efforts to automate flexible fixturing. LOCOMACHS (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) - a European Union funded project with 31 partners - aims to address various aspects of aero-structure assembly with a special attention directed to the development of a new build philosophy along with relevant enabling technologies. This paper aims to present the results on the developed wing box build philosophy and the integration of automated flexible tooling solutions into the assembly process. The developed solution constitutes the use of synchronized hexapods for the assembly of front spar to upper cover whereas another hexapod was developed to install a rib by using of a force feedback sensor.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2108
Marc Fette, Kim Schwake, Jens Wulfsberg, Frank Neuhaus, Manila Brandt
Abstract The rising demand for civil aircraft leads to the development of flexible and adaptive production systems in aviation industry. Due to economic efficiency, operational accuracy and high performance these manufacturing and assembly systems must be technologically robust and standardized. The current aircraft assembly and its jigs are characterized by a high complexity with poor changeability and low adaptability. In this context, the use of industrial robots and standardized jigs promise highly flexible and accurate complex assembly operations. This paper deals with the flexible and adaptable aircraft assembly based on industrial robots with special end-effectors for shaping operations. By the development and use of lightweight gripper system made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics the required scaling, robustness and stiffness of the whole assembly system can be realized.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2107
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Matthias Scholer, Jan Ball
Abstract The global competition challenges aircraft manufactures in high wage countries. The assembly of large components is very difficult and distinguished by fixed position assembly. Many complex assembly processes such as aircraft assembly are manually done by highly skilled workers. The aircraft manufactures deal with a varying number of items, increasing number of product variants and strict product requirements. During the assembly process hundreds of clips, ties and stringers as well as thousands of rivets must be assembled. To remain competitive in global competition, companies in high wage countries like Germany must insure a continuously high productivity and quality level. To achieve a reduction of cycle times with a simultaneous increase in quality, supportive assistance systems for visual support, documentation and organization within the assembly are required. One example for visual assistance systems are laser projection systems.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2106
Dan R.W. Vaughan, Otto J. Bakker, David Branson, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract Aircraft manufacturers desire to increase production to keep up with anticipated demand. To achieve this, the aerospace industry requires a significant increase in the manufacturing and assembly performance to reach required output levels. This work therefore introduces the Variation Aware Assembly (VAA) concept and identifies its suitability for implementation into aircraft wing assembly processes. The VAA system concept focuses on achieving assemblies towards the nominal dimensions, as opposed to traditional tooling methods that aim to achieve assemblies anywhere within the tolerance band. It enables control of the variation found in Key Characteristics (KC) that will allow for an increase in the assembly quality and product performance. The concept consists of utilizing metrology data from sources both before and during the assembly process, to precisely position parts using motion controllers.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2105
Thomas G. Jefferson, Richard Crossley, Anthony Smith, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract This paper presents novel development of a reconfigurable assembly cell which assembles multiple aerostructure products. Most aerostructure assembly systems are designed to produce one variant only. For multiple variants, each assembly typically has a dedicated assembly cell, despite most assemblies requiring a process of drilling and fastening to similar tolerances. Assembly systems that produce more than one variant do exist but have long changeover or involve extensive retrofitting. Quick assembly of multiple products using one assembly system offers significant cost savings from reductions in capital expenditure and lead time. Recent trends advocate Reconfigurable Assembly Systems (RAS) as a solution; designed to have exactly the functionality necessary to produce a group of similar components. A state-of-the-art review finds significant benefits in deploying RAS for a group of aerostructures variants.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2142
Pavel Lykov PhD, Artem Leyvi, Rustam M. Baytimerov, Aleksei Doikin, Evgeny Safonov
Abstract The treatment of solid surface by powerful streams of charged particles accelerated with power density ≥106 W/cm2 widely used for modification of different materials properties. The fast enter of electron beam power in the material of target causes the flow intense thermal and deformation processes. The changing of the structure, the phase composition, the microrelief of treated surface consequently happens. It is often accompanied by the hardening and increase of the wearing properties. The work proposed of using low-energy high-current electron beam as finish treatment of product obtained by selective laser melting of heat-resistant nickel alloy EP648. The subject of research was the surface properties of the product.
