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Viewing 91 to 120 of 8952
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0467
Wei Yuan, Brian Jordon, Bita Ghaffari, Harish Rao, Shengyi Li, Min Fan
Abstract Lightweight metals such as Al and Mg alloys have been increasingly used for reducing mass in both structural and non-structural applications in transportation industries. Joining these lightweight materials using traditional fusion welding techniques is a critical challenge for achieving optimum mechanical performance, due to degradation of the constituent materials properties during the process. Friction stir welding (FSW), a solid-state joining technique, has emerged as a promising method for joining these lightweight materials. In particular, high joining efficiency has been achieved for FSW of various Al alloys and Mg alloys separately. Recent work on FSW of dissimilar lightweight materials also show encouraging results based on quasi-static shear performance. However, coach-peel performance of such joints has not been sufficiently examined.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0468
Raj S. Roychoudhury
Abstract A new weld design to form plastic hollow articles is conceived. Its design is T-shaped such that the joint loading under pressure is no longer in peel but in tension, vertically to the weld surface. This weld design can be easily achieved, overcoming the limitation of die lock in injection molding and by the hot plate weld design adopted for this welding. Test samples were built to evaluate the new weld design concept and hot plates designed to help perform this weld joint. Pull test on the conventional L-shaped and the new T- shaped welded samples show an improvement of about 50% weld strength for the new T-shaped weld design. Hence a weld joint stronger than the parent material, in forming plastic hollow articles, is possible.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0536
William Goodwin, Claudio Mancuso, Nicolas Brown
This paper describes how distributive computing along with statistical subsystem simulation can be applied to produce near production ready embedded vehicle software and calibrations. Coupling distributive computing and statistical simulation was first employed over a decade ago at General Motors to design and analyze propulsion subsystem hardware. Recently this method of simulation has been enhanced extending its capabilities to both test embedded vehicle code as well as develop calibrations. A primary advantage of this simulation technique is its ability to generate data from a statistically significant population of subsystems. The result is the acquisition of an optimal data set enabling the development of a robust design now including both embedded code and calibrations. Additionally it has been shown that there are significant economic advantages in terms of time and cost associated with this type of development when compared to traditional method.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1201
Zhenli Zhang, Zhihong Jin, Perry Wyatt
Abstract Lithium plating is an important failure factor for lithium ion battery with carbon-based anodes and therefore preventing lithium plating has been a critical consideration in designs of lithium ion battery and battery management system. The challenges are: How to determine the charging current limits which may vary with temperature, state of charge, state of health, and battery operations? Where are the optimization rooms in battery design and management system without raising plating risks? Due to the complex nature of lithium plating dynamics it is hard to detect and measure the plating by any of experimental means. In this work we developed an electrochemical model that explicitly includes lithium plating reaction. It enables both determination of plating onset and quantification of plated lithium. We have studied the effects of charging pulses on homogenous plating in order to provide guidance for lithium ion battery design in hybrid applications.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1513
Young-Chang Cho, Chin-Wei Chang, Andrea Shestopalov, Edward Tate
Abstract The airflow into the engine bay of a passenger car is used for cooling down essential components of the vehicle, such as powertrain, air-conditioning compressor, intake charge air, batteries, and brake systems, before it returns back to the external flow. When the intake ram pressure becomes high enough to supply surplus cooling air flow, this flow can be actively regulated by using arrays of grille shutters, namely active grille shutters (AGS), in order to reduce the drag penalty due to excessive cooling. In this study, the operation of AGS for a generic SUV-type model vehicle is optimized for improved fuel economy on a highway drive cycle (part of SFTP-US06) by using surrogate models. Both vehicle aerodynamic power consumption and under-hood cooling performance are assessed by using PowerFLOW, a high-fidelity flow solver that is fully coupled with powertrain heat exchanger models.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1330
Youssef Ziada, Juhchin Yang, David DeGroat-Ives
Abstract Owing to decreased development cycle timing, designing components for manufacturability has never been as important. Assessing manufacturing feasibility has therefore become an increasingly important part of new product engineering. This manufacturing feasibility is conventionally assessed based on static stiffness of components and fixture assemblies. However, in many operations, excess vibration represents the actual limitation on processing a workpiece. Limits on how far into components a tool can reach or the amount of processing time required to machine a feature is commonly decreased significantly due to vibration. Critical time is spent resolving these vibration problems during product launches. Depending on the machining configurations these vibrations can be due to the part & work support structure or due to the tooling & spindle assembly.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0223
