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Viewing 61 to 90 of 9023
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1987
Vigneshwaran K, Palanivendhan Murugadoss, K Gokul
Abstract The main objective is to Extraction of cellulose fibers using mechanical ball milling process and chemical treatment methods. The fibers are incorporated with an epoxy matrix to make composite plates. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact energy are evaluated. Ball milling is the mechanical extraction method of producing nano size powder. The increase in milling process results in the chance of occurring nanofibers. The ball milling process is carried out without any chemical treatment process. In chemical treatment methods, three different kinds of treatment are performed namely sodium hypochlorite, sulphuric acid and acetic acid. Using hand layup methods these fibers are incorporated into the epoxy matrix to fabricate composite plates. In my study nanosized fiber is not obtained, only 28 micron fibers are converted into 3-4 microns.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1966
Praveen Kumar, Nareen Kinthala, Sri Viknesh Mohan, Harshad Bornare
Abstract 3D Printing is a revolutionizing technology extensively used in automotive and aerospace industries. It is an additive layer manufacturing process by which a scale model is quickly fabricated from CAD data in just a matter of hours. In Automotive trims, 3D Printing technology is a boon. It is used: To simulate the ‘tooled up/production part’ in terms of assembly, defined function, limited CMF and fit & finish. To evaluate and capture early feedback from top management with respect to aesthetic, design, etc. For early prediction and plan of action towards improvement for craftsmanship. To reduce design iterations, interface concerns, product lifecycle time and cost. In this paper, we will discuss on the technical aspects of how the trims 3D printed models have been effectively put to use. We have covered case studies under door trims, floor console, tail gate trim, glove box latch, molded spare wheel cover, Instrumental panel duct and bumper mask-painting template.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1965
Ganesan Selvam, Surya Prakash Vaidhyanathan, Prince Arockia Doss Sebastian, Mohamed Zaheer Abdulla, Vedantham Baskaran
Abstract Lean approaches are being implemented in various manufacturing facilities across the globe. The application of lean approaches are extended to Body proto build shop to maximize the efficiency of the shop with lesser floor space and optimized equipment. Weld fixture, Weld equipment and assembly tools are the major tools required essentially for proto BIW assembly. This paper explains how the Weld equipment planning was carried out with lean approaches and implemented effectively in proto body assembly shop. The implemented lean concepts are compared with Italy and Japanese proto body build makers to validate the frugal planning of the facility for the said intent. The implemented facility is capable of producing more than a model at a time. Weld parameter selection for weld gun, gun movement to the fixture with minimized change over time and movable weld gun gantry are the lean approaches implemented.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1964
Rajaganesh Ramamoorthy, T. Venkatesan, R. Rajendran
Abstract Machining of materials has received significant consideration due to the increasing use of machining processes in various industrial applications. In machining, the heat generated in the cutting zone during machining is critical in deciding the work piece quality. Lubricants are widely used to reduce the heat generation. Their usage poses threat to environment and health hazards. Hence, there is a need to identify eco-friendly and user-friendly alternatives to conventional cutting fluids. Modern tribology has facilitated the use of solid lubricants such as graphite, calcium fluoride, molybdenum disulphide, and boric acid as an alternative to cutting fluids in machining. Solid lubricant assisted machining is an environmental friendly clean technology for improving the surface quality of the machined work piece.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1962
Pervaz Ahmed Mouda, H Siddhi Jailani
Abstract Cryogenic treatment is an ultra low temperature treatment technique. Effect of cryogenic treatment on properties of ferrous materials and alloys is well understood. Due to which, cryogenic treated materials are being used in various applications. One among them is Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM). In EDM, the replica of electrode is obtained on the work piece, during the process tool also worn out to certain extent. In order to reduce the tool wear rate cryogenic treatment can be applied to the tool material. In this paper, the effect of cryogenic treatment on electrode wear rate of electro-discharge machining for varied pulse ON time (EDM) was studied. The cryogenic treatment was applied to the copper electrode and the microstructure analysis was carried out using optical microscope. EDM experiment was conducted using untreated and cryogenic treated copper as electrode and High Speed Steel (HSS) as work piece. Electrical resistivity was also measured.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1983
J Ronald Aseer, P Baskara Sethupathi, J. Chandradass, Renold Elsen
Abstract The utilization of unconventional machining methods such as electron beam machining, electrical discharge machinating, etc., have been increased in the manufacturing industry to create holes on the materials. In this paper, twist drill was used for drilling of Bahunia racemosa (BR)/ glass fiber composites and then the measurement of hole diameter error was analysed. The main objective was to establish a correlation between feed rate, cutting speed and drill tool with the induced hole diameter error in a composites. The drilling process was performed under various cutting speed, feed rates and different drilling tools with a point angle of 118°. A Coordinate measuring machine was used to examine the hole diameter error of drilling hole. Taguchi L9 (33) orthogonal array was used to determine the optimum levels of the parameters and analyze the effect of drilling parameters on hole diameter error.