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-2139
Hendrik Susemihl, Christian Moeller, Simon Kothe, Hans Christian Schmidt, Nihar Shah, Christoph Brillinger, Jörg Wollnack, Wolfgang Hintze
Abstract A mobile robotic system is presented as a new approach for machining applications of large aircraft components. Huge and heavy workshop machines are commonly used for components with large dimensions. The system presented in this paper consists of a standard serial robot kinematics and a mobile platform as well as a stereo camera system for optical measurements. Investigations of the entire system show that the mechanical design of the mobile platform has no significant influence on the machining accuracy. With mobile machines referencing becomes an important issue. This paper introduces an optical method for determining the position of the mobile platform in relation to the component and shows its accuracy limits. Furthermore, a method for increasing the absolute accuracy of the robots end-effector with help of stereo camera vision is presented.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2137
Simon Kothe, Sven Philipp von Stürmer, Hans Christian Schmidt, Christian Boehlmann, Jörg Wollnack, Wolfgang Hintze
Abstract Strong market growth, upcoming global competition and the impact of customer-requirements in aerospace industry demand for more productive, flexible and cost-effective machining systems. Industrial robots have already demonstrated their advantages in smart and efficient production in a wide field of applications and industries. However, their use for machining of structural aircraft components is still obstructed by the disadvantage of low absolute accuracy and adverse reaction to process loads. This publication demonstrates and investigates different methods for performance assessment and optimization of robot-based machining systems. For conventional Cartesian CNC machining systems several methods and guidelines for performance assessment and error identification are available. Due to the attributes of a common 6-axis-robot serial kinematics these methods of decoupled and separated analysis fail, especially concerning optimization of the system.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2136
Oliver Pecat, Tebbe Paulsen, Philipp Katthöfer, Ekkard Brinksmeier, Sascha Fangmann
Abstract Insufficient chip extraction often leads to disruptions of automated drilling processes and will have a negative impact on the surface qualities. One opportunity to avoid chip accumulation is based on a kinematically enforced chip breakage caused by sinusoidal axial oscillations of the drilling tool. Recent investigations have shown that the quality of chip extraction is, amongst others, considerably depending on the chip shape and mass which are defined by the cutting parameters feed, amplitude and frequency. So far only mechanical systems in the form of tool holders have been available on the market, which are restricted to a fixed frequency (oscillation frequency is coupled to the spindle speed). In the present study a spindle with magnetic bearings was used which allows to adjust the oscillation frequency independent of the spindle speed and therefore enables all opportunities to affect the generated chip shapes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2133
Carl Landau
Abstract Aircraft manufacturers are seeking automated systems capable of positioning large structural components with a positional accuracy of ±0.25mm. Previous attempts at using coordinated arm robots for such applications have suffered from the use of low accuracy robots and minimal systems integration. Electroimpact has designed a system that leverages our patented Accurate Robot technology to create an extensively automated and comprehensively integrated process driven by the native airplane component geometry. The predominantly auto-generated programs are executed on a single Siemens CNC that controls two Electroimpact-enhanced Kuka 6 axis robots. This paper documents the system design including the specification, applicable technologies, descriptions of system components, and the comprehensive system integration. The first use of this system will be the accurate assembly of production empennage panels for the Boeing 777X, 787 and 777 airplanes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2129
Antonio Rubio, Luis Calleja, Javier Orive, Ángel Mújica, Asunción Rivero
Abstract Aluminum skin milling is a very challenging process due to the high quality requirements needed in the aeronautic and aerospace industries. Nowadays, on these markets, there are just two technological approaches able to face the manufacturing of this sort of wide thin blanks: chemical and mechanical milling by means of highly complex machines. Both solutions lead to a high investment requirement that affect directly on the application profitability on these industrial sectors. This paper presents a flexible machining system that allows milling skin shaped parts within required tolerances by means of an innovative universal holding fixture combined with an adaptive toolpath development. This flexible holding fixture can be adapted to the required shape and can hold uniformly the whole sheet surface. Besides, the solution includes an implementation that can adapt the machining toolpath by means of the skin thickness online measurement.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2130
Enkhsaikhan Boldsaikhan, Shintaro fukada, Mitsuo Fujimoto, Kenichi Kamimuki, Hideki Okada, Brent Duncan, Phuonghanh Bui, Michael Yeshiambel, Brian Brown, Alan Handyside
Abstract The Refill Friction Spot Joining (RFSJ) is an emerging solid-state spot welding technology that thermo-mechanically creates a molecular-level bond between the work-pieces. RFSJ does not consume any filler or foreign materials so that no additional weight is introduced to the assembly. As the solid-to-liquid phase transition is not involved in RFSJ in general, there is no lack of fusion or material deterioration caused by liquefaction and solidification. Unlike the conventional friction stir spot welding, RFSJ produces a spot joint with a perfectly flush surface finish without a key or exit hole. Currently, the aerospace industry employs solid rivets for fastening the primary structures as they meet the baseline requirements and have well-established standards and specifications.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2128
Henry Guo, Farid Ahdad, DeDong Xie
Abstract In this work we have proposed an interesting clamping solution of V-band which has an important industrial impact by reducing the cost and assembly process as well compare to the traditional V-band. The design what we are focusing for is applied for all size of turbochargers which helps to connect the hot components such as manifold and turbine housing. The cost for V-band is mainly from T-bolt. It is made from special stainless steel which represents 50% of the total cost. In this work it is proposed a new V-band joint by changing bolt clamping status from tension to compression. From tension to compression we change the bolt material from high cost steel to low cost steel. The new total cost is reduced by 40%. The prototype is made and performed in static tests including anti-rotating torque test and salt spray test. The new joint meets the design requirements at static condition. Further work will focus on the dynamic qualification and at high temperature as well.
Viewing 151 to 180 of 8952