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Viewing 121 to 150 of 8953
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0149
Edinilson Alves Costa
Abstract Mainly in the last 30 years so much research has been done on Fe-based calculation of seam welded thin-sheet structures fatigue life. However, available prediction methods have been developed for a limited range of geometries under ideal load conditions. Extrapolating to complex real world geometries and load conditions such those resultant from, for example, ground vehicles dislocation over rough surfaces, are least documented. One example of the application of seam welded thin-sheet structures in the ground vehicle industry is the powertrain installation bracketry. Such brackets are subject to variable amplitude loading sourced from powertrain and road surface irregularities and their fatigue strength is tightly dependent on the strength of their joints. In this paper, a FE-based force/moment method has been used for numerically predicting fatigue life of powertrain installation bracketry of a commercial truck submitted to variable amplitude loading.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0159
Mauro Iurk Rocha, Ivna Oliveira da Cruz, Maria Clara Kremer Faller, Antônio Carlos Scardini Villela, Sergio Roberto Amaral, Frederico Braz Silva, Sillas Oliva Filho
Abstract Vehicles manufacturers, in search of cost reduction, fill the tanks of recently manufactured vehicles with the least volume of fuel necessary for future commercialization. The adoption of such practice, depending on the diesel fuel storage conditions, may lead to oxidation products formation in the fuel system and to problems during the first start of these vehicles. Some vehicles manufacturers, trying to minimize the occurrence of these problems, replace the diesel fuel in the vehicle tank with new fuel when vehicle storage time reaches 90 days. As a result of such occurrences, the opportunity for a first fill diesel fuel development, that presented better oxidation stability during storage, was identified.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0169
Emilio C. Baraldi, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract The competition among automotive industries increases each year worldwide. Among their diverse needs, what can be highlighted are: market expansion, model diversification, competitive prices, customer-recognized quality, new products release in shorter time periods, among others. The occurrence of flaws that might compromise the health or safety of the product’s user is admittedly one of the largest issues for any manufacturer, especially if these flaws are identified after its commercialization (recall). In this work, a study on recall in the automotive industry in the Brazilian market will be presented, comprising the years of 2013 and 2014. Reasons and causes of recall are addressed, based on the sample of the aforementioned research, with special emphasis on flaws derived from the production process. The conclusion at the end of the work is that the final assembly in the automotive manufacturing process is what requires more attention from engineering area.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0171
Leandro Brasil Araujo, Juliano Tessaro, Renan Sardim
Abstract Due to financial global crisis started in 2008 and intensified in the past years in Brazil, the maintenance of a good company’s financial situation is a big challenge and it is more relevant in actual moment. Because of expected turbulent scenario for the next years, it is necessary to adopt strategies to mitigate risks that involve Supply Chain impacting industrial production. In this way, it is crucial adopt strategies and actions that assist to evaluate the performance of suppliers and its associate potential financial risk, what can be considered a companies’ success differential factor during crisis period as well. In this scenario, MWM Motores Diesel adopts an internal process of monitoring the risk of suppliers based on internally developed tools and others available at market.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0406
Rafael Aguera Rezeno da Silva, Alex de Souza Rodrigues, José Elias Tomazini, Marcelo Sampaio Martins, Kauê Cruz Silva, Michele Santos
Abstract Connecting rod joint optimization is a well-known design procedure used for new cranktrains, not only for truck applications, but also for passenger cars. Big end bolted joint is one of the most critical connecting rods regions under engine operation, especially due to joint opening phenomenon and consequent engine failure. Thus, in order to have a robust design, it is usually applied safety factors to absorb this design margin. However, due to the continuous increase of engine loads to attend different emission regulations, this design condition became a vital parameter for connecting rods. thyssenkrupp developed a joint evaluation methodology to be applied during conrod design, presenting better accuracy when compared to the standard development procedure, the VDI 2230 part 1, thus leading to better performance for real engine application. This approach combines the VDI design algorithm with a simple and fast finite element model for force and moment extraction.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0511
Wilcker Neuwald Schinestzki, Daniel Gustavo Schreiner, Carlos Eduardo Guex Falcão
Abstract The drag reduction system, commonly used in Formula 1, has as task to reduce the drag force that acts in the vehicle’s airfoils, increasing considerably its speed. When it comes to Formula SAE competition, since the speeds are lower than in F1, the purpose of the DRS can easily become the cooling, despite its name. This paper comes to the development of a drag reduction system applied to the frontal wing whose major objective is to increase the mass flow rate of air through the radiator. Based on a preliminary work supported by computational fluid dynamics, a frontal wing DRS can increase the mass flow rate in approximately 65% at an average velocity of 12 meters per second, which allows the team to use a smaller and lightweight radiator. The challenge was to design a lightweight and reliable automatic system, since it cannot fail nor take away the driver’s attention.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0230