2017-07-10
Technical Paper
2017-28-1977
M Malathi, J Herbert Mabel, R. Rajendran, N Gowrishankar
Abstract Piston rings are used to seal the cavity formed between the piston and the cylinder in order to allow the engine to operate efficiently. The piston rings wear out due to constant rubbing action with cylinder wall and also have to withstand high temperature. This has lead to the development of new piston ring coatings with good wear properties under increasingly challenging running conditions. To improve the wear resistance of the piston rings several coating techniques are employed. One such technique is Ni-P composite coating which is widely used in the automotive industry. Reinforcement of ceramic particles enhances the tribological and mechanical properties of the coating. The base material of the piston ring used in this study is hardened carbon steel. The main objective is to develop an optimum Ni-P composite coating on piston ring to improve wear and friction resistance.
2017-06-28
Journal Article
2017-01-9180
Johannes Wurm, Eetu Hurtig, Esa Väisänen, Joonas Mähönen, Christoph Hochenauer
Abstract The presented paper focuses on the computation of heat transfer related to continuously variable transmissions (CVTs). High temperatures are critical for the highly loaded rubber belts and reduce their lifetime significantly. Hence, a sufficient cooling system is inevitable. A numerical tool which is capable of predicting surface heat transfer and maximum temperatures is of high importance for concept design studies. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a suitable method to carry out this task. In this work, a time efficient and accurate simulation strategy is developed to model the complexity of a CVT. The validity of the technique used is underlined by field measurements. Tests have been carried out on a snowmobile CVT, where component temperatures, air temperatures in the CVT vicinity and engine data have been monitored. A corresponding CAD model has been created and the boundary conditions were set according to the testing conditions.
2017-06-26
White Paper
WP-0001
NASA has embarked on an ambitious program to integrate additive manufacturing techniques and to develop processes for the microgravity environment. The most recent example of this program is the successful launch and deployment of the first 3D printer on the International Space Station. In this one-year effort, students were required to meet a series of milestones to design, manufacture, and test their ideas in close cooperation with members of the NASA Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) concept team.The participants in this project were tasked with thinking of new solutions using AM that would simultaneously be recyclable with minimal loss in mechanical properties but also have the capacity for high mechanical properties. Working in interdisciplinary teams, the participant teams investigated the use of recycled materials, characterization, testing, modeling, and tool development.
2017-06-26
Solution Notes
SN-0001
Automating a manufacturing process often comes with substantial investment or sustained operational costs of complex subsystems. But, by reducing complexity and using technologically mature components, it is possible to develop viable scaled and robust automated solutions. For the past several years, aerospace manufacturers have endeavored to automate manufacturing processes as much as possible for both production efficiencies and competitive advantage. Automating processes like drilling, fastening, sealing, painting, and composite material production have reaped a wide range of benefits; from improving quality and productivity to lowering worker ergonomic risks. The results have improved supply chains from small component manufacturers all the way up to airframe assemblers. That said, automation can be very expensive, and difficult to introduce when a product is anywhere beyond the beginning of its life cycle.