Haolong Liu, Weidong Wen, Xuming Su, Carlos Engler-Pinto, HongTae Kang
Abstract Morphological features of voids were characterized for T300/924 12-ply and 16-ply composite laminates at different porosity levels through the implementation of a digital microscopy (DM) image analysis technique. The composite laminates were fabricated through compression molding. Compression pressures of 0.1MPa, 0.3MPa, and 0.5MPa were selected to obtain composite plaques at different porosity levels. Tension-tension fatigue tests at load ratio R=0.1 for composite laminates at different void levels were conducted, and the dynamic stiffness degradation during the tests was monitored. Fatigue mechanisms were then discussed based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fatigue fracture surfaces. The test results showed that the presence of voids in the matrix has detrimental effects on the fatigue resistance of the material, depending on the applied load level.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0225
Gabriela Guerra, Ulises Figueroa-López, Andrea Guevara-Morales
Abstract The rapid growth of the emerging markets has pushed the automotive original equipment manufacturers to relocalize production to reduce manufacturing and logistic costs. To ensure an efficient and flexible supply chain, local suppliers are appointed. However, the characteristics of materials available in each region may have minor differences, and when geometry and process design recommendations that were developed for certain materials are implemented for materials under a different regional standard, different results are obtained. Such is the case of the clutch disc spacer bolt, in which its compression during riveting has a direct effect in the noise and vibration isolation of the vehicle.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0228
Yang Li, Zhangxing Chen, Hongyi Xu, Jeffrey Dahl, Danielle Zeng, Mansour Mirdamadi, Xuming Su
Abstract Compression molded SMC composed of chopped carbon fiber and resin polymer which balances the mechanical performance and manufacturing cost presents a promising solution for vehicle lightweight strategy. However, the performance of the SMC molded parts highly depends on the compression molding process and local microstructure, which greatly increases the cost for the part level performance testing and elongates the design cycle. ICME (Integrated Computational Material Engineering) approaches are thus necessary tools to reduce the number of experiments required during part design and speed up the deployment of the SMC materials. As the fundamental stage of the ICME workflow, commercial software packages for SMC compression molding exist yet remain not fully validated especially for chopped fiber systems. In the present study, SMC plaques are prepared through compression molding process.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0229
Hongyi Xu, Yang Li, Danielle Zeng
Abstract Process integration and optimization is the key enabler of the Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) of carbon fiber composites. In this work, automated workflows are developed for two types of composites: Sheet Molding Compounds (SMC) short fiber composites, and multi-layer unidirectional (UD) composites. For SMC, the proposed workflow integrates material processing simulation, microstructure representation volume element (RVE) models, material property prediction and structure preformation simulation to enable multiscale, multidisciplinary analysis and design. Processing parameters, microstructure parameters and vehicle subframe geometry parameters are defined as the design variables; the stiffness and weight of the structure are defined as the responses. For multi-layer UD structure, this work focuses on the discussion of different design representation methods and their impacts on the optimization performance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0230
Louise A. Powell, William E. Luecke, Matthias Merzkirch, Katherine Avery, Tim Foecke
Abstract The introduction of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites to structural components in lightweight automotive structures necessitates an assessment to evaluate that their crashworthiness dynamic response provides similar or higher levels of safety compared to conventional metallic structures. In order to develop, integrate and implement predictive computational models for CFRP composites that link the materials design, molding process and final performance requirements to enable optimal design and manufacturing vehicle systems for this study, the dynamic mechanical response of unidirectional (UD) and 2x2 twill weave CRFP composites was characterized at deformation rates applicable to crashworthiness performance. Non-standardized specimen geometries were tested on a standard uniaxial frame and an intermediate-to-high speed dynamic testing frame, equipped with high speed cameras for 3D digital image correlation (DIC).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0233
Weihong Guo, Shenghan Guo, Hui Wang, Xiao Yu, Annette Januszczak, Saumuy Suriano
Abstract The wide applications of automatic sensing devices and data acquisition systems in automotive manufacturing have resulted in a data-rich environment, which demands new data mining methodologies for effective data fusion and information integration to support decision making. This paper presents a new methodology for developing a diagnostic system using manufacturing system data for high-value assets in automotive manufacturing. The proposed method extends the basic attributes control charts with the following key elements: optimal feature subset selection considering multiple features and correlation structure, balancing the type I and type II errors in decision making, on-line process monitoring using adaptive modeling with control charts, and diagnostic performance assessment using shift and trend detection. The performance of the developed diagnostic system can be continuously improved as the knowledge of machine faults is automatically accumulated during production.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0242