Guilherme Canuto da Silva, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
Abstract Automotive industries are undergoing a transformation of their manufacturing systems. Called by the German government as Industrie 4.0, this transformation is based on the evolution of traditional Embedded Systems-ES to Cyber-Physical Systems-CPS. In the next years such evolution will have to reach transitory stages, where ES and CPS should coexist for a determined period of time (ES-CPS). Based on this projection, this work compares ES with CPS, identifies the main differences between these systems and thus forms a transitory stage of automotive manufacturing for the next years. The work is structured as follows: Introduction section places the reader on the treated subject and presents the methodology of the work. Later, Industrie 4.0, Embedded Systems (ES) and Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) are defined. Once this is done, the analysis of ES-CPS transition is finished. Analysis results are presented and a representation of ES-CPS transition is proposed.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0235
Juliana Lima da Silva Lopes, Cleber Albert Moreira Marques, Genildo de Moura Vasconcelos, Rafael Barreto Vieira, Flavio Fabricio Ventura de Melo Ferreira, Marcelo Henrique Souza Bomfim
Abstract This paper approaches the use of machine vision as an automation tool for verification tests in automotive Instrument Panel Cluster (IPC). A computer integrated with PXI modular instruments, machine vision software and Integrated Development Environment (IDE) composes the test system. The IPC is verified in closed-loop using the Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) technique in which the HiL system simulates all Electronic Control Units (ECUs) that interact with the IPC. Every simulated ECUs signals are sent to the IPC over CAN (Controller Area Network) bus or hardwired I/O using PXI modules integrated with IDE and its responses are captured by cameras. Using machine vision such images are subjected to Digital Image Processing (DIP) techniques as pattern matching, edge detection and Optical Character Recognition (OCR), which can be applied to interpret speedometer, tachometer, fuel gauges, display and warning lights.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0303
Frederico Fernandes Reis, Valdir Furlanetto, Gilmar Ferreira Batalha
Abstract To highlight the importance of resistance spot weld in the automotive industry, it's important know that a vehicle has on average 4,000 welding spots [BROWN; SCHWABER 2000] and based on worldwide vehicle production in 2015 with 90.78 million vehicles produced [OICA, 2015], were performed more than 363 billion welding spots. The number of machines in manual and automatic workstations (robots), based on 20 points by equipment and production of 45 vehicles / hour add up more than 20 million of welding machines in all over world. According new production lines are being introduced using the adaptive dynamic resistance control the welding constant current control are being replaced, so understand this technology and know implement it with efficiency needs a deep knowledge in how dynamic resistance works and correlate his behavior with the problems that causes failures in welding, so is necessary give for the welding engineers this knowledge.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0515
Ana Carolina Rodrigues Teixeira, José Ricardo Sodré, Lilian Lefol Nani Guarieiro, Erika Durão Vieira, Fabiano Ferreira de Medeiros, Carine Tondo Alves
Abstract In a scenario with growing population, increasing demand for energy and volatile prices of fossil fuel, there is a high incentive for the use of biofuels, especially those produced from waste material. In this context, second and third generation bioethanol (2G/3G) are interesting alternatives, as they can be produced from different raw material such as corn and rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, waste from pulp industry and microalgae. This paper presents an overview of the available technologies for both 2G and 3G bioethanol production, including lignocellulosic biomass feedstock, biocatalysts and cogeneration processes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8137
Amrut A. Patki
Abstract The overall cost of ownership of a product is dependent on the life of the product and the cost. To keep the cost of ownership down, it is important to understand how the life of the product can be increased while lowering the cost at the same time. We are also challenged to reduce the carbon footprint and improve energy requirements to become more sustainable and green. How can both of these necessities be achieved? “Remanufacturing” is a simple answer to this complex question. Remanufacturing can improve the useable life of a part or product by multiple times. It is cost effective compared to new part production and is reasonably inexpensive to end customer. The energy required for remanufacturing is less compared to its original manufacturing. Remanufacturing reuses/salvages most of the original content. Design for Remanufacturing is a fundamental change in design engineering process to meet remanufacturing requirements.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8116
Mrudula Uday Orpe, Monika Ivantysynova