2017-06-26
Solution Notes
SN-0002
High-Speed Inspection: Maintain Cycle Time, Ensure Fastener Quality is a Solution Notes covering the possibility to inspect all fasteners without affecting installation times by applying a process to automatically measure fasteners while they move through a feed tube into the installation machine. Solution Notes are short, informative pieces covering dynamic and emerging technologies within the aerospace and automotive industries to keep you up to date on how new, applied technologies are being used within the mobility space.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1815
Pranab Saha, Satyajeet P. Deshpande
Abstract This paper discusses the importance of a dissipative sound package system in the automotive industry and how it works. Although this is not a new technique at this stage, it is still a challenge to meet the subsystem target levels that were originally developed for parts based on the barrier decoupler concept. This paper reviews the typical construction of a dissipative system and then emphasizes the importance of different layers of materials that are used in the construction, including what they can do and cannot do. The paper also discusses the importance of the proper manufacturing of a part.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1809
Dhanesh Purekar
Abstract Engine noise is one of the significant aspects of product quality for light and medium duty diesel engine market applications. Gear whine is one of those noise issues, which is considered objectionable and impacts the customer’s perception of the product quality. Gear whine could result due to defects in the gear manufacturing process and/or due to inaccurate design of the gear macro and micro geometry. The focus of this technical paper is to discuss gear whine considerations from the production plant perspective. This includes quick overview of the measurement process, test cell environment, noise acceptance criteria considerations. A gear whine case study is presented based on the data collected in the test cell at the engine plant. Gear whine data acquired on current product and next generation of prototype engines is analyzed and presented. This paper concludes by highlighting the lessons learned from the case study.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1817
Steven M. Gasworth, Vasudev Nilajkar, Matteo Terragni
Abstract Polycarbonate (PC) glazing as a one-for-one glass replacement offers a 50% weight reduction, but exhibits several dB lower sound transmission loss (STL) in the low frequency range where tire and engine noise are dominant. In the high frequency range where wind noise is dominant, PC glazing offers an STL at least comparable to its glass counterpart, and an STL exceeding glass when this frequency range encompasses the glass coincidence frequency. However, a key value proposition of PC glazing is the opportunity for feature integration afforded by the injection molding process generally used for forming such glazing. Two-component (2K) molding fuses a second shot of plastic material behind, and along the perimeter of, the transparent PC first shot. This second shot can incorporate features and implement functions that require additional components attached or peripheral to a glass version.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1926
Tobias Winter, Simon Thierfelder
Hatz is a medium sized engine manufacturer with a production volume of currently ~58000 engines per year and a rather diversified product portfolio. To be cost and time efficient in new and further developments of our engines a deep system knowledge is indispensable. In order to achieve this we use a strongly simulation based developing approach in combination with component and specially suited engine testing. This combines to a state-of-the art R&D process which helps us to overcome an increasingly cost challenging competition.
2017-05-10
Technical Paper
2017-01-1932
Thomas Herlitzius
The digital transformation offers Europe tremendous opportunities of more efficient production using Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), which will enable new concepts for future farming systems. The very fast development of information and communication technologies is driving the evolution of mobile machines into cyber-physical systems with virtually no limitations for communication. Automation is the most important trend in the development of agricultural mobile machines due to the open potential of efficiency increases at all levels (machine, process and farm operation). CPS technologies are going to deliver solutions at the system and enterprise level by supporting real time and strategic decisions while enabling much higher system transparency and controllability within the sustainability tri-angle.