Yakov Fradkin, Michel Cordonnier, Andrew Henry, David Newton
Abstract Ford Motor Company’s assembly plants build vehicles in a certain sequence. The planned sequence for the plant’s trim and final assembly area is developed centrally and is sent to the plant several days in advance. In this work we present the study of two cases where the plant changes the planned sequence to cope with production constraints. In one case, a plant pulls ahead two-tone orders that require two passes through the paint shop. This is further complicated by presence in the body shop area of a unidirectional rotating tool that allows efficient build of a sequence “A-B-C” but heavily penalizes a sequence “C-B-A”. The plant changes the original planned sequence in the body shop area to the one that satisfies both pull-ahead and rotating tool requirements. In the other case, a plant runs on lean inventories. Material consumption is tightly controlled down to the hour to match with planned material deliveries.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0452
David A. Stephenson
Abstract Thermally sprayed engine bores require surface preparation prior to coating to ensure adequate adhesion. Mechanical roughening methods produce repeatable surfaces with high adhesion strength and are attractive for high volume production. The currently available mechanical roughening methods are finish boring based processes which require diameter-specific tooling and significant clearance at the bottom of the bore for tool overtravel and retraction. This paper describes a new mechanical roughening method based on circular interpolation. This method uses two tools: a peripheral milling tool, which cuts a series of concentric grooves in the bore wall through interpolation, and a second rotary tool which deforms the grooves to produce an undercut. This method produces equivalent or higher bond strength than current surface preparation methods, and does not require diameter-specific tooling or bottom clearance for tool retraction.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0475
Catherine Amodeo, Jwo Pan
Abstract The distributions of the mode I and mode II stress intensity factor solutions along the fronts of the pre-existing cracks of continuous and discontinuous gas metal arc welds in lap-shear specimens are investigated by three-dimensional finite element analyses. Two-dimensional plane strain finite element analyses were first carried out in order to obtain the computational stress intensity factor solutions for the idealized and realistic weld geometries as the references. Further, the stress intensity factor solutions for realistic welds obtained from the two-dimensional finite element analyses are presented for unequal sheet thicknesses for future engineering applications. Then the stress intensity factor solutions for continuous and discontinuous welds were obtained by three-dimensional finite element analyses.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0470
Lunyu Zhang, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Xuming Su, Peter Friedman
Abstract Closed-form structural stress solutions are investigated for fatigue life estimations of flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets with and without clearance hole based on three-dimensional finite element analyses. The closed-form structural stress solutions for rigid inclusions under counter bending, central bending, in-plane shear and in-plane tension are first presented. Three-dimensional finite element analyses of the lap-shear specimens with FDS joints without and with gap (with and without clearance hole) are then presented. The results of the finite element analyses indicate that the closed-form structural stress solutions are quite accurate at the critical locations near the FDS joints in lap-shear specimens without and with gap (with and without clearance hole) for fatigue life predictions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0478
Pai-Chen Lin, WeiNing Chen
Abstract Fatigue analysis of swept friction stir clinch (Swept-FSC) joints between 6061-T6 aluminum (Al) and S45C steel (Fe) sheets was conducted through experimental approaches. Before fatigue tests, a parametric study for the probe geometry of FSC tools was conducted in order to eliminate the hook structure inside the joint and improve the mechanical performance of the joint. Then a series of quasi-static and fatigue tests for Al/Fe Swept-FSC joints in lap-shear (LP) and cross-tension (CT) specimens were conducted. The fatigue data were recorded. The fatigue behavior of Al/Fe Swept-FSC joints in LP and CT specimens were examined through optical and scanning electron microscopes. Experimental results indicated that LP specimens have two failure modes, while CT specimens have only one failure mode. The dominant fatigue crack of each failure mode was identified.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0477
Harish M. Rao, Jidong Kang, Garret Huff, Katherine Avery, Xuming Su
Abstract Tensile and fatigue properties of continuous braided carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite to AA6111 self-piercing riveted (SPR) lap shear joints are presented. Rivets were inserted at two target head heights separated by 0.3 mm. Even within the narrow range of head heights considered, the flushness of the rivet head was found to have a dominant effect on both the monotonic and fatigue properties of the lap shear SPR joints. Joints created with a flush head resulted in a greater degree of fiber breakage in the top ply of the CFRP laminate, which resulted in lower lap shear failure load as compared to SPR joints produced with a proud rivet head. Irrespective of the lap shear failure load, rivet pullout was the most common failure mode observed for both rivet head heights. In fatigue tests, the SPR joints produced with a proud head exhibited higher fatigue life compared to SPR joints produced with a flush head.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1273
Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Amgad Elgowainy
Abstract Vehicle lightweighting has been a focus of the automotive industry, as car manufacturers seek to comply with corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for model year (MY) 2017-2025 vehicles. However, when developing a lightweight vehicle design, the automotive industry typically targets maximum vehicle weight reduction at minimal cost increase. In this paper, we consider the environmental impacts of the lightweighting technology options. The materials used for vehicle lightweighting include high-strength steel (HSS), aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Except for HSS, the production of these light materials is more GHG-intensive (on a kg-to-kg basis) compared with the conventional automotive materials they substitute. Lightweighting with these materials, therefore, may partially offset the GHG emission reductions achieved through improved fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1277
Jakobus Groenewald, Thomas Grandjean, James Marco, Widanalage Widanage
Abstract Increasingly international academic and industrial communities desire to better understand, implement and improve the sustainability of vehicles that contain embedded electrochemical energy storage. Underpinning a number of studies that evaluate different circular economy strategies for the electric vehicle (EV) battery system are implicit assumptions about the retained capacity or State-of-Health (SoH) of the battery. International standards and best-practice guides exist that address the performance evaluation of both EV and HEV battery systems. However, a common theme in performance testing is that the test duration can be excessive and last for a number of hours. The aim of this research is to assess whether energy capacity and internal resistance measurements of Li-ion based modules can be optimized, reducing the test duration to a value that may facilitate further End-of-Life (EoL) options.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1278
Keisuke Isomura
Abstract In the automobile industry, interest in the prevention of global warming has always been high. The development of eco cars (HV, EV etc.), aimed at reducing CO2 emissions during operation, has been progressing. In the announcement of its "Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050", Toyota declared its commitment to creating a future in which people, cars, and nature coexist in harmony. In this declaration, Toyota committed to reducing CO2 emissions not only during operation but also over the entire life cycle of vehicles, and to using resources effectively based on a 4 R’s approach (refuse, reduce, reuse, and recycle). Although eco cars decrease CO2 emissions during operation, most of them increase CO2 emissions during manufacturing. For example, the rare-earths (Nd, Dy etc.) used in the magnets of driving motors are extracted through processes that produce a significant amount of CO2 emissions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1707
C. Matthew Enloe, Jason Coryell, Jeff Wang
Abstract Retained austenite stability to both mechanically induced transformation and athermal transformation is of great importance to the fabrication and in-vehicle performance of automotive advanced high strength steels. Selected cold-rolled advanced high strength steels containing retained austenite with minimum tensile strengths of 980 MPa and 1180 MPa were pre-strained to pre-determined levels under uniaxial tension in the rolling direction and subsequently cooled to temperatures as low as 77 K. Room temperature uniaxial tensile results of pre-strained and cooled steels indicate that retained austenite is stable to athermal transformation to martensite at all tested temperatures and pre-strain levels. To evaluate the combined effects of temperature and pre-strain on impact behavior, stacked Charpy impact testing was conducted on the same 980 MPa minimum tensile strength steel following similar pre-straining in uniaxial tension.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0266
Shervin Shoai Naini, Junkui (Allen) Huang, Richard Miller, John R. Wagner, Denise Rizzo, Scott Shurin, Katherine Sebeck
Designing an efficient cooling system with low power consumption is of high interest in the automotive engineering community. Heat generated due to the propulsion system and the on-board electronics in ground vehicles must be dissipated to avoid exceeding component temperature limits. In addition, proper thermal management will offer improved system durability and efficiency while providing a flexible, modular, and reduced weight structure. Traditional cooling systems are effective but they typically require high energy consumption which provides motivation for a paradigm shift. This study will examine the integration of passive heat rejection pathways in ground vehicle cooling systems using a “thermal bus”. Potential solutions include heat pipes and composite fibers with high thermal properties and light weight properties to move heat from the source to ambient surroundings.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0175
Muhammad Ali Siddiqui, Hein Koelman, Prashant Sharad Shembekar
Abstract Composite manufacturing in the automotive industry is striving for short cycle times to be competitive with conventional manufacturing methods, while enabling significant weight reductions. High Pressure Resin Transfer Molding (HP-RTM) is becoming one of the processes of choice for composite applications due to its ability to enable high speed part production. In this regard, researchers need to offer differentiated ultra-fast curing resin systems for carbon fiber composites for automotive structural and nonstructural applications to enable Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to meet their large volume lightweight targets in concert with present day low-carbon footprint legislations. In order to expand applications for composites in the automotive industry it is necessary to optimize all aspects of the production cycle using predictive modeling.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0168