Abstract Mobile Earth Moving Machinery like Skid-steer loaders have tight turning radius in limited spaces due to a short wheelbase which prevents the use of suspensions in these vehicles. The absence of a suspension system exposes the vehicle to ground vibrations of high magnitude and low frequency. Vibrations reduce operator comfort, productivity and life of components. Along with vibrations, the machine productivity is also hampered by material spillage which is caused by the tilting of the bucket due to the extension of the boom. The first part of the paper focuses on vibration damping. The chassis’ vibrations are reduced by the use of an active suspension element which is the hydraulic boom cylinder which is equivalent to a spring-damper. With this objective, a linear model for the skid steer loader is developed and a state feedback control law is implemented.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8138
Pranav Shinde, K Ravi, Nandhini Nehru, Sushant Pawar, Balaji Balakrishnan, Vinit Nair
Abstract Body in white (BIW) forms a major structure in any automobile. It is responsible for safety and structural rigidity of the vehicle. Also, this frame supports the power plant, auxiliary equipments and all body parts of the vehicle. When it comes to judging the performance of the vehicle, BIW is analyzed not only for its strength and shape but also the weight. Light weight BIW structures have grown rapidly in order to fulfill the requirements of the best vehicle performance in dynamic conditions. Since then lot of efforts have been put into computer-aided engineering (CAE), materials research, advanced manufacturing processes and joining methods. Each of them play a critical role in BIW functionality. Constructional designing, development of light materials with improved strength and special manufacturing practices for BIW are few research areas with scope of improvement. This paper attempts to review various factors studied for BIW weight reduction.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2077
Fatih Burak Sahin, Hans-Juergen Borchers, Cagatay Ucar
Abstract CFRP has been widely used in aerospace industries because of its high strength-to-weight ratio. However, drilling CFRP laminates is difficult due to the highly abrasive nature of the carbon fibers and low thermal conductivity of CFRP. Therefore for the manufacturers it is a challenge to drill CFRP materials without causing any delamination within the high quality requirements while also considering the costs of the process. This paper will discuss the process of drilling CFRP-Al stack ups within tight tolerances using a seven axis drilling robot. All components required for drilling are integrated in the drill end-effector. The pressure foot is extended in order to clamp the work piece, and then holes are drilled. The drilling process has four steps: moving to the fast approach level, controlled drill feed, countersink depth reach and drill retract. The cutter diameter range chosen for this paper is Ø 4.0 mm and Ø 7.9 mm.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2078
Torsten Logemann
The demand of flexible and cost-efficient solutions for automated fastening systems inspired us, the BROETJE-Automation, to develop the robot and end-effector technology to fulfil the customer’s requirement for a highly accurate, automated robot based drill and fastening system for an aerospace application. This paper describes an innovative mobile robot platform for multiple uses in aviation industry. The base platform will be equipped with suitable modular units to meet the requirements of each customer exactly. The required absolute positioning accuracy is reached by using a special compensation package for the robot that was developed by BROETJE Automation. Several aircraft manufacturers are operating with this mobile cell works on single aisle and twin aisle programs. This solution demonstrates how standard robots equipped with a mature compensation method resulted in a highly flexible and cost-efficient light weight automation response.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2079
Alexander Janssen, Thorsten Dillhoefer
The industry wide requirement of new highly flexible automated fastening systems in aircraft production has created the need for developing new fastening systems. This paper will focus on the development of the Frame Riveting Assembly Cell (FRAC) by BROETJE-Automation to meet this need. The new FRAC machine configuration is built for automated drilling and fastening of different aircraft type parts. It is highly flexible with a high speed positioning system mounted multifunction end effector. System travel is limited only by installed track length. The FRAC integrates well with conventional and reconfigurable automated fastening work holding tools.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2084
Curtis Hayes
Abstract Successfully riveting aerospace fatigue-rated structure (for instance, wing panels) requires achieving rivet interference between a minimum and a maximum value in a number of locations along the shank of the rivet. In unbalanced structure, where the skin is much thicker than the stringer, this can be particularly challenging, as achieving minimum interference at the exit of the skin (D2) can often be a problem without exceeding the maximum interference at the exit of the stringer (D4). Softer base materials and harder, higher-strength rivets can compound the problem, while standard manufacturing variations in hardness of part and rivet materials can cause repeatability issues in the process. This paper presents a solution that has been successfully implemented on a production commercial aircraft.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2087
Hunter O'Folan, Peter B. Zieve
Abstract There is an ever-present risk for the lower ram on a riveting machine to suffer a damaging collision with aircraft parts during automated fastening processes. The risk intensifies when part frame geometry is complex and fastener locations are close to part features. The lower anvil must be led through an obstructive environment, and there is need for crash protection during side-to-side and lowering motion. An additional requirement is stripping bolt collars using the downward motion of the lower ram, which can require as much as 2500 pounds of pulling force. The retention force on the lower anvil would therefore need to be in excess of 2500 pounds. To accomplish this a CNC controlled electromagnetic interface was developed, capable of pulling with 0-3400 pounds. This electromagnetic safety base releases when impact occurs from the sides or during downward motion (5 sided crash protection), and it retains all riveting and bolting functionality.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2090