2017-04-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9450.01
Ali Reza Taherkhani, Carl A. Gilkeson PhD, Philip Gaskell PhD, Rob W. Hewson PhD, Vassili Toropov PhD, Amin Rezaienia PhD, Harvey Thompson
ABSTRACT
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0183
Mingyu Wang, Timothy Craig, Edward Wolfe, Tim J LaClair, Zhiming Gao, Michael Levin, Danrich Demitroff, Furqan Shaikh
Abstract It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work. The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0126
Joshua W. Finn, John R. Wagner
Abstract Hybrid vehicle embedded systems and payloads require progressively more accurate and versatile thermal control mechanisms and strategies capable of withstanding harsh environments and increasing power density. The division of the cargo and passenger compartments into convective thermal zones which are independently managed can lead to a manageable temperature control problem. This study investigates the performance of a Peltier-effect thermoelectric zone cooling system to regulate the temperature of target objects (e.g., electronic controllers, auxiliary computer equipment, etc) within ground vehicles. Multiple thermoelectric cooling modules (TEC) are integrated with convective cooling fans to provide chilled air for convective heat transfer from a robust, compact, and solid state device. A series of control strategies have been designed and evaluated to track a prescribed time-varying temperature profile while minimizing power consumption.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1625
Rajeev Kalamdani, Chandra Jalluri, Stephen Hermiller, Robert Clifton
Abstract Use of sensors to monitor dynamic performance of machine tools at Ford’s powertrain machining plants has proven to be effective. The traditional approach to convert sensor data to actionable intelligence consists of identifying single features from cycle based signatures and setting thresholds above acceptable performance limits based on trials. The thresholds are used to discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable performance during each cycle and raise alarms if necessary. This approach requires a significant amount of resource & time intensive set up work up-front and considerable trial and error adjustments. The current state does not leverage patterns that might be discernible using multiple features simultaneously. This paper describes enhanced methods for processing the data using supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods. The objective of using these methods is to improve the prediction accuracy and reduce up-front set up.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1201
Zhenli Zhang, Zhihong Jin, Perry Wyatt
Abstract Lithium plating is an important failure factor for lithium ion battery with carbon-based anodes and therefore preventing lithium plating has been a critical consideration in designs of lithium ion battery and battery management system. The challenges are: How to determine the charging current limits which may vary with temperature, state of charge, state of health, and battery operations? Where are the optimization rooms in battery design and management system without raising plating risks? Due to the complex nature of lithium plating dynamics it is hard to detect and measure the plating by any of experimental means. In this work we developed an electrochemical model that explicitly includes lithium plating reaction. It enables both determination of plating onset and quantification of plated lithium. We have studied the effects of charging pulses on homogenous plating in order to provide guidance for lithium ion battery design in hybrid applications.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1225
Jayaraman Krishnasamy, Martin Hosek
Abstract An advanced electric motor with hybrid-field topology has been developed for automotive traction applications. Departing from the conventional radial- and axial-field designs, the hybrid-field motor features three-dimensional magnetic flux paths, which are enabled by a novel isotropic soft magnetic material produced by a unique additive-manufacturing process based on spray forming. The motor is expected to offer an unprecedented combination of high power output, compact size, low weight and energy efficiency, achieving more than two times higher power density than state-of-the-art high-performance traction motors.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1239
Naoya Take, Takuya Kadoguchi, Masao Noguchi, Kimihiro Yamanaka
Abstract Power modules are used to operate three-phase alternating current motors in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles. Good fuel efficiency and high power density are required in the field of hybrid vehicles. To achieve this goal, the miniaturization of the power module will be necessary. This trend may make a current density, which is created by insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and free wheel diodes (FWDs), higher in power modules. Solder is often used as the joint material of power modules. It is known that a current density larger than 10 kA/cm2 causes solder electromigration. This phenomenon may cause delamination of the joint area. In addition, the ambient temperature has an influence on electromigration. The temperature of an engine compartment is high, so it is likely to cause electromigration. However, the current density of the double-sided cooling power modules in 2007 with solder joint is lower than 0.4 kA/cm2, and this value is lower than 10 kA/cm2.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1240
Koki Matsushita