Ajeet Babu P K, Jibin Babu, M R Saraf
Abstract Forging is a metal forming process involving shaping of metal by the application of compressive forces using hammer or press. Forging load of equipment is an important function of forging process and the prediction of the same is essential for selection of appropriate equipment. In this study a hot forging material i.e. 42CrMo4 steel is selected which is used in automotive components like axle, crank shaft. Hot forging experiments at 750°C are carried out on cylindrical specimens of aspect ratio 0.75 and 1.5 with true height strain (ln (ho/hf)) of 0.6. Forging load for the experiments is calculated using slab and upper bound deformation models as well as Metal forming simulation using commercially available FEA software. The upper bound models with 30% deviation from the simulation results are found to be more accurate compared to the slab models.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0173
Surbhi Bhagwat, Vinod Kumar Mannaru
Abstract Forging is one of the traditional bulk metal forming processes used extensively in the automotive industry. Forging has a distinct advantage versus other metal manufacturing processes in terms of strength, grain orientation, reliability, near net shape with lower material utilization, and machining requirements leading to cost effectiveness, etc. Today, the automotive industry is going through the critical phase of reducing component costs through material reduction and optimized tool consumption. With this challenge, process modeling is gaining more momentum in the industry to optimize blank size and improve the tool life with required part quality, while also evaluating press tonnage requirements for effective equipment usage. It also enables integrated process modeling by understanding the microstructure, residual stress/deformation built into the manufactured part, and integrating with material property changes for subsequent part performance prediction.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0238
Abhijit Kumbhar, Jagannath M Paranjpe, Nagesh Karanth
Abstract New process development of forging component requires in-depth knowledge and experience related to the process. Also it requires number of physical trials to arrive at optimum process and initial billet dimensions. With the help of reliable computer simulation tool, it is possible to optimize the complete forging process and billet dimensions. Simulation provides much more insight about the process and possible forging defects. This saves considerable time and money. This paper describes about a complete forging process designed for a complex component. With the help of metal forming simulation software, complete forging process was simulated and optimized. Forging defects were removed during optimization of the process. Billet weight optimization was also carried out. Deciding the preforming shape of the billet was the main challenge. An innovative pre-forging shape was arrived which resulted in eliminating one process stage.
2017-01-10
Journal Article
2017-26-0222
Vishal Vasantrao Chaudhari, V Radhika, R Vijay
Abstract First time right vehicle performance and time to market, remains all automotive OEMs top priority, to remain competitive. NVH performance of product communicates impression to customer, remains one of the most important and complex attribute to meet, considering performances to be met for 20 Hz -6000 Hz. Frontloading techniques (FEM/BEM/SEA/MBD) for NVH are critical and necessary to achieve first time right NVH performance. Objective of this paper is to present a frontloading approach for automotive sound package optimization (absorber, barrier and damper elements) for SUV vehicle. Current process of designing sound package is mainly based on experience, competitive benchmarking of predecessor products. This process (current process) heavily depend on testing and validation at physical prototype and happens at later stages of program, especially on tooled up body.
2016-11-08
Journal Article
2016-32-0024
Daisuke Sugio, Shinpei Okazaki, Mitsuo Kaneko
Abstract Glass fiber reinforced plastic of polyamide is applied as one of the materials used for the high strength exterior parts of a motorcycle, such as a rear grab rail or a carrier, to which both strength and good exterior appearance are required. However, Glass Fiber reinforced Polypropylene (PPGF), which is relatively inexpensive material, has a property that the contained glass fibers are prone to be exposed at the surface and, therefore, the requirements for good appearance are hardly met by using PPGF. In this study, Heat and Cool molding method (H&C molding) was employed to realize a cost reduction by using PPGF yet without applying painting process, and the established method was applied to mass production while fulfilling the requirements for a good exterior appearance. In H&C molding, the metal molds are heated up by steam and cooled down by water after molding.
2016-10-25
Technical Paper
2016-36-0121
Raphael Gonçalves, Rubens Pinati, Rodrigo Godoi
Abstract Distortion is an intrinsic and undesired effect of the welding process, inducing residual stresses and hence, reducing the fatigue life of the welded structure. This distortion however, does not occurs simultaneously among the entire structure; instead, it occurs gradually during the execution of the welding chord. Due to this, equal structures, but composed by weld chords executed in a different sequencing, presents different residual stresses and therefore, different fatigue performances. This study proposes a method, using finite elements model (CAE), to capture the non-linear distortions of distinct welding sequences and contrast the diverse impacts in fatigue life.
Viewing 91 to 120 of 8952