Sergey Lupuleac, Margarita Petukhova, Julia Shinder, Alexander Smirnov, Mariia Stefanova, Nadezhda Zaitseva, Tatiana Pogarskaia, Elodie Bonhomme
Abstract The paper is devoted to description of features and functionalities of special software complex aimed at global simulation of junction process using efficient numerical algorithms. The paper presents the concept of developed software and its structure. Types of problems, which the complex is applicable for, are enumerated.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2089
Jose Guerra cEng, Miguel Angel Castillo
Abstract Aernnova experience on automatic drilling operations started in 1,999. The company signed a new contract with Embraer, to design, manufacture and assembly several structures of the model 170. It was big news for the company. But after that minute of pride, manufacturing engineering people of the company started to think about the process to assemble those big panels of the Horizontal Stabilizer, Vertical Stabilizer and Rear Fuselages in the best Quality and Cost. There were a lot of rows of rivets to install. Some ideas arisen, but the final decision was to forget the available processes at that time and think about to automate the drilling, countersink and riveting of the stringers, doublers and window frames to the panels. There were a lot of doubts, figures to do and obstacles, but the company took the decision of going ahead with that process. That step changed the state of the art at that time in the company.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2093
Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette, Ortwin Mailahn
Abstract Many assembly processes, particularly in the manufacture of aircraft components, are still carried out by humans manually. In addition to rationalization aspects, high quality requirements, non-ergonomic activities, the lack of well-qualified workers etc. may require the use of automation technology. Through novel possibilities of human-robot-cooperation these challenges can be met through a skills-based division of labor. Tasks are assigned to humans and robots in a way that the respective strengths can be used most efficiently. This article presents, how assembly processes can get empowered for human-robot-cooperation, using a specific work description for humans and robots, an assembly priority chart and suitable robot programs, to prepare for a skills-based task assignment. In the area of formerly exclusively manual assembly, the operations for the assembly of the product must first be described in detail.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2091
Raul Cano, Oscar Ibanez de Garayo, Miguel Angel Castillo, Ricardo Marin, Hector Ascorbe, Jose Ramon de los Santos
Abstract The aim of this paper is to present a robust and low-cost automatic system for drilling aluminum stacks, as well as an integral methodology for the design of tool trajectories and the control of the drilling process itself. The proposed system employs a high accuracy robotic arm, a commercial spindle head and a specially developed SCADA, which enables it to load tool trajectories designed by using any software application. Furthermore, this SCADA is useful to monitor the main parameters of the drilling process for anticipating problems related to the unexpected tool wear or for a quick response in case of tool collision. A special jig for positioning the stack to be drilled is designed to increase the robot accessibility. In this work, tests are performed for optimizing the cutting parameters of the robotic system in order to maximize the accuracy and the surface finishing of the holes.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2096
Simon Schnieders, Dirk Eickhorst
Abstract Drilling of high-strength titan material and composites in combination creates complex challenges in order to achieve required productivity and quality. Long spiral chips are characteristically for the titan drilling process, which leads to e.g. chip accumulation, high thermomechanical load, surface damages and excessive tool wear. The basic approach is the substitution of today’s peck drilling as current solution to this problem and the implementation of a vibration assisted drilling, so called micro-peck-drilling-process, to generate a kinematic chip breakage in a significant more efficient way. To meet perfectly the requirements regarding rates, quality and automation level, Broetje-Automation as system integrator has investigated and developed the implementation of different alternative high-performance systems and methods to approach the optimal oscillation movement of the tool.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2095
Agata Suwala, Lucy Agyepong, Andrew Silcox
Abstract Reduction of overall drag to improve aircraft performance has always been one of the goals for aircraft manufacturers. One of the key contributors to decreasing drag is achieving laminar flow on a large proportion of the wing. Laminar flow requires parts to be manufactured and assembled within tighter tolerance bands than current build processes. Drilling of aircraft wings to the tolerances demanded by laminar flow requires machines with the stiffness and accuracy of a CNC machine while having the flexibility and envelope of an articulated arm. This paper describes the development and evaluation of high accuracy automated processes to enable the assembly of a one-off innovative laminar flow wing concept. This project is a continuation of a previously published SAE paper related to the development of advanced thermally stable and lightweight assembly fixture required to maintain laminar flow tolerances.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2097
Sylvain Laporte, Cosme De Castelbajac, Mathieu Ladonne