Abstract For the purpose of improving vehicle fuel efficiency, it is necessary to reduce energy loss in the alternator. We have lowered the resistance of the rectifying device and connecting components, and control the rectifying device with an IC to reduce rectification loss. For the package design, we have changed the structure of the part on which the rectifying device is mounted into a high heat dissipation type. The new structure has enabled optimizing the size of the rectifying device, resulting in the reduction of size of the package. In addition, the rectifying device is mounted using a new soldering material and a new process, which has improved the reliability of the connection. Moreover, since the alternator has introduced a new system, the controller IC has a function for preventing malfunction of the rectifying device and a function for detecting abnormalities, in order to ensure safety.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1264
Gregory L. Talbert, Edward John Vinarcik
Abstract 6061-O temper extruded rod may be used as feed stock in forming processes for automotive pressure vessel applications. Key parameters for forming are the strength and hardness of the material. The purpose of this paper was to reduce variation in hardness to achieve a process capability index of 1.33 or greater. Among the process steps affecting hardness, annealing is the most critical. Initially, the process showed unacceptable hardness variation. Initial anneal recipes called for a 4-hour soak at 775°F (413°C). Initial process capability for hardness was a Cpk of 1.12, with tensile strength readings very close to the upper specification limit. Initial temperature uniformity surveys of the anneal oven showed a large variation in temperature distribution, with some areas of the oven staying below 650°F (343°C). Initial improvement efforts focused on soak time.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1274
Jason M. Luk, Hyung Chul Kim, Robert De Kleine, Timothy J. Wallington, Heather L. MacLean
Abstract This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1276
Aditi Moorthy, Robert De Kleine, Gregory Keoleian, Jeremy Good, Geoff Lewis
Abstract The problem of accessibility to public transit is well-documented in transportation theory and network literature, and is known as the last mile problem. A lack of first and last mile transit services impairs access to public transit causing commuters to opt for private modes of transit over public modes. This paper analyzes the implications of a shared autonomous vehicle (AV) taxi system providing last mile transit services in terms of environmental, cost, and performance metrics. Conventional public transit options and a hypothetical last-mile shared autonomous vehicle (SAV) system are analyzed for transit between Ann Arbor and Detroit Wayne County Airport for life cycle energy, emissions, total travel time, and travel costs. In the case study, energy savings from using public transit options with AV last mile service were as high as 37% when compared to a personal vehicle option.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1275
David Hobbs, Charles Ossenkop, Andy Latham
Abstract Global sales of electric and hybrid vehicles continue to grow as emission legislation forces vehicle manufacturers to build cleaner vehicles, with some 8 million already in service. Hybrid and Electric vehicles contain some of the most complex systems ever used in the automotive field, sophisticated and unique electric hybrid systems are added to modern motor vehicles which are already quite complex. As these vehicles reach the end of their lives they will be processed by the global vehicle recycling industry and the high voltage components will be reused, recycled or re-purposed. This paper explores safe working practices for businesses involved in a global marketplace who are completing battery disabling, removal, disassembly, storage and shipping; includes the various technologies and safe working practices along with some of the legal restrictions on dismantling, storage and shipping of high voltage batteries around the world.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1074
Xingfu Chen, Todd Brewer, Cagri Sever, Eben Prabhu, Reda Adimi, Carlos Engler-Pinto
Abstract Cylinder head design is a highly challenging task for modern engines, especially for the proliferation of boosted, gasoline direct injection engines (branded EcoBoost® engines by Ford Motor Company). The high power density of these engines results in higher cylinder firing pressures and higher operating temperatures throughout the engine. In addition to the high operating stresses, cylinder heads are normally heat treated to optimize their mechanical properties; residual stresses are generated during heat treatment, which can be detrimental for high-cycle fatigue performance. In this paper, a complete cylinder head high cycle fatigue CAE analysis procedure is demonstrated. First, the heat treatment process is simulated. The transient temperature histories during the quenching process are used to calculate the distribution of the residual stresses, followed by machining simulation, which results in a redistribution of stress.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1700
Rebekah L. Houser, Willett Kempton, Rodney McGee, Fouad Kiamilev, Nick Waite
Abstract Electric vehicles (EVs) hold the potential to greatly shape the way the electric power grid functions. As a load, EVs can be managed to prevent overloads on the electric power system. EVs with bidirectional power flow (V2G) can provide a wide range of services, including load balancing, and can be used to increase integration of renewable resources into electric power markets. Realizing the potential of EVs requires more advanced communication than the technology that is in wide use. Common charging standards do not include a means for an EV to send key vehicle characteristics such as maximum charge rate or battery capacity to a charging station and thus to the grid.
Viewing 61 to 90 of 9023