Abstract The Vibration Assisted Drilling (VAD) process has been implemented in Automated Drilling Equipment (ADE) on an industrial scale since 2011. Today more than 11000 ADEs are currently used on aircraft assembly lines. As well as drawing up a short report on the use of this new process, the authors make an assessment on new challenges that VAD has to face up. Indeed production rates are increasing and ADE manufacturers improve their technologies, one of the most recent and major development concerning the electrical motorization of the machines. These evolutions are as many opportunities for the VAD provided you have a clever understanding as well as an expert knowledge of the process. Thus the authors propose a new dynamic model of the whole VAD system which integrates the behavior of the part, cutting tool/material pair and the machine. The confrontation of model results and experimental validation tests demonstrates the relevance of the works.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2099
Peter Mueller-Hummel, Thomas Langhorst
Abstract On CNC Machines, drilling holes under perfect condition is possible. For drilling holes into titanium, composite and aluminum stacked materials the specific cutting condition can be selected. Furthermore surrounding conditions such as peck cycle, MQL and force and torque monitoring can be easily adapted. When drilling holes in the final assembly, CNC machine tools cannot be employed due to sizes and accessibility. Power Feed Units or Automated Drill Units ADUs are very handy, flexible and depending upon the jig extremely rigid. Whenever a machine tool does not fit, ADUs are highly recommended. In comparison to machine tools, conventional pneumatic ADUs can be used with one fixed set of feed, speed and micro peck only. Due to that a compromise in cutting condition has to be chosen in drilling stacked material with different layers.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2103
Eric Barton
This technical paper details an optimized Drivmatic machine design delivered to a Tier 1 aero structure supplier to automate drilling and installation of rivets, hi-loks, lockbolts & swage collars for individual fuselage panel assemblies with high throughput & strict quality requirements. While certain robot solutions continue to be explored for specific applications at many Tier 1 aero structure suppliers, robot payload capacity has limitations beyond certain criteria, which often times point towards an alternative machine design as in this case study. A typical approach for adding more automation is to allocate shop floor space based on the solution’s foot print, however contrary to most approaches this solution had to be designed to fit within a pre-determined factory footprint over a geographic location with a high water table that would not permit a foundation.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2104
Robert Flynn, Kevin Payton-Stewart, Patrick Brewer, Ryan W. Davidge
Abstract Figure 1 Global 7000 Business Jet. Photo credit: Robert Backus. The customer’s assembly philosophy demanded a fully integrated flexible pulse line for their Final Assembly Line (FAL) to assemble their new business jets. Major challenges included devising a new material handling system, developing capable positioners and achieving accurate joins while accommodating two different aircraft variants (requiring a “flexible” system). An additional requirement was that the system be easily relocated to allow for future growth and reorganization. Crane based material handling presents certain collision and handover risks, and also present a logistics challenge as cranes can become overworked. Automated guided vehicles can be used to move large parts such as wings, but the resulting sweep path becomes a major operational limitation. The customer did not like the trade-offs for either of these approaches.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2105
Thomas G. Jefferson, Richard Crossley, Anthony Smith, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract This paper presents novel development of a reconfigurable assembly cell which assembles multiple aerostructure products. Most aerostructure assembly systems are designed to produce one variant only. For multiple variants, each assembly typically has a dedicated assembly cell, despite most assemblies requiring a process of drilling and fastening to similar tolerances. Assembly systems that produce more than one variant do exist but have long changeover or involve extensive retrofitting. Quick assembly of multiple products using one assembly system offers significant cost savings from reductions in capital expenditure and lead time. Recent trends advocate Reconfigurable Assembly Systems (RAS) as a solution; designed to have exactly the functionality necessary to produce a group of similar components. A state-of-the-art review finds significant benefits in deploying RAS for a group of aerostructures variants.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2106
Dan R.W. Vaughan, Otto J. Bakker, David Branson, Svetan Ratchev
Abstract Aircraft manufacturers desire to increase production to keep up with anticipated demand. To achieve this, the aerospace industry requires a significant increase in the manufacturing and assembly performance to reach required output levels. This work therefore introduces the Variation Aware Assembly (VAA) concept and identifies its suitability for implementation into aircraft wing assembly processes. The VAA system concept focuses on achieving assemblies towards the nominal dimensions, as opposed to traditional tooling methods that aim to achieve assemblies anywhere within the tolerance band. It enables control of the variation found in Key Characteristics (KC) that will allow for an increase in the assembly quality and product performance. The concept consists of utilizing metrology data from sources both before and during the assembly process, to precisely position parts using motion controllers.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 8953